משנה: בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים תַּבְלִין נִידּוֹכִין בְּמָעוֹךְ שֶׁל עֵץ וְהַמֶּלַח בַּפַּךְ וּבְעֵץ הַפָּרוּר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים תַּבְלִין נִידּוֹכִין כְּדַרְכָּן בְּמָדוֹךְ שֶׁל אֶבֶן וְהַמֶּלַח בְּמָדוֹךְ שֶׁל עֵץ: MISHNAH: The House of Shammai say that spices are pounded in a wooden mortar, and salt in a container or with a cooking spoon. But the House of Hillel say that spices are pounded normally in a stone mortar and salt in a wooden mortar209The House of Shammai hold that since pounding spices and salt could have been done the day before, the general permission to cook cannot be extended to these preparations; they must be done in a way different from working day usage to avoid a biblical transgression. The House of Hillel hold that pounded spices quickly use their taste (in the absence of containers which can be tightly closed); therefore pounding spices is an integral part of the cooking process and may be done as on a weekday, but for taking salt from a block they agree with the reasoning of the House of Shammai..
הלכה: וְיִדּוֹךְ מֵאֶתְמוֹל. חֲבֵרַייָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. שֶׁטַּעֲמָן מָר. רִבִּי זְעוּרָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. שֶׁטַּעֲמָן פָּג. HALAKHAH: Could he not pound the day before? The colleagues in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan, because they taste bitter; Rebbi Ze`ira in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan, because they lose their taste210Babli 14a..
שְׁמוּאֵל שְׁחַק עַל סִיטְרָא דִמְדוֹכְתָא. רַב אָמַר. כָּל־הַנִּידּוֹכִין נִידּוֹכִין כְּדַרְכָּן. רַב חוּנָה רִבִּי יִרְמְיָה רִבִּי אִימִּי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. הַשּׁוּם וְהַשַּׂחֲלַייִם וְהַחַרְדָּל נִידּוֹכִין כְּדַרְכָּן. רִבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְשֵׁם יוֹחָנָן. הָעוֹשֶׂה אֹלִינְתִּין בַּשַּׁבָּת חַייָב מִשֵּׂם מַרְקִיהַּ. הָא בְיוֹם טוֹב מוּתָּר. רִבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יִרְמְיָה. הָעוֹשֶׂה אֹלִינְתִּין בְּיוֹם טוֹב אָסוּר מִשֵּׂם מַרְקִהַּ. יִצְחָק דִּיהָבָא שְׁאַל לְרִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. מָהוּ מִישְׁחוֹק קוֹנְדִּיטוֹן בְּיוֹמָא טָבָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ. שְׁרֵי. וְײַב לִי וַאֲנָא שָׁתִי. רִבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי שְׁרֵי. רִבִּי זְעוּרָא בְעָא קוֹמֵי רִבִּי אַבָּהוּ. מָאן דַּעֲבִיד טַבָּאוּת לָא שְׁחִיק לֵיהּ מֵאֶיתְמוֹל. אֲמַר לֵיהּ. אִין. מִחְלְפָה שִׁיטָּתֵיהּ דִּרִבִּי אַבָּהוּ. הָכָא הוּא אָמַר. שְׁרֵי. וְהָכָא הוּא אָמַר. אָסוּר. אֶלָּא בִגִין דְּרִבִּי אַבָּהוּ יָדַע דְּרִבִּי זְעוּרָא מַחְמִר וְאִינּוּן מַחְמִרִין. בְּגִין כֵּן הוּא עֲבַד דִּכְווָתְהוֹן. אִית דְּבָעֵי מֵימַר. הָכֵין אֲמַר לֵיהּ. מָאן דְּבָעֵי דִייֵא טָב לָא שְׁחִיק לֵיהּ מִן דְּאֶיתְמוֹל. רִבִּי זְעוּרָה שְׁאַל לְקַלִּה דְרוֹמָא עַבְדֵּיה דְּרִבִּי יוּדָן נְשִׂייָא. שְׁחֵק הוּא מָרָךְ קוֹנְדִּיטוֹן בִּיוֹמְא טָבָא. אֶמַר לֵיהּ. אִין. וְכָל־מִינֵי סִיקְרִיקוֹן. רִבִּי יִצְחָק בֵּירִבִּי לָֽעְזָר בְשֵׁם רִבִּי אִימִּי אָבוֹי דְרִבִּי אֶבְדוֹמָא דִצִיפּוֹרִין. מַה פְלִיגִין. לִיתֵּן לַצְּלִי. הָא לִקְדֵירָה מוּתָּר. רִבִּי נָחוּם אָמַר. רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר אַבָּא בָעֵי. הָדָא אִטְרִיתָא. לְיַבֵּשׁ אָסוּר. לִקְדֵירָה מוּתָּר. עַל יַד עַל יַד צְרִיכָה. Samuel pounded on the side of the mortar211If he had to grind some spices he turned the mortar on its side to make it different from weekday pounding. Since this is a statement of what he did, not what he taught, it seems that this was a personal precaution since in his medical practice he might also pound some materials for compounding a medicine which if done in the ordinary way would be a biblical infraction, as mentioned later in this paragraph.. Rav said, anything that is pounded may be pounded in its ordinary way212If it may be ground into fine particles at all, it may be done the way it is done on weekdays. Babli 14a in the name of Samuel.. Rav Huna212If it may be ground into fine particles at all, it may be done the way it is done on weekdays. Babli 14a in the name of Samuel., Rebbi Jeremiah, Rebbi Immi in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: Garlic, and cress, and mustard seed are pounded in their ordinary way213If this name belongs to the chain of transmission it would have to be Rebbi Huna. But since Galso has the title “Rav”, and Rav Huna was the leader of the second generation of Amoraim in Babylonia, one has to read the statement as indicating two sources. Both Rav Huna and R. Jeremiah quoting R. Immi in the name of R. Joḥanan state .