משנה: הַבּוֹרֵר קִטְנִית בְּיוֹם טוֹב בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים בּוֹרֵר אוֹכֶל וְאוֹכֵל. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים בּוֹרֵר כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֵיקוֹ וּבְתַמְחוּי אֲבָל לֹא בְטַבֻּלָא וְלֹא בַנָּפָה וְלֹא בַכְּבָרָה. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר אַף מֵדִיחַ וְשׁוֹלֶה: MISHNAH: If one selects out legumes225He separates the edible from the inedible parts of peas, beans, or lentils. on the holiday, the House of Shammai say he picks out the food226Since separating the chaff from the grain is a biblical Sabbath violation, and on the holiday may be classified as preliminary to the preparation of food, the House of Shammai require that on the holiday one follows the Sabbath rules, which let you pick out the food but not the chaff. and eats. But the House of Hillel say, he picks out normally into his chest or a basket, but not on a tablet, not with a fine sieve nor with a coarse sieve227They hold that the activity is included in the permitted preparation of food but require that it be done in a way which does not resemble commercial preparation of the harvest for sale.. Rabban Gamliel says, also he drenches and scoops off228He proposes to dump the entire material into a vat or barrel filled with water. The chaff will float on the surface and can easily be swept out. Since the legumes will be wet, it is not a commercial procedure..
הלכה: רִבִּי יוֹנָה בָעֵי. עָשָׂה כֵן בַּשַּׁבָּת. עַל דְּבֵית שַׁמַּי מָהוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא חַייָב. אָמַר לֵיהּ רִבִּי יוֹסֵה. וְלָמָּה לֹא. אִילּוּ עָשָׂה כֵן בַּשַּׁבָּת עַל דְּבֵית הִלֵּל שֶׁמָּא אֵינוֹ חַייָב. וְהָכָא חַייָב. אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא. יְאוּת אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹנָה אַבָּא. לֹא אַתְיָא אֶלָּא עַל דְּבֵית שַׁמַּי. לָמָּה. הוּתָּר מִכְּלַל בְּרֵירָה בְיוֹם טוֹב. לֹא הוּתָּר מִכְּלַל בְּרֵירָה בַּשַּׁבָּת. HALAKHAH: 229This and the following paragraphs are from Šabbat 7, Notes 314–342. The Genizah text ends here; the text A brings only the first few lines. Rebbi Jonah asked, if he did this on the Sabbath, in the opinion of the House of Shammai would he be liable? Rebbi Yose said to him, why not? If he did it on the Sabbath would he not be liable according to the House of Hillel? And here he is liable. Rebbi Mana said, my father Rebbi Jonah said it correctly. It is a problem only for the House of Shammai. Why? Because the category of selecting was permitted on the holiday, nothing of the category of selecting was permitted on the Sabbath230The objection of R. Yose is pointless. There is no problem for the House of Hillel since they hold that selecting as a category is permitted on the holiday but forbidden on the Sabbath. But we do not know whether the House of Shammai hold the same and are rabbinically restrictive on the holiday more than the House of Hillel or whether they hold that selecting does not belong to the preparation of food but to preliminaries to preparation which are not exempted on the holiday and for which, therefore, the rules are identical on Sabbath and holiday. Since in his days, in the middle of the Fourth Century, the House of Shammai had disappeared for 250 years, no answer can be given..
