משנה: יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיוּ אָרִיסִין לְגוֹיִם בְּסוּרִיָּא רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר מְחַייֵב בְּפֵירוֹתֵיהֶן בְּמַעְשְׂרוֹת וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית. וְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל פּוֹטֵר. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת בְּסוּרִיָּא. וְרִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר חַלָּה אַחַת אָחֲזוּ קוּלּוֹ שֶׁלְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְקוּלּוֹ שֶׁלְרִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר. חָֽזְרוּ לִנְהוֹג כְּדִבְרֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בִּשְׁתֵּי דְּרָכִים. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר שָׁלֹשׁ אֲרָצוֹת לַחַלָּה מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַד גְּזִיב חַלָּה אַחַת. מִגְּזִיב וְעַד הַנָּהָר וְעַד אֲמָנֹס שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת אָחַת לָאוֹר וְאַחַת לַכֹּהֵן. שֶׁלְאוֹר יֵשׁ לָהּ שִׁיעוּר וְשֶׁלְכֹּהֵן אֵין לָהּ שִׁיעוּר. מֵהַנָּהָר וּמֵאֲמָנֹס וְלִפְנִים שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת אָחַת לָאוֹר וְאַחַת לַכֹּהֵן. שֶׁלְאוֹר אֵין לָהּ שִׁיעוּר וְשֶׁלְכֹּהֵן יֵשׁ לָהּ שִׁיעוּר. וּטְבוּל יוֹם אוֹכְלָהּ. רִבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ טְבִילָה. וַאֲסוּרָה לְזָבִין וּלְזָבוֹת לְנִידּוֹת וּלְיוֹלְדוֹת וְנֶאֱכֶלֶת עִם הַזָּר עַל הַשּׁוּלְחָן וְנִיתֶּנֶת לְכָל־כֹּהֵן. אֵילּוּ נוֹתְנִין לְכָל־כֹּהֵן הַחֲרָמִים וְהַבְּכוֹרוֹת וּפִדְיוֹן הַבֶּן וּפִדְיוֹן פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר וְהַזְּרוֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּיבָה וְרֵאשִׁית הַגֵּז וְשֶׁמֶן שְׂרֵיפָה וְקָדְשֵׁי מִקְדָּשׁ וְהַבִּיכּוּרִים. רִבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹסֵר בְּבִיכּוּרִים. כַּרְשִׁינֵי תְרוּמָה רִבִּי עֲקִיבָה מַתִּיר וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין. MISHNAH: Jews were sharecroppers for Gentiles in Syria61The parts of David’s kingdom not conquered by the 12 tribes under Joshua; cf. Peah 7, Note 119. R. Eliezer holds that the laws of the Holy Land extend to Syria but Rabban Gamliel holds that Syria is essentially outside the Land and only selected laws of the Land are extended to apply there.; Rebbi Eliezer obligates their produce for tithes and the Sabbatical but Rabban Gamliel exempts them. Rabban Gamliel says there are two ḥallot in Syria62As explained in Mishnah 8. Biblical law restricts the duty of ḥallah to the Land (Num. 15:18–19). Rabbinic practice extends the obligation to the rest of the world but, since the soil outside the Land is intrinsically impure, any ḥallah outside the Land is impure and must be burned. Nevertheless, in order to remind people that the original duty is to give ḥallah to a Cohen, it was established that some dough should be given to a Cohen. This dough cannot be sanctified, otherwise it would be forbidden to the recipient. but Rebbi Eliezer says one ḥallah63He denies that Syrian soil is impure.. They took the leniency of Rabban Gamliel and the leniency of Rebbi Eliezer but then returned to follow Rabban Gamliel in both cases.
Rabban Gamliel says: There are three domains for ḥallah85In the biblical Land of Israel.. The Land of Israel86The actual Land of Israel of the Second Commonwealth; cf. Mishnah Ševi‘it 6:1, Note 3, for the geographic details. up to Akhzib, one ḥallah. From Akhzib to the Euphrates or Amanus87One has to add, with Mishnah Ševi‘it 6:1, “any place held by the immigrants from Egypt,” i. e., the regions North of Akhzib described as tribal territories in the book of Joshua., two ḥallot, one for the fire and one for the Cohen. The one for the fire has a measure88The true ḥallah which cannot be eaten since the impurity of Gentile lands is extended rabbinically to any region not inhabited by Jews. The “measure” is that for ḥallah of the Land, Mishnah 2:7., the one for the Cohen has no measure89A purely symbolic ḥallah to be eaten in impurity, as a remembrance of the rules to be restored in the times of the Messiah.. From Euphrates or Amanus inside90The rest of Syria, domain of biblical promise; cf. Ševi‘it 6:1, Note 3., two ḥallot, one for the fire and one for the Cohen. The one for the fire has no measure91Both ḥallot are symbolical since that region was not under obligation of ḥallah even during the First Commonwealth., the one for the Cohen has a measure but a ṭevul yom may eat it92He is forbidden true ḥallah.. Rebbi Yose says one does not need immersion93This also shows that the symbolic ḥallah is no true heave, cf. Berakhot 1, Note 3..
