משנה: אֵין פּוֹתְחִין אֶת הַנֵּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה כֶלִי וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין פֶּיחָמִין וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין אֶת הַפְּתִילָה לִשְׁנָיִם. רִבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר חוֹתְכָהּ בָּאוּר לִשְׁתֵּי נֵירוֹת: MISHNAH: One does not open the candle62This candle is a clay vessel to be put on the top of a candelabrum. It consists of a container for oil and a neck through which the wick is drawn to burn at a safe distance from the oil. If it is new and the opening for the wick is not excavated it cannot be made to work on the holiday since this would be “hitting with hammer”, the formal end of a production process, and therefore a biblical violation both on the holiday and the Sabbath (Mishnah Šabbat7:4). Since making fire is necessary to prepare food and therefore permitted, for the House of Hillel it is permitted on the holiday for any legitimate reason. because he would make it a vessel nor does one make charcoal63Not even for use on the same day (Tosephta 3:14) since preparation of fuel is not included in the permission to use fuel., and one does not cut a wick into two. Rebbi Jehudah says, one may cut it in the fire for two candles64As explained in the Halakhah one may take a long wick, put each end into such a candle and light then in the middle. Then this one action creates two separate burning candles..
הלכה: תַּנִּי. לָפַּסִּים סְתוּמוֹת. עֲשָׂאָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב. לֹא יִפְתַּחֵם בְּיוֹם טוֹב. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִמַכְשִׁיר כֶּלִי בְיוֹם טוֹב. HALAKHAH: It was stated: Closed pans66Greek λοπάς “pan, plate”., if he made them before the holiday he may not open them on the holiday since he would be like one who makes a vessel usable on the holiday67The pan is a flat vessel made of clay. It is made together with its cover. It is not fired in a kiln but it is expected to become a permanent vessel by being used over the fire in the kitchen. Before it is used it is completely closed, the cover being connected to the pan by a very thin strip of clay which can be easily cut with a kitchen knife. For this Tanna, cutting the strip is a prime example of “hitting with hammer” and forbidden both on the holiday and on the Sabbath. In the slightly differently worded Tosephta 3:13 (and Tosephta Šabbat, ed. Liebermann 16:13, in Liebermann’s opinion referring only to holiday) it is reported that Rabban Simeon ben Gamliel permits to separate the cover from the pan. R. Ḥananel (Besah32a, 5 lines from bottom) and Sefer Ha`iṭtur(vol. 2, fol. 150a) read this also in the Yerushalmi text. The statement must have fallen out of our text by scribal error since in the next paragraph a minority opinion in this baraita is mentioned, referring to Rabban Simeon ben Gamliel’s opinion, who holds that the pan with its cover form a completed vessel and the separation of cover from pan is to be compared to opening a tightly closed door (explanation of S. Liebermann.).
תַּמָּן תַּנִּינָן. עַל לְפָסִין אִרוֹנִיּוֹת שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרוֹת בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת וּטְמֵאוֹת בְּמַשָּׂא הַזָּב. רִבִּי לָֽעְזָר בֶּן צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר אַף בְּמַשָּׂא הַזָּב טְהוֹרוֹת. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן׃ אַתְיָא דִיחִידָאָה דְהָכָא כִּסְתוּמָה דְתַמָּן. וְדִיחִידָייָה דְתַמָּן כִּסְתוּמָה דְהָכָא. There, we have stated68Mishnah Idiut2:5, missing the introduction, that R. Ismael did not indicate his position regarding the difference between the anonymous Tanna and R. Eleazar ben R. Ṣadoq.: “About rural pans69Pans made of unfired clay with cover attached., that they are pure in a tent with a corpse70A clay vessel cannot become impure from the outside. A clay vessel which does not have a cavity is immune to impurity (Mishnah Kelim2:7). Since the unused rural pan is totally closed, it is immune to the impurity of the dead by biblical decree, Num. 19:15. but impure if carried by a person afflicted with gonorrhea71Any implement moved by a sufferer from gonorrhea is severely impure, Lev. 15:10, even if the sufferer never touches the implement and moves it on a flat piece of wood (or clay) impervious to impurity.. Rebbi Eleazar ben Rebbi Ṣadoq says, even if carried by a person afflicted with gonorrhea they are pure since their production was not finished72He holds that as long as the cover is not separated from the pan the manufacturing process is not finished and therefore the composite is not an implement to which the rules of impurity may apply..” It turns out that the minority opinion here corresponds to the majority opinion there and the minority opinion there corresponds to the majority opinion here73R. Eleazar ben R. Sadoq must agree that separating cover from pot is “hitting with hammer”. Rabban Simeon ben Gamliel must agree that the unopened clay vessel is an implement and subject to impurity by being moved..
