משנה: אֵין נִמְנִין עַל הַבְּהֵמָה בַּתְּחִלָּיה בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֲבָל נִימְנִין עָלֶיהָ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְשׁוֹחֲטִין וּמְחַלְּקִין בֵּינֵיהֶן. רִבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר שׁוֹקֵל אָדָם בָּשָׂר כְּנֶגֶד הַכְּלִי אוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַקּוֹפִיץ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם כָּל־עִיקָּר: MISHNAH: One does not subscribe to an animal on the holiday but one subscribes to it on the eve of the holiday and then slaughters and distributes among them71One may not say to the butcher on the holiday that he is willing to take so-and-so much meat from an animal which he slaughters on the holiday, but one may do so before the holiday for meat to be freshly slaughtered on the holiday.. Rebbi Jehudah says a person may weigh against a vessel or against a dagger72The weight of the meat cut for one person may not be determined professionally by scales and weight-stones but semi-professional by scales where instead of certified weights one uses articles of known weight. The Sages require that all distribution of the holiday be by estimate., but the Sages are saying that one does not use scales at all.
הלכה: הָא לְהוֹסִיף מוֹסִיפִין. הָיוּ חֲמִשָּׁה נַעֲשִׂין עֲשָׂרָה. HALAKHAH: Therefore adding one adds. If there were five they could be turned into ten73It only is forbidden on the holiday to start lining up people to make it possible to slaughter an animal which is too much for one family to eat on the holiday; but if a group was formed to assure the butcher that all his meat will be taken on the holiday the subscribers may give of their part to others and so inform the butcher..
תַּנִּי. לֹא יֹאמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵירוֹ. הֲרֵי אֲנִי עִמָּךְ בְּסֶלַע. הֲרֵי אֲנִי עִמָּךְ בְּשֶׁקֶל. אֲבָל אוֹמֵר הוּא לוֹ. הֲרֵי אֲנִי עוֹמֵד לַמֶּחֱצָה לִשְׁלִישׁ וְלִרְבִיעַ. רִבִּי חִייָה רַבָּה וְרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרִבִּי שָֽׁקְלוֹ מָנָה כִנֶגֶד מָנָה בִּבְכוֹר. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים. בַּחוֹל. הָא בְיוֹם טוֹב אָסוּר. עַל שֵׁם אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם כָּל־עִיקָּר׃ רַב אָבוּן רַב יְהוּדָה בְשֵׁם שְׁמוּאֵל. אֲפִילוּ לִתְלוֹתוֹ בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם מִפְּנֵי הָעַכְבָּרִים אָסוּר. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵה בֵּירִבִּי בּוּן. לָא מִטַּעַם הַזֶּה. אֶלָּא בְגִין דְּתַנִּינָן. רִבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר. שׁוֹקֵל אָדָם בָּשָׂר כְּנֶגֶד הַכְּלִי אוֹ כְְּנֶגֶד הַקּוֹפִיס. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם כָּל־עִיקָּר׃ הָא תַנַּייָא קַדְמִייָא סְבַר מֵימַר מַשְׁגִּיחִין. הָא תְלוֹתוֹ בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם מִפְּנֵי הָעַכְבָּרִים מוּתָּר. It was stated74Tosephta 3:5, Babli 27b.: “A person may not say to another, I participate with you for a tetradrachma, I participate with you for a sheqel; but he may say to him, I am standing for half, third, or quarter75No exact amounts may be mentioned on the holiday. Since “one half, a third, a quarter” of an animal or part of an animal are approximations, these expressions may be used..” The great Rebbi Ḥiyya and Rebbi Simeon ben Rebbi did weigh a firstling piece against piece76As sanctum the firstling, slaughtered because it developed a defect and now permitted to everybody, may not be an object of trade. Therefore its meat may not be sold by weight. But after the meat was distributed, the parties may use scales to compare the weights of the pieces. Babli 28a.. When was this said? On a weekday. Therefore on a holiday it is forbidden because “one does not use scales at all.77Since scales are tools of trade.” Rav Avun, Rav Jehudah in the name of Samuel: Even to hang it on the scales because of the rats is forbidden78In his interpretation, any use of scales, even in a non-professional way, is forbidden. Babli 28a.. Rebbi Yose ben Rebbi Abun said, not because of this reason but because we did state, “Rebbi Jehudah says a person may weigh against a vessel or against a dagger, but the Sages are saying that one does not use scales at all.” Therefore a first Tanna is of the opinion that one may use them, and therefore to hang it on the scales because of the rats is permitted79He argues that the interpretation of Rav Jehudah in the name of Samuel is untenable. Since R. Jehudah finds it necessary to say that one may use scales to weigh in a non-professional way, the Sages say that one does not weigh using scales at all. Their statement says nothing about using scales for a use totally unconnected with weighing..