בִּרֵר אוֹכְלִים מִתּוֹךְ אוֹכְלִים. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר. חַייָב. וְרִבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר. פָּטוּר. מַתְנִיתָה פְלִיגָא עַל חִזְקִיָּה. בּוֹרֵר וְאוֹכֵל. בּוֹרֵר וּמַנִּיחַ עַל הַשּׁוּלְחָן. רִבִּי בּוּן בַּר חִייָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק. תִּיפְתָּר בְּשֶׁהָיוּ אוֹרְחִים אוֹכְלִין רִאשׁוֹנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה. וְהָא תַנֵּי. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹר אֶת כָּל־אוֹתוֹ הַמִּין. אִם עָשָׂה כֵן בַּשַּׁבָּת חַייָב. עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּחִזְקִיָּה. שֶׁכֵּן הַבּוֹרֵר כְּדַרְכּוֹ בַּשַּׁבָּת חַייָב. עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. שֶׁכֵּן הַבּוֹרֵר כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְמָקוֹם אַחֵר חַייָב. עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּחִזְקִיָּה. אֲפִילוּ עִיגּוּלִין מִן גַּו עִיגּוּלִין. וַאֲפִילוּ רִימּוֹנִים מִן גַּר רִימּוֹנִים. אִין כֵּינִי אֲפִילוּ בְּנֵי נַשׁ מִן גַּו בְּנֵי נַשׁ. מַאי כְדוֹן. כָּל־עַמָּא מוֹדֵיי לַהִיא דְאָמַר רִבִּי אִימִּי. רִבִּי אִימִּי הֲוָה לֵיהּ אוֹרְחִין. אַפִּיק קוֹמֵיהוֹן תּוּרְמוֹסִין וּפַסִילִייָה. אֲמַר לוֹן. יְהָבוֹן דַּעְתְּכוֹן דַּאֲתוֹן מֵיכוֹל קִינָרְסִיָה בְסוֹפָה. 231The paragraph has a parallel in the Babli, Šabbat 74a/b. If one selected food out of food, Ḥizqiah said, one is liable; Rebbi Joḥanan said, one is not liable232It is somewhat difficult to understand Ḥizqiah’s position. What is biblically forbidden on the Sabbath is removing chaff from food, not food from chaff (except, as mentioned later in this paragraph, if the entire batch was cleaned, when there is no difference what was taken from where.) Biblically Ḥizqiah would have to forbid to remove the food one does not want to eat from the food one wants to eat; the other way would only be rabbinically forbidden.. A baraita disagrees with Ḥizqiah: He selects and eats, he selects and puts on the table233For immediate consumption. There is no difference whether one puts food in his own mouth or in others’.. Rebbi Abun bar Ḥiyya in the name of Rebbi Samuel bar Rav Isaac: explain it if guests were eating what was served. But was it not stated: On condition that he did not select all of its kind? In the opinion of Ḥizqiah, because one who selects on the Sabbath is liable. In the opinion of Rebbi Joḥanan, because one who selects normally at another place234The “other place” is the Sabbath. Liability on the Sabbath can always be avoided by doing things in a decidedly unprofessional way; the mention of doing things “normally” is appropriate here. is liable. In the opinion of Ḥizqiah, even rings among rings235String figs from a heap of string figs., even pomegranates among pomegranates. Or is it so, even people among people236Then it would be forbidden on the Sabbath to call people to read the Torah unless they had been selected beforehand. This we never heard.? How is this? Everybody agrees with that of Rebbi Immi. For Rebbi Immi had guests; he brought before them lupines237Greek θερμός. and beans238Greek φάσηλος.. He told them, be careful to eat the artichokes239Greek κινάρα. On a holiday it is permitted to select anything for immediate consumption, even if there are no remainders, and eat a different dessert at the end. at the end.