רִבִּי בָּא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יְהוּדָה. בְּקַעַת סוֹמְכָהּ לַכּוֹתֶל בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא תְכַסְכֵּס. תַּנֵּי: אֵין מְכַבִּין אֶת הַבְּקַעַת בִּשְׁבִיל לָחוּס עָלֶיהָ. אִם בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא תָעַשֵּׁן אֶת הַבַּיִת וְאֶת הַקְּדֵירָה. מוּתָּר. אָמַר רִבִּי חֲנַנְיָה. בְּשֶׁאֵין שָׁם אֲוִיר. אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם אֲוִיר מַשְׁלִיכָהּ לָמֲוִיר וְדַייוֹ. אָמַר רִבִּי נָסָא. וְיֵאוּת. כֵּן אֲנָן אָֽמְרִין. הָדָא קִילוּרִיתָה שָׁרֵי מִישׁוֹף וּמִיכְחוֹל מִינָהּ בְּיָמָא טָבָא. אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא. כָּאן לְשִׁימּוּר כָּאן לִרְפוּאָה. Rebbi Abba in the name of Rav Jehudah: A splinter one leans on the wall lest it scratches74If a splinter of wood constitutes a danger it can be moved even though it is muqṣeh.. It was stated: One does not extinguish a splinter to save it; if to prevent it filling the house or the pot with smoke it is permitted75If the splinter is burning and represents a nuisance or a danger it may be extinguished even though in general extinguishing a fire is forbidden on the holiday (unless needed in a cooking process). Babli 22a.. Rebbi Ḥanania said, if there is no empty space76Greek ʼάηρ. there. But if there is empty space there one throws it into the empty space and this is enough77If the fire can safely be left to burn out by itself, extinguishing it is forbidden.. Rebbi Nasa said, is this correct? Are we saying so, salve78Greek κολλύριον. one is permitted to rub on to use kohl on the holiday79Since this is forbidden on the Sabbath and is not connected with food it must be forbidden on the holiday.? Rebbi Mana said, one is to guard, the other for healing80The argument should not even have started. Since making a fire is required in the preparation of food, measures to guard against the dangers of fire must be permitted. But medical procedures other than those necessary to save lives are prohibited on Sabbath and holidays. Babli 22a..
שֶׁלֹשָׁה דִבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בִפְתִילָה לְהַחֲמִיר וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לְהָקֵל. אֵילּוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה שְׁאָֽמְרוּ לְהַחֲמִיר. אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָהּ כַּתְּחִילָּה בְיוֹם טוֹב. וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין אוֹתָהּ לִשְׁנַיִם. וְאִין מְפַסְפְּסִין אוֹתָהּ בָּאוּר. אֵילּוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה שְׁאָֽמְרוּ לְהָקֵל. מוֹעֲכִין אוֹתָהּ וְשׁוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ בַּשֶּׁמֶן. וְחוֹלְקִין אוֹתָהּ בָּאוּר לִשְׁתֵּי נֵרוֹת. אָמַר רִבִּי חִינְנָא. בְּצָרִיךְ לִשְׁנֵיהֶן. תַּנֵּי. רִבִּי יוּדָה בַּר פָּזִי דְּבַר דְּלָייָא. מֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי נֵרוֹת ונוֹתְנָהּ בִּשְׁנֵיהֶן וְחוֹלְקָהּ בָּאוּר לִשְׁנֵי נֵירוֹת. רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אָחָא חִינְנָא בַּר אִידִי בְשֵׁם רַב. מוֹהַטִין אֶת הַפְּתִילָה בְיוֹם טוֹב. 81Tosephta 3:21, Babli 32b.“About a wick three things were said as restrictions and three as leniencies. The following three were said as restrictions: One does not make it new on the holiday, nor does one cut one into two pieces, nor does one singe it by fire82To make it easier to be lit.. The following three were said as leniencies: One softens it83By working it with his fingers., and soaks it in oil, and divides it into two lights by fire.” Rebbi Ḥinena said, if he needs both of them. It was stated, Rebbi Jehudah bar Pazi in the name of Bar Delaia: He brings two candles, introduces it into both of them, and separates them by fire into two candles64As explained in the Halakhah one may take a long wick, put each end into such a candle and light then in the middle. Then this one action creates two separate burning candles.. Rebbi Jacob bar Aḥa, Ḥinena bar Idi in the name of Rav: One cleans the wick84Cutting off the burned-out part. on a holiday.