תַּנֵּי: רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר. אַף מְפַייֵס הוּא אָדָם אֶת עַצְמוֹ בַּלִּיטְרָא. לֵידַע מַה הִגִּיעַ לוֹ. כְּהָדָא רִבִּי מָנָא זְבַן חָרוּבִין דִּשְׁמִיטָּה. אֲתַא שְׁאַל לְרִבִּי חִזֵקִיָּה. אֲמַר לֵיהּ. נְהִגִין רַבָּנִן כְּהָדָא דְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. It was stated: Rabban Simeon ben Gamliel says, a person may calm himself by pounds80Greek λίτρα, equivalent of Latin libra, “lb.”. While the use of scales in trade is forbidden, their use in private is permitted., to know what he got. As the following: Rebbi Mana bought Sabbatical carob fruit81Sabbatical produce may not be sold by measure, weight, or count (Mishnah Ševi`it8:3), similar to the rules of holidays.. He asked Rebbi Ḥizqiah, who answered him, the rabbis use to follow that of Rabban Simeon ben Gamliel82The produce may be weighed in private, as long as no trade is involved. Babli 28a..
תַּנֵּי. הַטַּבָּח לֹא יְהֵא שׁוֹקֵל בְיָדוֹ וּמֵנִיחַ. שֶׁיָּדוֹ כְלִיטְרָא הִיא. אֲבָל חוֹתֵךְ הוּא בַסַּכִּין וְנוֹתֵן לָזֶה וְלָזֶה. It was stated83Tosephta 3:5, an Amoraic statement in Babli 28a.: “The butcher should not weigh in his hand and put down since his hand is like an lb. weight, but he may cut with a knife and give to each one84He may give equal portions by sight but not by weighing even with his hands..”
תַּנֵּי. אֵין מַרְגִּילִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְלֹא בַחוֹל בִּבְכוֹר וְלֹא בִפְסוּלֵי הַמּוּקִדְּשִׁים. אָמַר רִבִּי אָבוּן. שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא כְעוֹבֶד בּוֹ עֲבוֹדָה בְחַייָו. אָמַר רִבִּי יוּסְטָא בַר שׁוּנֶם. גָּֽזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁלֹּא יִרְעוּ אוֹתָן עֲדָרִים עֲדָרִים. אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא. כָּל־עַמָּא מוֹדֵיי מִינְפּוּחַ שָׁרֵי. לְמִיחְבּוֹט. רִבִּי חִייָה רַבָּה וְרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרִבִּי. חַד אָמַר. אָסוּר. וְחוֹרָנָה אָמַר. מוּתָּר. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֵּירִבִּי בּוּן. כָּל־עַמָּא מוֹדֵיי לְמִיחְבּוֹט אָסוּר. לְמִינְפּוּחַ. רִבִּי חִייָה רַבָּה וְרִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרִבִּי. חַד אָמַר. אָסוּר. וְחוֹרָנָה אָמַר. מוּתָּר. It was stated85Babli Bekhorot33a.: One does not strip by the feet on the holiday86To keep the hide intact so it can be used after the holiday either to make bellows (or bagpipes) or to make them into water-, wine-, or oil skins., nor on a weekday of a firstling or disqualified sancta87Neither a disqualified firstling nor any other disqualified sacrificial animal may be used for work or trade. Using the skin is permitted since it is permitted even for qualified sacrifices (Lev. 7:8), but for the disqualified extra care has to be taken to treat them with respect.. Rebbi Abun said, so he should not be like one who uses it for work when it is still living. Rebbi Justus bar Shunem said, they decided that one should not form herds from them88For if these are raised in quantity they are done so with the idea of using their hides for commercial purposes and this is objectionable. Babli Bekhorot33b.. Rebbi Mana said, everybody agrees that to make bellows is permitted, to beat them89To make sure that all remaining particles of flesh can be removed before the entire hide is made into a container for water, wine, or oil., the Elder Rebbi Ḥiyya and Rebbi Simeon ben Rebbi, one said it is forbidden, the other said it is permitted. Rebbi Yose ben Rebbi Abun said, everybody agrees that to beat them is permitted, to make bellows, the Elder Rebbi Ḥiyya and Rebbi Simeon ben Rebbi, one said it is forbidden, the other said it is permitted90Since there are two contradicting opinions, both actions are forbidden on the holiday..