משנה: הִנִּיחַ בָּנִים גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים הִשְׁבִיחוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים אֶת הַנְּכָסִים הִשְׁבִּיחוּ לָאֶמְצַע. אִם אָֽמְרוּ רְאוּ מַה שֶׁהִנִּיח לָנוּ אַבָּא הֲרֵי אָנוּ עוֹשִׂין וְאוֹכְלִים הִשְׁבִּיחוּ לְעַצְמָן. וְכֵן הָאִשָׁה שֶׁהִשְׁבִּיחָה אֶת הַנְּכָסִים הִשְׁבִּיחָה לָאֶמְצַע. אִם אָֽמְרָה רְאוּ מַה שֶׁהִנִּיחַ לִי בַעֲלִי הֲרֵי אֲנִי עוֹשָׂה וְאוֹכֶלֶת הִשְׁבִּיחָה לְעַצְמָהּ. MISHNAH: If he is survived by adult and underage children and the adult ones improved the property31Before the estate was distributed., the improvement goes to the estate. But if they said32Before the court., make an inventory of what our father left33To determine the underage brothers’ share under the court’s supervision. and we are going to work and profit from it, they improved it for themselves.
Similarly, a woman53A widow. who improved the property improved for the estate54She acts as a guardian for the children as well as for herself.. But if she said32Before the court.: see what my husband left for me, I shall work it and eat from it55She takes the property as her ketubah settlement.; then she improved it for herself.
הלכה: הִנִּיחַ בָּנִים גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים כול׳. אָמַר רִבִּי לָא. אִם אָֽמְרוּ בְּבֵית דִּין. דְּבֵי רִבִּי יַנַּאי אָֽמְרֵי. אֲפִילוּ עִירְנֵיָה. רַב אָמַר. אֲפִילוּ סַל אֲפִילוּ קוֹרְדּוֹם. תַּנֵּי רִבִּי חִייָה. אֲפִילוּ מַחַט אֲפִילוּ מוּקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל. HALAKHAH: “If he is survived by adult and underage children,” etc. Rebbi La said, “if they said” in court. In the House of Rebbi Yannai they said, even a jug.34Latin hirnea, also irnea, -ae, “jug, pitcher” (E. G.). Rav said, even a basket, even an axe. Rebbi Ḥiyya stated: Even a needle, even a thread to tie down.
אָמַר רִבִּי חֲנִינָה. הַמַּשִּׂיא אֶת בְּנוֹ בְּבַיִת זָכָה בַּבַּיִת. תַּנֵּי רִבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה. בַּבַּיִת וְלֹא בַּמִּטַּלְטְלִין. רִבִּי לָא חִילֵּק אֶת הַטְּרִיקְלִין בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין בְּנוֹ. רִבִּי חַגַּיי בְּעָא רִבִּי יוֹסֵי. הָיְתָה חוּפָּתוֹ בַּקִּיטוֹן וְעָשָׂה לוֹ הֵסֵב בַּטְּרִיקְלִין מָהוּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ. לֵית חֲמֵי לֵיהּ מַפְקָה. 35Cf. Ketubot 5:1 (Notes 23–26), 12:2 Note 41; Babli 144a. Rebbi Ḥanina said, if somebody definitively married off his son in a house, the latter acquired it36This is qualified in Ketubot to apply only to a first marriage and in the Babli to the first marriage of the oldest son to a virgin, it being the first marriage of any of his children.. Rebbi Hoshaia stated, the house but not the movables37In Ketubot 5:1, R. Hoshaia is reported as saying “the movables but not the house”.. Rebbi La divided the dining hall38Latin triclinium. between himself and his son39The newlyweds could use half the triclinium as their permanent abode.. Rebbi Ḥaggai asked Rebbi Yose: If the ceremony was in the bedroom40Greek κοιτών, -ῶνος, m. but the wedding party was in the dining room, what is the rule? He told him, one does not see him leaving41After the wedding the groom is expected to stay in the wedding chamber with his wife; he is not needed for the festivities and acquired only the bedroom..
רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר. חוֹלְקִין לַקְּטַנִּים מִפְּנֵי הַגְּדוֹלִים. אֶלָּא עָמְדוּ קְטַנִּים וּמָֽצְאוּ דְבַר יֶתֶר וּמִיחוּ. רִבִּי אַבָּהוּ אוֹמֵר. נִשְׁבָּעִין לָהֶן. אָמַר רִבִּי מָנָא. כָּל־הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵירוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָייָה חוּץ מִזּוֹ. רִבִּי חִייָה רוֹבָה אָמַר. סְתָם אַחִין שׁוּתָפִין עַד שְׁלֹשָׁה דוֹרוֹת. אָמַר רִבִּי [ ] בַּר בּוּן. אַף רַב הַמְנוּנָא הוֹרֵי כֵן. Rebbi Joshua ben Levi said: One divides for the underaged because of the adults42If the adults want to divide the estate in order to work for themselves, the court is obligated to separate the underaged’s property and to transfer it to a guardian.. But if the underaged found something additional and protested43The underaged claim that the adults understated the value of the estate and that their portion should be greater.? Rebbi Abbahu said, they44The adults have to swear in court even though in general a claimant cannot make a defendant swear unless he produce proof by at least one witness. have to swear for them. Rebbi Mana said, everywhere the burden of proof is on the claimant except in this case. The Great Rebbi Ḥiyya45Sefer Ha‘iṭṭur I 42b reads: R. Ḥiyya bar Abba. In Gen. rabba 53(2), R. Abba. Our text is confirmed by Ravad Temim De‘im §58. says, without contract brothers are co-owners up to three generations46Without any party objecting, an estate may stay undivided for up to three generations. After that it would need a contract of association.. Rebbi [Yose]47Missing in the mss. but understood if any “bar Abun” is mentioned last in any paragraph. bar Abun said, also Rav Hamnuna did instruct in this sense.
אָמַר רִבִּי אִימִּי. בֵּן שֶׁנִּרְאֶה חָלוּק בְּחַיֵּי אָבִיו מַה שֶׁסִּיגֵּל סִיגֵּל לְעַצְמוֹ. כְּהָדָא חַד בַּר נַשׁ אִיתְעֲבֵד סַפָּר. בְּעָא אַחוֹי מִיפְלַג עִימֵּיהּ. אֲתַא עוֹבְדָא קוֹמֵי רִבִּי אִמִּי. אָמַר. כָּךְ אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים. אָדָם שֶׁמָּצָא מְצִיאָה אֶחָיו חוֹלְקִין עִמּוֹ. חַד בַּר נַשׁ נְפַק לִשְׁלִיחוּתָא. בְּעָא אַחוֹי מִיפְלַג עִימֵּיהּ. אֲתַא עוֹבְדָא קוֹמֵי רִבִּי אִמִּי. אָמַר. כָּךְ אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים. אָדָם שֶׁיָּצָא לַלֵּיסְטֶייָא אֶחָיו חוֹלְקִין עִמּוֹ. רִבִּי הוֹרְייָנָה אַחוֹי דְרִבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר סוֹסַרְטַיי בְּעָא אַחוֹי מִיפְלַג עִימֵּיהּ. אָמַר לוֹ. אַלֶכְסַנְדְּרִי אַחוֹי. יְדַע אַתְּ דִּשְׁבַק אָבוּנָן אֲלָפִים. Rebbi Immi said, if a son was seen separated during his father’s lifetime, what he accumulated, he accumulated for himself48The rules of the Mishnah only apply to sons living in their father’s household, not those who are known to earn their money independently.. As the following: A person learned to be a barber49It is possible to read סָפַר “scribe”.. His brother wanted to share with him. The case came before Rebbi Immi who said, do we say that if a person found something, his brothers share with him50Even if a person still lives with his extended family, money made through his personal skill is not common property.? A person became an agent. His brother wanted to share with him. The case came before Rebbi Immi who said, do we say that if a person went into robbery51Greek λῃστεία., his brothers share with him? A brother of Rebbi Horiana, brother of Rebbi Samuel ben Sosartai, wanted to share with him. He told him, brother Alexander, do you not know that our father left us thousands52He may claim only his share in the inheritance but nothing else.?
וְכֵן הָאִשָׁה כול׳. אָמַר רִבִּי לָא. אָֽמְרָה בְּבֵית דִּין. “Similarly, a woman,” etc. Rebbi La said, “if she said” in court.