…. Rebbi Abbahu in the name of Rebbi Joḥanan: He who makes oenanthium214A wine-based medicine (Galen 13. 540). In the Babli Šabbat 140a defined as a suspension of balsamum in old wine. on a Sabbath is liable because of compounding. Is it therefore permitted on a holiday215Since it is stated to be forbidden only on a Sabbath and at least the wine base of the medicine is food.? Rebbi Ḥizqiah in the name of Rebbi Jeremiah: Making oenanthium on a holiday is forbidden216The way it is formulated for the Sabbath it cannot be formulated for the holiday. Compounding (spices or medicines) is one of the 39 categories of work forbidden on the Sabbath, an unintended infraction makes the person liable for a purification sacrifice since the intentional infraction is a capital crime or deadly sin. But work on holidays is a simple prohibition which never can trigger liability for a purification sacrifice, and intentional infraction is not a deadly sin. Therefore “liable” fits for the Sabbath and “forbidden” for the holiday. because of compounding. Isaac Gold asked Rebbi Joḥanan, may one pound for spice wine217Latin conditum (vinum), usually used for the finished product, here used for the spices to be put into the wine. Even though spice wine might be used for medical purposes it also is a drink for healthy people and therefore its preparation is permitted on the holiday. on a holiday? He said to him, it is permitted. <rebbi isaac from atosha asked rebi simeon be laqish, may one pound to make spice wine on a holiday? he said to him, it is permitted;>218Sentence missing in the ms. and printed edition. Since the sentence is both in Gand A, it belongs to the text, and was dropped by the scribe because of homeoteleuton. give it to me and I shall drink. Rebbi Ze`ira asked before Rebbi Abbahu: Would one not act well in pounding it the day before? He said to him, yes. The argument of Rebbi Abbahu is inverted. Here he says permitted, and there he says forbidden219While R. Abbahu did not explicitly say that pounding spices for spice wine is forbidden on the holiday, he agreed with R. Ze`ira that it was better to pound the day before, implying that on the holiday it must be done in a way different from weekday action, against Rav’s ruling at the start of the paragraph.. But since Rebbi Abbahu knew that Rebbi Ze`ira was restrictive, and that they220The Babylonians, including R. Ze`ira the immigrant from Babylonia. are restrictive, therefore he agreed with them. Some want to say that so he said to him: If one wants that it be good he will not pound it the day before. Rebbi Ze`ira asked Kallidromos221Reading of S. Liebermann, Tarbiz 3, p. 209., the slave of Rebbi Judah the Prince, does your master pound to make spice wine on a holiday? He said to him yes, and all kinds of cuts of meat222Mincing the meat with the knife, sica. Probably this means to make sausage on the holiday.. Rebbi Isaac ben Rebbi Elazar in the name of Rebbi Immi, the father of Rebbi Eudaimon of Sepphoris. Where do they disagree223The disagreement of the Houses of Shammai and Hillel about pounding salt. When it is used sparingly, both agree that it may be pounded in a wooden mortar in the regular way. If great quantities are needed the House of Shammai is restrictive. Babli 14a.? For grilling. Put for the pot it is permitted. Rebbi Naḥum said, Rebbi Samuel bar Abba asked about noodle dough. To let it dry is forbidden, for the pot it is permitted, part and part is questionable224Making noodle dough for use after the holiday clearly is a biblical violation and forbidden. Making soup noodles for immediate use clearly is permitted. Making both cannot be biblically forbidden; whether it is rabbinically forbidden is left undecided..