But it94The purely symbolic ḥallah mentioned last in Mishnah 8. By rabbinic ordinance, it is forbidden for people whose impurity originates in their own body. is forbidden to people suffering from genital flux95Lev. 15:1–15, 25–30., and to women during menstruation96Lev. 15:19–24. or after childbirth97Lev. 12:1–8.. It may be eaten at one table with a layman and may be given to any Cohen98Even a vulgar who cannot be expected to follow all rules of purity..
The following may be given to any Cohen122Irrespective of his level of observance and knowledge of the Law. Some of the prescribed gifts are given to priests serving in the Temple; there, they are under supervision and instruction. The other gifts are purely profane; they cannot be impaired by the impurity of the Cohen.: ḥērem-dedications123Num. 18:14. According to most sources, this special dedication is not for the upkeep of the Temple but for the Cohanim [Sifra Beḥuqotay Pereq12(9), Babli Sanhedrin 88a, Arakhin28a]. However, Babylonian practice follows the dissenting opinion (Arakhin29a)., firstlings124Ex. 13:1, Num. 18:15., the redemption money for a [firstborn] son125Ex. 13:1,13, Num. 3:47, 18:15., the redemption value of a firstling donkey126Ex. 13:1,13., foreleg, jawbone, and first stomach127Deut. 18:3., the first shearing128Deut. 18:4., oil to burn129Impure heave olive oil., Temple sacrifices, and First Fruits130Deut. 26:1–11.. Rebbi Jehudah forbids First Fruits131Since they have to follow rules of heave, Mishnah Bikkurim 2:1.. Heave vetch132This is animal fodder except in times of famine. Rebbi Aqiba permits but the Sages forbid.
הלכה: רִבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן לֹא חִייֵב רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר אֶלָּא בַּחֲכִירֵי אָבוֹת כְּגוֹן מֵהִלֵּל דְּבֵית רִבִּי. תַּנֵּי רִבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא בֶּן שָׁאוּל קְנָס קְנָסוֹ רִבִּי לִיעֶזֶר. מָה נְפַק מִבֵּינֵיהוֹן אָרִיס לְשָׁעָה. מָאן דְּאָמַר קְנָס חַייָב. מָאן דְּאָמַר בַּחֲכִירֵי בָּתֵּי אָבוֹת פָּטוּר. HALAKHAH: Rebbi Abbahu in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: Rebbi Eliezer obligated only hereditary tenants64These have acquired the hereditary right to remain tenants; this is a kind of lien on the real estate., for example from Hillel to the House of Rebbi65For 200 years in one family.. Rebbi Ḥalaphta ben Shaul stated: Rebbi Eliezer fined him66To take away an incentive to leave the Land for more profitable farming in Syria.. Where do they differ? For a temporary sharecropper. For him who says a fine, he is obligated. For him who says hereditary tenants, he is exempt.
הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הַנַּחְתּוֹם בְּסוּרִיָּא צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ חַלַּת דְּמַיי דִּבְרֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִיש חַלַּת דְּמַיי. אָמַר רִבִּי חֲנַנְיָה קוֹמֵי רִבִּי מָנָא וְיֵאוּת אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מַה טַעֲמְהוֹן דְּרַבָּנִין. אָמַר לוֹ כְּשֵׁם שֶׁלֹּא נֶחְשְׁדוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל תְּרוּמָה בָאָרֶץ כָּךְ לֹא נֶחְשְׁדוּ עַל חַלָּה בְסוּרִיָּא. “He who buys from a baker in Syria67Since Rabban Gamliel holds that Syria is essentially a foreign country, he holds that there ḥallah even in Temple times is only rabbinic in character and the vulgar will not give ḥallah. has to separate ḥallah as demay, the words of Rabban Gamliel, but the Sages say he does not have to separate ḥallah as demay.68Tosephta 2:5. This is part of a longer statement by R. Eleazar ben R. Ẓadoq who explains the position of Rabban Gamliel that the sharecropper is exempt because the grain is processed in the possession of the Gentile but ḥallah whose obligation starts in the house of the Jew follows exactly the laws of the Land.” Rebbi Ḥananiah said before Rebbi Mana: Rabban Gamliel said it right, what is the reason of the Sages? He said to him, just as Israel are not suspected in matters of heave in the Land, so they are not suspected in matters of ḥallah69Whose rules are those of the Great Heave. in Syria.
רִבִּי אָבוּן בַּר חִיָּה בָּעֵי כְּמַה דְאִתְאֲמָרַת שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת בְּסוּרִיָּא וְדִכְװָתָהּ שְׁתֵּי תְרוּמוֹת בְּסוּרִיָּא. אָמַר רִבִּי חַגַּיי חַלָּה אֵין אֲחַרֶיהָ כְּלוּם תְּרוּמָה יֵשׁ אַחֲרֶיהָ כְּלוּם. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתְּ כֵּן נִמְצֵאת אוֹתָהּ תְּרוּמָה שֶׁהוּא מַפְרִישׁ טְבוּלָה לְמַעְשְׂרוֹת. Rebbi Abun bar Ḥiyya asked: Since you said that there are two ḥallot in Syria, should there not be two heaves70The first to be burned and the second to be eaten. in Syria? Rebbi Ḥaggai said, there comes nothing after ḥallah71Taking ḥallah makes dough and bread totally profane. but after heave there comes something. If you would say so, it would turn out that the heave he separates72The second one which cannot be real heave or it would have to be burned. were ṭevel for tithes!
