משנה: הַמֵּבִיא כַדֵּי יַיִן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם לֹא יְבִיאֵם בַּסַּל וּבַקּוּפָּה אֲבָל מֵבִיא הוּא עַל כְּתֵפוֹ לְפָנָיו. הַמּוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַתֶּבֶן לֹא יַפְשִׁיל אֶת הַקּוּפָּה לַאֲחוֹרָיו אֲבָל נוֹטְלָהּ בְיָדוֹ. מַתְחִילִין בַּעֲרֵימַת הַתֶּבֶן אֲבָל לֹא בְעֵצִים שֶׁבַּמּוּקְצֶה: MISHNAH: He who transports wine jugs from place to place may not transport them in a basket or box1On the holiday one may not transport the way it is done on a working day., but he may transport on his shoulder in front of him2In the other sources of this Mishnah: on his shoulder or in front of him. The sentence is not discussed in the Halakhah but it seems that here also this has to be understood.. He who transports straw may not tie the box and throw it over his shoulder but has to take it into his hand1On the holiday one may not transport the way it is done on a working day.. One may start from a pile of straw3Straw stored in an orderly way not particularly prepared for the holiday nevertheless always is considered prepared for the holiday, clean straw as animal feed, straw mixed with dirt and pebbles as fuel. but not from wood in storage4This storage is not the original muqṣeh, the place on the flat roof where cut-up figs are spread out to dry, but a separate storage facility for wood, either building material or object of trade..
הלכה: הַמֵּבִיא כַדֵּי יַיִן כול׳. אָמַר רִבִּי חָנִין בַּר לֵוִי. מַתְנִיתָה בְּאִילֵּין קוֹרְפְדַייָא דַקִּיקָתָה. דְּמִיטְעַנָּן תַּרְתֵּיי תְּלָת בְּגַו יָדָא. הָֽיְתָה אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה. לְפָנָיו כָּךְ הִיא דַרְכּוֹ. לְאַחֲרָיו כָּךְ הִיא דַרְכּוֹ. הִיךְ מַה דְאַתְּ אָמַר. מְבִיאָהּ עַל גַּב עוֹרָהּ. וְדִכְווָתָהּ. מְבִיאָהּ עַל גַּב קַנְקַנָּהּ. כְּמַה דְאַתְּ אָמַר. מְבִיאָהּ אֵיבָים אֵיבָרִים. וְדִכְווָתָהּ. מְבִיאָהּ צְלוּחִיּוֹת צְלוּחִיּוֹת. HALAKHAH: “He who transports wine jugs,” etc. Rebbi Ḥanin bar Levi said, the Mishnah is about these little flasks11A word of unknown etymology. Brüll reads Latin calfar, “wine container”. of which one carries two or three in a hand. If it is one big one, in front of him it is usual, on the back it is usual12Since the Mishnah prohibits transporting wine jars the way it is done on working days, it seems impossible to transport a large wine receptacle on the holiday. The Babli disagrees, 30a.. Just as you are saying, he brings it with its hide, similarly he brings it with its jar13Since in Halakhah 3:3 it was stated that one may transport the hide because of the meat left on it, so one may add to the large wine receptacle a small serving pitcher, put both into a basket or chest, and transport them together.. Just as you are saying, he brings it limb by limb, similarly he brings it vial by vial14Since it was stated in Mishnah 3:3 that one may transport an entire carcass limb by limb, so one is permitted to distribute the wine in the amphora into several small pitchers and transport these. The remark is not trivial since it states that it is better to increase the exertion on the holiday (by repeating the trip many times) than to transport one time in the way it is done on weekdays..
רִבִּי יוּדָן בָּעֵי. מָהוּ לְהוֹצִיא תֶבֶן מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְלֹא מַתְנִיתָה הִיא. הַמּוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַתֶּבֶן לֹא יַפְשִׁיל אֶת הַקּוּפָּה לַאֲחוֹרָיו. מַתְנִיתָה כְמָאן דְּאָמַר. לְכָל־נֶ֔פֶשׁ. אַף נַפְשׁוֹת בְּהֵמָה בִּכְלָל. מַה צְרִיכָה לֵיהּ. כְּמָאן דְּאָמַר. אֵין נַפְשׁוֹת בְּהֵמָה בִּכְלָל. בִּרַם כְּמָאן דְּאָמַר. נַפְשׁוֹת בְּהֵמָה בִּכְלָל. פְּשִׁיטָא לֵיהּ. מַתְנִיתָה בְמוֹצִיא לְהַאֲכִיל. מַה צְרִיכָה לֵיהּ. בְּמוֹצִיא לְהֶיסֵּק. Rebbi Yudan asked, may one move straw from a private domain to the public domain15Since on the Sabbath transporting from a private to a public domain is a biblical Sabbath violation, on a holiday only transporting between domains for the purposes of preparing or serving food is permitted. (The Babli disagrees and holds that transporting for any legitimate purpose is permitted.)? Is that not the Mishnah, “he who transports straw may not tie the box and throw it over his shoulder”? The Mishnah follows him who says, for all breathing, also animal’s breathing is included16Chapter 1, Note 262. Babli 21a/b.. What is his problem? Following him who says, animal’s breathing is not included. Also for him who says, animal’s breathing is included, the Mishnah is about transporting as feed. What is his problem? If he transports as fuel17Since we follow the opinion that animal feed is equal to human food on the holiday, the first answer cannot be correct. If straw is transported as fuel for cooking food or feed, is the transporting preparation of food or only preliminary to the preparation of food? If it is transported to sustain an existing fire for warmth, is the fire eventually usable for cooking?.
רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אָחָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יָסָא. מוקְצֶה שֶׁיָּבַשׁ אָסוּר לִיגַּע בּוֹ. Rebbi Jacob bar Aḥa in the name of Rebbi Yasa: It is forbidden to touch dried Muqṣeh18This Muqseh is the original meaning of the word, cut-up figs lying on the roof to ferment and dry. If their status was not checked before the holiday they are not “prepared” and cannot be checked on the holiday..
רִבִּי אָמַר לְרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרֵיהּ. עַלֵּה וְהָבֵא לָנוּ גְּרוֹגְרוֹת מִן הָעֲלִייָה. אָמַר לֵיהּ. וְאֵינוֹ אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם מוּקְצֶה. אָמַר לֵיהּ. וְאַדַּיִין אַתְּ לְזוֹ אֵין לָךְ אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם מוּקְצֶה אֶלָּא תְאֵנִים וָעֲנָבִים בִּלְבַד. אָמַר רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר סוֹסַרְטַיי. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מַסְרִיחוֹת בֵּינְתַיִים. רִבִּי זְעוּרָא בְעָא קוֹמֵי רִבִּי יָסָא. לֹא מִסְתַּבְּרָא בְּאִילֵּין פִּיצוֹלַייָא הֲוָה עוֹבְדָא. אָמַר לֵיהּ. אוֹף אֲנָא סְבַר כֵּן. אָתָא רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֵּירִבִּי בּוּן רִבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר בִּיִסְנָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. בְּאִילֵּין פִּיצוֹלַייָא הֲוָה עוֹבְדָה 19The text also is in Ma`serot1:7, Notes 192–197 (ע). Rebbi said to his son Rebbi Simeon, climb up and bring us dried figs from the upper floor. He said to him, is it not forbidden because of muqṣeh? He retorted, are you still holding that? Nothing but figs and grapes can be forbidden because of muqzeh20All other produce in drying becomes edible and permitted. Babli Šabbat45a, a statement of Samuel in the name of R. Simeon.! Rebbi Samuel bar Sosartai: Because they stink in between. Rebbi Ze`ira asked before Rebbi Yasa: Is it not reasonable to hold that the case involved split dates21The original story involved figs which as stated become inedible in the process of drying and whose status therefore has to be checked. But unripe (or never ripe) dates which are spread out on the roof to mature and become sweet never pass through a phase during which they are inedible. They would be a prime example for food left to dry which is never muqṣeh.? He said to him, that is my opinion also. Rebbi Yose ben Rebbi Abun, Rebbi Isaac bar Bisna in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: The case involved split dates.
אָמַר לֵיהּ. אֵין לָךְ אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם מוּקְצֶה אֶלָּא תְאֵנִים וָעֲנָבִים בִּלְבַד. רִבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר זַבְדִּי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי אַבָּהוּ. הָדָא דְאַתּ אָמַר לְעִנְײַן שַׁבָּת. אֲבָל לְעִנְײַן מַעֲשְׂרות כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים יֵשׁ לָהֶן מוקְצֶה. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה. מַתְנִיתָה אָֽמְרָה כֵן. הַגְּרוֹגְרוֹת מִשֶּׁיָּדוּשׁ. וּבִמְגוּרָה מִשֶּׁיְּעַגֵּל. “He said to him, nothing but figs and grapes can be forbidden because of muqṣeh!” Rebbi Jacob bar Zavdi in the name of Rebbi Abbahu: that is, concerning the Sabbath. But concerning tithes, everything may pass through a stage of muqṣeh. Rebbi Yose said, the Mishnah said so22Mishnah Ma`serot1:8. While dried figs can be used as soon as they are edible again, if he had the intention from the start to store the finished produce in an amphora or a bin, the drying process is irrelevant for tithes since any produce put out to dry is free from tithes until it is brought to its final storage.: “Dried figs when he presses them and in a bin if he planes with a roller.”