תַּנֵּי. אֵין בּוֹרְרִין לֹא טוֹחֲנִין וְלֹא (מְדַקְדְּקִין) [מַרְקִדִין]. הַבּוּרֵר הַטּוֹחֵן הַמָרַקֵּד בַּשַּׁבָּת נִסְקַל. וּבְיוֹם טוֹב סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. וְהָתַנִּינָן. בּוֹרֵר כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֵיקוֹ וּבְתַמְחוּי. אָמַר רִבִּי חֲנִינָא עַנְתֹנַייָה. דְּרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הִיא. דְּרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אָמַר. אַף מֵדִיחַ וְשׁוֹלֶה׃ וְהָא תַנֵּי. שֶׁלְּבֵית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הָיוּ שׁוֹחֲקִין פִּילְפְּלִין בָּרֵיחַיִם שֶׁלָּהֶן. מוּתָּר לִטְחוֹן וְאָסוּר לָבוֹר. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֵּירִבִּי בּוּן. לֹא הוּתְרָה טְחִינָה כְדַרְכָּהּ. מְנַיִין שֶׁאֵין בּוֹרְרִין וְלֹא טוֹחֲנִין וְלֹא מַרְקִידִין. רִבִּי אָחָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ. כָּל־מְלָאכָה֙ לֹא־יֵֽעָשֶׂ֣ה בָהֶ֔ם עַד וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֘ אֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת֒. רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בָעֵי. כְּלוּם לָֽמְדוּ לְתַבְשִׁיל אֶלָּא מִיכָּן. רִבִּי יוֹסֵה לֹא אָמַר כֵּן. אֶלָּא רִבִּי יוֹסֵה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ. אַ֚ךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֣ל לְכָל־נֶ֔פֶשׁ ה֥וּא לְבַדּ֖וֹ יֵֽעָשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶֽם עַד וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֘ אֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת֒. תַּנֵּי חִזְקִיָּה וּפְלִיג. אַ֚ךְ ה֥וּא לְבַדּ֖וֹ הֲרֵי אֵילּוּ מִיעוּטִין. שֶׁלֹּא יִקְצוֹר וְלֹא יִטְחוֹן וְלֹא יְרַקֵּד בְּיוֹם טוֹב. It was stated: One does neither select, nor grind, nor sift240Translation of the corrector’s text and the text in Šabbat. The scribe’s text “one is not pedantic” would leave open the possibility that coarse selection and grinding was not prosecutable.. He who selects, or grinds, or sifts, on the Sabbath is stoned. On a holiday he absorbs the 40241The 39 lashes which are the standard punishment for breaking biblical prohibitions for which no other biblical punishment is specified. The Babli disagrees and declares these activities only rabbinically prohibited on a holiday, cf. Tosaphot Šabbat 95a, s. v. והרודה.
While preparing food is biblically permitted on a holiday as shown later in the paragraph, there is a dispute between the anonymous majority and R. Jehudah whether this includes preparations which could have been made the day before without impairing the quality of the food, which the majority prohibits and R. Jehudah and Rabban Gamliel permit. It is stated here that for the majority the prohibition is biblical, at least concerning preparations for baking.. But did we not state: “he picks out normally into his chest or a basket”? Rebbi Ḥanina from Antonia said, this is Rabban Gamliel’s, for “Rabban Gamliel says, also he drenches and scoops off.” And was it not stated, in the household of Rabban Gamliel they were grinding pepper in their mills242Rabban Gamliel will agree that milling flour is biblically forbidden on a holiday; he will hold that grinding pepper in a peppermill is not professionally grinding and not something which may be done the day before without impairing the quality of the spice.? It is permitted to grind but forbidden to select. Rebbi Yose ben Rebbi Abun: Normal grinding was not permitted. And from where that one may neither select, nor grind, nor sift? Rebbi Aḥa in the name of Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish: No work shall be done on them up to and you shall guard the unleavened bread244Ex. 12:16–17. The text omitted by the quote “up to” permits preparation of food on a holiday, as quoted later in the paragraph.. Rebbi Yose asked, but did one not infer cooking only from there? Rebbi Yose did not say so, but Rebbi Yose in the name of Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish: Only what can be eaten by every person this alone may be made by you, up to and you shall guard the unleavened bread245There is nothing missing between the two quotes, so that the note “up to” seems to be superfluous. The meaning is explained in Tosaphot Beṣah 3a s.v. גזרה (at the end): vv. 16,17 form a unit: what can be eaten by every person this alone may be made by you, and you shall guard the unleavened bread. Any preparation of mazzah which requires guarding against possible leavening is permitted on the holiday, anything preceding this, i. e., mixing flour with water to make dough, is forbidden.. Ḥizqiah stated in disagreement246Against the Mishnah where the House of Hillel permit selecting.: only, every, person, are diminutions, not to select, nor to grind, nor to sift on a holiday.