בִּיקֵּשׁ רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בֶּן רִבִּי לְהַנְהִיג אֶת הַדְּמַיי בְּסוּרִיָּא וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ לוֹ רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה. אָמַר לֵיהּ מֵעַתָּה יְחוּשׁוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים עַל חַלָּתָן. מִחְלְפָה שִיטָּתֵיהּ דְּרִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה. תַּמָּן אָמַר אֵימַת קֳדָשִׁים עָלָיו וְאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן לַכֹּהֵן דָּבַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְתוּקָּן וָכָא הוּא אָמַר הָכֵן. אָמַר רִבִּי בּוּן בַּר חִייָה אֲנִי אוֹמֵר אוֹתָהּ שֶׁלְאוֹר נוֹתֵן לוֹ. אָמַר לֵיהּ רִבִּי מָנָא לֹא תַנֵּי רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה אֶלָּא מֵעַתָּה יְחוּשׁוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים עַל חַלָּתָן. הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הַנַּחְתּוֹם וּמִן הַאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא עוֹשָׂה לִמְכּוֹר לַשּׁוּק צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ חַלַּת דְּמַיי. מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְהַמִּתְאָרֵחַ אֶצלוֹ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ חַלַּת דְּמַיי. רִבִּי יוֹנָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי חֲנַנְיָה חֲבֵרוֹן דְּרַבָּנִן בְּמִתְאָרֵחַ אֶצְלוֹ לְעִיסָּתוֹ. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹנָה וְהֵן שֶׁרָאוּ אוֹתוֹ מְגַבֵּל אֶצֶל אַחֵר. חֶזְקַת בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים בְּסוּרִיָּא אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ חַלַּת דְּמַיי. אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁרוֹב מִכְנָסוֹ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ חַלַּת דְּמַיי. רִבִּי בּוּן בַּר חִייָה בָּעֵי לֵית הָדָא פְלִיגָא עַל רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה. אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא כָּאן בָּאָרֶץ כָּאן בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ. Rabban Gamliel the son of Rebbi wanted to institute demay in Syria73Against Mishnah Demay 1:3 which restricts demay to the Land of Israel. One may assume that in his time the center of Jewish population had moved from Galilee to Syria. but Rebbi Hoshaiah did not let him do it. He said to him, then Cohanim would have to worry about their ḥallah74Since ḥallah is legitimate only if the dough was made from tithed flour.! The argument of Rebbi Hoshaiah seems inverted. There75Demay 1, Note 172, explaining the statement of the Mishnah that ḥallah of a vulgar is exempt from the laws of demay., he says the fear of sacred things is on him and he will not give to the Cohen anything that is not in order, and here he says so? Rebbi Abun bar Ḥiyya said, I am saying that he gave him that of the fire76Since it is burned, the vulgar will not worry if heave of the tithe was not given.. Rebbi Mana said to him, Rebbi Hoshaiah only stated: then Cohanim would have to worry about their ḥallah77The language of the statement excludes the argument of R. Abun bar Ḥiyya.! “78Tosephta 1:8. Cf. Tosefta ki-Fshutah, p.799. He who buys from a baker and from a woman who bakes to sell on the market has to separate ḥallah of demay79I. e., give heave of the tithe and afterwards ḥallah.; from a private person and if he is a guest80In the Tosephta, “from a private person and his guests.” Even if he is the baker’s guest but eats from the bread the baker makes for himself and his family (R. Abraham ben David). The reading of the Rome ms., וּמתארח אצלו “from a private person and he is his guest” supports Maimonides (Bikkurim 8:15). Hilkhot Tašbeẓ explains: “If one buys from a private person one has to give extra ḥallah except if one is his guest or saw him knead for another person.” he does not have to separate ḥallah of demay.” Rebbi Jonah in the name of Rebbi Ḥananiah the colleague of the rabbis, if he is a guest for his dough. Rebbi Jonah said, only if they saw him kneading at another’s place81That other people trust him to give their ḥallah.. It is a standing assumption that from a private person in Syria one does not have to separate ḥallah of demay; but if he knows that most of what is in his storage is his own produce, he has to separate ḥallah of demay82Since in this case, a field in Syria is subject to tithes; Mishnah Demay 6:11.. Rebbi Abun bar Ḥiyya asked, does this not disagree with Rebbi Hoshaiah83Since he denies demay in Syria.? Rebbi Mana said, here in the Land84Mishnah Demay 1:3 deals only with the Land where all vulgars can be trusted to give ḥallah as they give Great Heave., there outside the Land.
רִבִּי חוּנָא אָמַר כֵּינִי מַתְנִיתָא מִגְּזִיב וְעַד הַנָּהָר מִגְּזִיב וְעַד אֲמָנֹס. תַּנֵּי אֵי זוּ הִיא הָאָרֶץ וְאֵי זוּ חוּץ לָאָרֶץ. כָּל־שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹפֵעַ מִטַּװְרוֹס אֲמָנֹס וְלִפְנִים אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. מִטַּוְרוֹס אֲמָנֹס וּלְחוּץ חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. הַנֵּיסִין שֶׁבְּיָם אַתְּ רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן כְּאִילּוּ חוּט מָתוּחַ מִטַּװְרוֹס אֲמָנֹס וְעַד נַחַל מִצְרַיִם. מֵהַחוּט וְלִפְנִים אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. מֵהַחוּט וּלְחוּץ חוּץ לָאָרֶץ. רִבִּי יוּדָה אוֹמֵר כָּל־שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּגְבוּל יָם וְהָיָה לָכֶם הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל וּגְבוּל זֶה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם גְּבוּל יָם. שֶׁבַּצְּדָדִין מֵהֶן אַתְּ רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן כְאִילּוּ חוּט מָתוּחַ מִקֶּפַלָּרִיָּא וְעַד אוֹקֵייָנוֹס מִנַּחַל מִצְרַיִם וְעַד אוֹקֶייָנוֹס מֵהַחוּט וְלִפְנִים אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. מֵהַחוּט וּלְחוּץ חוּץ לָאָרֶץ. 99This and the following paragraph are from Ševi‘it 6:1, Notes 90–95. Rebbi Huna said: So is the Mishnah: “Between Akhzib and Euphrates, between Akhzib and Amanus.” It was stated: What is the Land and what is outside the Land? From the slopes of Taurus Amanus inwards is the Land of Israel3This is defined in Mishnah 4:2., from Taurus Amanus to the outside is outside the Land. About the islands in the sea, one looks at them as if a string were drawn from Taurus Amanus to the brook of Egypt; from the string to the inside is the Land of Israel, from the string to the outside is outside the Land. Rebbi Jehudah said, all that lies before the Land of Israel is like the Land of Israel since it is said (Num. 34:6): “The Western border shall be for you the Great Sea as border; that shall be for you the sea border.” Assuming that a string were drawn from Cephalaria to the Ocean, from the brook of Egypt to the Ocean; inside the string is the Land of Israel, outside is outside the Land.
אָמַר רִבִּי יוּסְטָא בַּר שׁוּנֵם כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ הַגָּלִיּוֹת לְטַװְרוֹס אֲמָנֹס הֵן עֲתִידוֹת לוֹמַר שִׁירָה. מַה טַעַם תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה. Rebbi Justus bar Shunem said, when the people of the Diaspora arrive at Taurus Amanus they will sing. What is the reason? (Cant. 4:8) “Sing from the top of Amanah”.
אִית תַּנָּיֵי תַּנֵּי הַיַּרְדֵּן מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. אִית תַּנֵּי הַיַּרְדֵּן מֵחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. אִית תַּנֵּי הַיַּרְדֵּן גְּבוּל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. מָאן דְּאָמַר הַיַּרְדֵּן מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַעֲרָבָה וְהַיַּרְדֵּן וּגְבוּל. מָאן דְּאָמַר הַיַּרְדֵּן מֵחוּץ לָאָרֶץ וְהַיַּרְדֵּן יִגְבּוֹל אוֹתוֹ לִפְאַת קֵדְמָה. וּמָאן דְּאָמַר הַיַּרְדֵּן גְּבוּל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד. עָשָׂה יַרְדֵּן שֶׁנָּטַל מִזֶּה וְנָתַן לְזֶה מַה שֶׁנָּטַל נָטַל וּמַה שֶׁנָּתַן נָתַן. וּמַה נָן קַייָמִין אִם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנַעֲשֶׂה בְסוּרִיָּא חֶזְקָתוֹ לְמַעְשְׂרוֹת וְלִשְׁבִיעִית. רִבִּי יִרְמְיָה רִבִּי אִימִּי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן רִבִּי סִימוֹן בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי לְחַזָקוֹת וּלְבִיעוּרִין וּלְמַעֲשֵׂר בְּהֵמָה. רִבִּי הִילָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ וְהוּא שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ עָפָר. 100A similar discussion in Babli Bekhorot 55a. There, the first opinion is declared to be that of R. Simeon ben Ioḥai, the second that of R. Jehudah ben Bathyra, and the third that of R. Meїr. Some Tannaïm state: The Jordan is part of the Land of Israel. Some state, the Jordan is outside the Land. Some state, the Jordan is a boundary by itself. He who says the Jordan is part of the Land of Israel: (Deut. 3:17) “The prairie, the Jordan, and the border.” He who says the Jordan is outside the Land: (Jos. 18:20): “The Jordan shall form its border Eastward.” He who says the Jordan is a boundary by itself, if it is in one place. 101Tosephta Ketubot 8:4, Baba Qama 10:23, Babli Baba Meẓi‘a 22a. The argument there is that a change in the river bed is an act of God against which the property owners are powerless; one may therefore assume that the owners have given up hope to recover their land; the part taken by the river now is ownerless.“If the Jordan took from one place and gave to another, what it took, it took, and what it gave, it gave.” What are we dealing with? If it was from the Land of Israel and became Syria102This is a very unlikely scenario. The Jordan is meandering only between the Land of Israel and Transjordan., it already is under the presumptive obligation of tithes and Sabbatical! Rebbi Jeremiah, Rebbi Immi in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan, Rebbi Simon in the name of Rebbi Joshua ben Levi, for claims of possession103It is assumed that people do not keep documents for more than three years. Therefore, a person who claims to have legal possession of real estate by sale or inheritance, in the absence of a title can prove his claim by showing undisturbed possession for three years. Such a claim cannot be brought simultaneously for property inside and outside the Land., removals104The required consumption of Sabbatical produce which varies from region to region, Ševi‘it 9:2., and animal tithe105This is the topic of Babli Bekhorot 55a.. Rebbi Hila in the name of Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish: Only if it removed earth.