רִבִּי זְעוּרָה רַב חִייָה בַּר אַשִּׁי בְשֵׁם רַב. הַמְשַׁמֵּר חַייָב מִשֵּׁם בּוֹרֵר. אָמַר רִבִּ זְעוּרָה. לֹא מִסְתַּבְּרָא דִי לֹא מִשֵּׁם מְרַקֵּיד. רִבִּי יוֹנָה וְרִבִּי יוֹסֵה תְּרֵיהוֹן אָֽמְרִין. בְּקַדְמִיתָא הֲוִינָן אָֽמְרִין. יְאוּת אָמַר רִבִּי זְעוּרָה. מַה הַמְרַקֵּד קֶמַח מִלְּמַטָּן וְסוֹלֶת מִלְמַעֲלָן. אַף הַמְשַׁמֵּר יַיִן מִלְּמַטָּן וּשְׁמָרִים מִלְּמַעֲלָן. וְלֹא הֲוִינָן אָֽמְרִין כְּלוּם. לָמָּה הוּתָר מִכְּלָל בְּרֵירָה וְהוּתָר מִכְּלָל שִׁימּוּר. הוּתָּר מִכְּלָל בְּרֵירָה. בּוֹרֵר כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֵיקוֹ וּבְתַמְחוּי. וְהוּתָר מִכְּלָל שִׁימּוּר. אֲבָל נוֹתְנִין לַתְּלוּיָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב: וְלֹא הוּתָר מִכְּלָל הַרְקָדָה. דְּאָמַר רִבִּי חֲנִינָה בַּר יָקֶה בְשֵׁם רַב יְהוּדָה. אֵין שׁוֹנִין אֶת הַקֶּמַח אֲבָל מַרְקִידִין לַאֲחוֹרֵי הַנָּפָה. אִין תֵּימַר מִשֵׁם מְרַקֵּיד הוּא. יְהֵא אָסוּר. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי בֵּירִבִּי בּוּן. דִּי לָא כְרִבִּי יוּדָה. דְּתַנֵּי מִשֵּׁם רִבִּי יוּדָה. אַף מַכְשִׁירֵי אוֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ הִתִּירוּ. בְּעַייָא הָדָא מִילְּתָא מָהוּ לְשַׁנּוֹת אֶת הַקֶּמַח לַאֲחוֹרֵי הַנָּפָה כְּרַבָּנִן. 247This text also appears in Šabbat Chapter 20 (17c line 35). The parallel in the Babli is in Šabbat 138a where the argument of R. Ze`ira is quoted in his name but the introductory statement is in the name of Rav Cahana. In Šabbat, the original author is Samuel, not Rav. This may be a lectio difficilior since Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi was a companion of Rav; but if Rav Cahana is Cahana, the stepson of Rav, it would represent a Babylonian tradition. Rebbi Ze`ira, Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi in the name of Samuel: One who filters is liable because of selecting. Rebbi Ze`ira said, it is more reasonable that it should be because of sifting. Rebbi Jonah and Rebbi Yose both said, at the start we were saying that Rebbi Ze`ira said it correctly, since as in sifting the flour is below and the farina248The coarser pieces. on top, so in filtering wine the wine is at the bottom and the yeast on top; but we were not saying anything. Why? Because the category of selecting was permitted, the category of filtering was permitted249On a holiday, as shown later from Mishnaiot.. The category of selecting was permitted: “he selects normally, on his chest, or from a pot”. Also the category of filtering was permitted, “on a holiday one puts into one which was hanging250Mishnah Šabbat 20:1. According to the anonymous majority on a holiday one may not put a filter on top of a barrel because this is an activity not covered by the general permission to prepare food, but if the filter already was in place one may filter wine on a holiday.”. But the category of sifting was not permitted. As Rebbi Ḥanina bar Yaqe said in the name of Rav Jehudah, One does not re-sift the flour but one may pass it through the back of the sieve252Filtering.. If you say it is because of sifting, it253Tosephta Megillah 1:7. should be forbidden. Rebbi Yose ben Rebbi Abun said, it does not follow Rebbi Jehudah, for it was stated in the name of Rebbi Jehudah, also preparations for making food are permitted253Tosephta Megillah 1:7.. There is a question about the following: following the rabbis, may one re-sift the flour through the back of the sieve?