שֶׁלְאוֹר יֵש לָהּ שִׁיעוּר שֶׁהוּא דְּבַר תּוֹרָה. שֶׁלְכֹּהֵן אֵין לָהּ שִׁיעוּר שֶׁהִיא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן. וְיַפְרִישׁ לָאוֹר וְלֹא יַפְרִישׁ לַכֹּהֵן. שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ אוֹמְרִים רָאִינוּ תְרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה נִשְׂרֶפֶת. וְיַפְרִישׁ לַכֹּהֵן וְלֹא יַפְרִישׁ לָאוֹר. שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ אוֹמְרִים רָאִינוּ תְרוּמָה טְמֵיאָה נֶאֱכֶלֶת. מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהוּא מַפְרִישׁ שְׁתֵּיהֶן לִכְשֶׂהוּא בָא לְכָאן הוּא נִשְׁאָל. “The one for the fire has a measure,” for it is biblical88The true ḥallah which cannot be eaten since the impurity of Gentile lands is extended rabbinically to any region not inhabited by Jews. The “measure” is that for ḥallah of the Land, Mishnah 2:7.. “The one for the Cohen has no measure,” for it is rabbinical89A purely symbolic ḥallah to be eaten in impurity, as a remembrance of the rules to be restored in the times of the Messiah.. Should he give for the fire and not for the Cohen? That they should not say, we saw pure heave being burned106The territory of the Land of Israel during the First Commonwealth which was not reoccupied by Jews during the Second Commonwealth is pure by biblical standards, impure only rabbinically. One might have a point considering that heave as pure. The second ḥallah shows that the obligation is only rabbinical and it is impure only by rabbinical standards.. Should he give for the Cohen and not for the fire? That they should not say, we saw impure heave being eaten107Since it is impure by actual standards.. Since he gives both of them, when he comes here108The two ḥallot are required mainly to make sure that immigrants to the Holy Land inquire about the rules to be followed in the Land., he will ask.
וְזוֹ וְזוֹ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן הוּא. מוּטָּב לְרַבּוֹת בְּנֶאֱכֶלֶת וְלֹא לְרַבּוֹת בְּנִשְׂרֶפֶת. But both are rabbinical109this now refers to the ḥallah of Syria outside the Promised Land. Since both ḥallot are rabbinical, why is one subject to a minimum amount but not the other.! It is better to increase the one to be eaten, not the one to be burned.
אוּף רִבִּי יוֹסֵה מוֹדֶה בָהּ חוֹמֶר הוּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁהַטּוּמְאָה יוֹצְאָה מִגּוּפוֹ. Even Rebbi Yose111In Mishnah 8, he states that purely rabbinic ḥallah does not need purification of the Cohen by immersion. He agrees with the anonymous Mishnah 9 that persons whose impurity is caused by their bodies are excluded from eating even rabbinic ḥallah. agrees; it is more severe if impurity stems from someone’s body.
הוֹרֵי רִבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּבוֹצְרָה שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה רוֹב. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹנָה מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהִיא עוֹלָה בְּפָחוֹת מִמֵּאָה וְאֵינָהּ נֶאֱסֶרֶת בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה. אָמַר רִבִּי זְעִירָא מַתְנִיתָא אָֽמְרָה אֲפִילוּ בְּאֶחָד וְאֶחָד. דְּתַנִּינָן וְנֶאֱכֶלֶת עִם הַזָּר עַל הַשּׁוּלְחָן. Rebbi Abbahu instructed in Bostra that it needs a plurality112The ḥallah from territories never possessed by the tribes of Israel or the returnees from Babylonia, if mixed with profane food, does not create dema‘ if the profane is more than the ḥallah. This is accepted by the Babli for all heave of the Diaspora (Bekhorot 21a).
Bostra is a town in Syria just outside the domain settled by the returnees from Babylonia; cf. Demay2, Note 8.. Rebbi Jonah said, it teaches that it is lifted by less than 100 and is not forbidden up to 101113The rabbinic ḥallah, subject of Mishnah 9, does not follow the rules of heave explained in Terumot 9. He is not specific about the amounts needed to annul the rabbinic ḥallah.. Rebbi Zeïra said, the Mishnah implies even one in one, as we have stated: “It may be eaten at one table with a layman114He disagrees with both R. Abbahu and R. Jonah and holds that foreign ḥallah never creates dema‘ since mixing the ḥallah with profane food cannot usually be avoided if both are on the same table.
The name tradition is confirmed by all written sources but it seems to be impossible. Either “R. Jonah” is incorrect since R. Jonah was a student of R. Zeïra’s student R. Jeremiah and R. Zeïra cannot conduct a polemic against his opinion, or instead of “R. Zeïra” one has to read “R. Yose”.”.
אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁבַּגּוֹלָה הָיוּ מַפְרִישִׁין תְּרוּמָה וּמַעְשְׂרוֹת עַד שֶׁבָּאוּ הָרוֹבִין וּבִטְּלוּ אוֹתָן. מָאן אִינּוּן הָרוֹבִין תַּרְגְּמוֹנִיָּא. רִבִּי זְעִירָא רַב יְהוּדָה בְשֵׁם שְׁמוּאֵל חַלַּת חוּץ לָאָרֶץ וּתְרוּמָת חוּץ לָאָרֶץ אוֹכֵל וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַפְרִישׁ. רִבִּי בָּא בְשֵׁם שְׁמוּאֵל לֹא חָשׁוּ אֶלָּא לִתְרוּמַת דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר. רִבִּי הִילָא בְשֵׁם שְׁמוּאֵל לֹא חָשׁוּ אֶלָּא לִתְרוּמָה בִּלְבָד. אֲבָל לִירָקוֹת אוֹ אֲפִילוּ לִתְרוּמָה גְדוֹלָה לֹא חָשׁוּ. כְּהָדָא דְתַנִּי אִיסִּי בֶּן עֲקַבְיָה אוֹמֵר מַעְשְׂרוֹת לִירָקוֹת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן. Rebbi Joḥanan said, our teachers in the Diaspora115In Babylonia. used to separate heave and tithes until the youngsters came and dissuaded them. Who are the youngsters? The interpreters116Those who explain difficult passages. Their identity is unknown. In Gen.rabba 51(12) a R. Hoshaia the Interpreter and in 65(6) a Ḥizqiahu the Interpreter are mentioned. The time of the first cannot be determined; the second must be later than R. Berekhiah of the last generation of Galilean Amoraïm. The Babli does not mention any change of practice.. Rebbi Zeïra, Rav Jehudah in the name of Samuel: For ḥallah from outside the Land and heave from outside the Land one may eat before one separates117One may eat from what in the Land would be ṭevel and declare the remainder as ḥallah or heave. This is quoted in the name of Samuel, as practice, by the Babli (Beẓah 9a, Bekhorot 27a).. Rebbi Abba in the name of Samuel: They only worried about heave of grain, cider, and oil. Rebbi Hila in the name of Samuel: They only worried about heave118In Babylonia they only gave Great Heave for grain, wine, and olive oil, but no tithes. This is confirmed by the fact that tithes from outside the Land (including Transjordan and Syria) are never mentioned in either Talmud., but for vegetables they did not worry even about the Great Heave, as it was stated: Issi ben Aqabiah says that tithes for vegetables are rabbinical119Even in the Land there is no biblical obligation for any produce other than grain, wine, and olive oil. Therefore, outside the Land there is no reason to observe heaves and tithes even as a remembrance of the Land..
תַּנִּי חַלַּת הַגּוֹי בָּאָרֶץ וּתְרוּמַת הַגּוֹי בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ מוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ וְאוֹכֵל וְנִיתֶּנֶּת לְכָל־כֹּהֵן בֵּין לְכֹהֵן חָבֵר בֵּין לְכֹהֵן עַם הָאָרֶץ. It was stated120The Babylonian version (Tosephta 2:6, Babli Menaḥot 67a) reads: Concerning a Gentile’s ḥallah in the Land and a Gentile’s heave outside the Land, one informs him that he is not obligated, the ḥallah may be eaten by outsiders and the heave does not create dema‘.
The Gentile is a “Friend of the Synagogue”, as they are frequently mentioned as donors in Synagogue inscriptions in the Diaspora. Since R. Meїr holds that possession of real estate by a Gentile in the Land does not free his property from the duties of heave and tithes (even though this is not practice to be followed), a Gentile’s heave in the Land is heave.: “Concerning a Gentile’s ḥallah in the Land and a Gentile’s heave outside the Land, one informs him that it is unnecessary, he might eat it121Since he dedicated it in error, the dedication is invalid and he may retract it. But if he insists on giving, it must be given to a Cohen. One must assume that in this case also, the heave is forbidden to a Cohen whose body is a source of impurity., and it may be given to any Cohen, be he Fellow or vulgar.”
יֵשׁ מֵהֶן נוֹתְנִין לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן נוֹתְנִין לְכָל־כֹּהֵן. הַבְּכוֹרוֹת וְהַבִּיכּוּרִים לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר וּשְׁאָר כּוּלְּהוֹן לְכָל־כֹּהֵן. רִבִּי יִרְמְיָה בָּעֵא קוֹמֵי רִבִּי זְעִירָא מְנַיִין שֶׁחוֹרָמִים לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר. אָמַר לוֹ כִּשְׂדֵה הַחֵרֶם לַכֹּהֵן תִּהְיֶה אֲחוּזָתוֹ. אֲחוּזָה עַצְמָהּ מַהוּ שֶׁתְּהֵא לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר בְּגִין דִּכְתִיב לַכֹּהֵן תִּהְיֶה אֲחוּזָתוֹ. (אֲחוּזָה עַצְמָהּ מַהוּ שֶׁתְּהֵא לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר.) וְהָֽכְתִיב וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרוֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּיבָה. מֵעַתָּה לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר. רִבִּי אָחָא רִבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן כָּל־חֵרֶם קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַײ֨. מַה קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר אַף חֲרָמִים לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר. Some of them134The items listed in the Mishnah. are given to the people of the watch135The families of certified Cohanim, admitted to service in the Temple, were divided into 24 sections, each of which was the watch serving in the Temple for one week. Except for the High Priest, no Cohen had the right to officiate in the Temple except during holidays and the week assigned to his watch.; some of them are given to any Cohen. Firstlings136Unblemished firstlings which are a sacrifice of which the owners receive no part. Blemished firstlings, unfit for sacrifice, may be given to any Cohen locally. and First Fruits137Have to be delivered to the Cohen in the Temple. to the people of the watch; all others to any Cohen. Rebbi Jeremiah asked before Rebbi Zeïra, from where that ḥērem-dedications123Num. 18:14. According to most sources, this special dedication is not for the upkeep of the Temple but for the Cohanim [Sifra Beḥuqotay Pereq12(9), Babli Sanhedrin 88a, Arakhin28a]. However, Babylonian practice follows the dissenting opinion (Arakhin29a). are for the people of the watch? He said to him: (Lev. 27:21) “Like the ḥērem-dedicated field it shall become the property of the Cohen138Since the chapter deals with transactions by the Temple treasurer, it follows that a specially dedicated field has to be given by the treasurer to the Cohen officiating in the Temple, i. e., to the watch of the week. The same argument in Babli Sanhedrin 88a, Arakhin 28a..” From where that the property itself should be given to the people of the watch? Because it is written “it shall become the property of the Cohen.” (From where that ḥērem-dedications are for the people of the watch?)139A dittography in both mss.; it must be an old error. But is it not written: (Deut. 18:3) “He shall give to the Cohen foreleg, jawbone, and first stomach,” should it not be for the people of the watch140If “Cohen” in the first verse means “Cohen of the current watch” then in the second verse it should have the same meaning. But since Deut. 18:3 clearly speaks about profane slaughter, away from the Temple, the meaning of the word must include any Cohen.
The Babli (Arakhin 28b) disagrees and compares “Cohen” in this verse, about which it is written (v. 16) “If … a man declares holy for the Eternal” to the Cohen mentioned in the law about the repentant offender in case the person he injured or defrauded has died heirless, where it is written: (Num.5:6) “The money must be returned to the Eternal for the Cohen”. The latter money is distributed among the people of the current watch.? Rebbi Aḥa, Rebbi Abbahu in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: (Lev. 27:28) “Every ḥērem-dedication shall be most holy to the Eternal.” Just as most holy sacrifices are for the people of the watch141All most holy sacrifices are either totally burned or eaten by Cohanim only., so ḥērem- dedications are for the people of the watch!
מֵעַתָּה אַף הַמְּיטַלְטְלִין. דְּתַנֵּי מַה בֵּין הַקַּרְקָעוֹת לַמְּטַלְטְלִין. אֶלָּא שֶׁהַקַּרְקָעוֹת לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר וְהַמְּטַלְטְלִין לְכָל־כֹּהֵן. רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֵּי רִבִּי בּוּן רִבִּי חִייָה בְשֵׁם רַב שֵׁשֶׁת אִשֵּׁי ײ֨ וְנַחֲלָתוֹ יֹאכֵלוּן. מַה אִישִׁים לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר אַף נַחֲלָה לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר. If this is the case, also movables142The argument based on Lev.27:28 cannot be true because ḥerem- dedicated movables may be given to any Cohen but are also called “most holy” in the verse.? As we have stated: What is the difference between real estate and movables143Referring to ḥerem-dedications.? Only that real estate is given to the people of the watch but movables to any Cohen. Rebbi Yose ben Rebbi Abun, Rebbi Ḥiyya in the name of Rav Sheshet: (Deut. 18:1) “The gifts144Sacrifices. to the Eternal and His inheritance145The term נחלה is used only for real estate; usually only for what was given the family under Joshua. they shall eat.” Since the gifts are for the people of the watch, so is the inheritance.
עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה מַתָּנוֹת נִיתְּנוּ לְאַהֲרוֹן וּלְבָנָיו. עֶשֶׂר בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. אַרְבַּע בִּירוּשָׁלֵם. עֶשֶׂר בִּגְבוּלִין. אֵילּוּ הֵן שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם וְזִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִיבּוּר וְחַטָּאת הָעוֹף וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי וְלוֹג שֶׁמֶן שֶׁלְמְצוֹרָע שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים וּשְׁיֵרֵי מְנָחוֹת וְהָעוֹמֶר. וְאֵילּוּ הֵן שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלֵם הַבְּכוֹרוֹת וְהַבִּיכּוּרִים וְהַמּוּרָם מִן הַתּוֹדָה וּמֵאֵיל נָזִיר וְעוֹרוֹת הַמּוּקְדָּשִׁין. אֵילּוּ הֵן שֶׁבִּגְבוּלִין הַתְּרוּמָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְחַלָּה וְהַזְּרוֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּיבָה וְרֵאשִׁית הַגֵּז וְגֶזֶל הַגֵּר וּפִדְיוֹן הַבֶּן. וּפִדְיוֹן פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר וַחֲרָמִים וּשְׂדֵה אֲחוּזָה. 146Tosephta Ḥallah 2:7–9, Babli Baba Qama 110b, Ḥulin 132b, Sifry Qoraḥ #119 (“12 in the Temple, 12 in the countryside”), Midrash Tanḥuma Bemidbar 24, Num. rabba 5(1).24 gifts were given to Aaron and his sons, ten in the Temple, four in Jerusalem, and ten in the countryside. These are the ten in the Temple: Purification offering147Lev. 6:19., reparation offering148Lev. 7:7., public well-being offerings149Lev. 23:19. Even though this sacrifice is labelled “well-being offering”, being a public offering it is treated as most holy and must be eaten by Cohanim in the Temple precinct., purification offering of a bird150While there is no separate verse commanding that the purification offering of a bird must be eaten, since the burnt offering of a bird is consumed on the altar it follows that the purification offering must be eaten., the reparation offering for suspected guilt151Lev5:17–18., the log of oil of the skin-diseased152Lev 14:10,21. The unused part of the oil becomes property of the Cohen., the two breads153Lev. 23:17., the shew-bread154Lev. 24:9., the remainders of cereal offerings155Lev. 2:3, 6:9–11., and the ‘omer156Lev. 23:10–11.. These are in Jerusalem: Firstlings157While these are sacrifices, after the blood was sprinkled on the altar wall the animal was eaten by the Cohen and his family anywhere in the city., First Fruits158Cf. Mishnah Bikkurim 3:10., what was lifted from thanksgiving sacrifices and from the nazir’s ram159In fact, any part lifted for the Cohen from any well-being sacrifice is for the Cohen and his entire family, to be eaten outside the Temple precinct. Cf. Lev. 7:34, Num. 18:11., and the skins of sacrifices160Only of most holy sacrifices (burnt, purification, and reparation offerings); Lev. 7:8.. These are in the countryside: Heave, Heave of the Tithe, ḥallah, foreleg, jawbone, and first stomach127Deut. 18:3., the first shearing161Deut. 18:4., robbery of the proselyte162Num. 5:8. It is assumed that the only person without legal heirs is the proselyte who had no children after his conversion., redemption of the firstborn163Ex. 13., redemption of the firstborn donkey163Ex. 13., ḥērem-dedications, and fields of inheritance164Dedicated and not redeemed; Lev. 27:16–21..
רִבִּי יוּדָה אוֹסֵר בְּבִיכּוּרִים. רִבִּי יוּדָה כְדַעְתֵּיהּ דּוּ רִבִּי יוּדָה אָמַר אֵין נוֹתְנִין אוֹתָן אֶלָּא לְחָבֵר בְּטוֹבָה. “Rebbi Jehudah forbids First Fruits.” Rebbi Jehudah follows his own opinion since165Mishnah Bikkurim 3:12. The anonymous majority requires them to be given to the people of the watch who have to eat them under the rules of simple sacrifices. “Rebbi Jehudah says, one gives them only to a fellow for goodwill.”
אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹנָה רִבִּי עֲקִיבָה כְדַעְתֵּיהּ דּוּ רִבִּי עֲקִיבָה אָמַר כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן בְּטוּמְאָה. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי אֲפִילוּ תֵימָא מִחְלְפָא שִׁיטָּתֵיהּ שַׁנְייָה הִיא שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מָצוּי לְטַמֵּא אוֹכְלֵי בְהֶמְתּוֹ. Rebbi Jonah said, Rebbi Aqiba166In the Mishnah. follows his own opinion since “Rebbi Aqiba says, all its processing is done in impurity”167Mishnah Ma‘aser Šeni 2:4.. Rebbi Yose said, even if you say that he changed his method; there is a difference because a person usually does not make his animal’s fodder impure168Even if he agrees with the House of Hillel that Second Tithe vetch (in a famine) must be cooked in purity, he holds that vetch in a regular year is only animal fodder, is never soaked, never prepared for impurity, and may be handled by any impure person without consequences..
מִפְּנֵי מַה לֹא גָֽזְרוּ עַל הַבִקִייָה. בְּמִנְעֲלֵיהֶן יָצָאת עִמָּהֶן מֵאַלֶכְסַנְדְּרִיאָה. אֵימָתַי גָּֽזְרוּ עַל הַכַּרְשִׁינִין. רִבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר בִּימֵי רְעָבוֹן. רִבִּי חֲנַנְיָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי בִּימֵי דָּוִד. אָֽמְרִין הִיא הָדָא הִיא הָדָא. Why did they not decree about vicia169Why was vetch not included originally in the duty to give heave and tithes from vegetables (cf. Ma‘serot 5, Note 136)?? On their shoes it came out with them from Alexandria170In Egypt it is simply a weed.. When did they decree about black vetch171Which is a kind of vicia; cf. H. L. Fleischer in Levy’s Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 458b.? Rebbi Yose says, in a famine; Rebbi Ḥananiah in the name of Rebbi: In David’s time. They said, both are the same.