משנה: אַרְבַּע מִדּוֹת בַּמּוֹכְרִים. מָכַר לוֹ חִטִּים יָפוֹת וְנִמְצְאוּ רָעוֹת הַלּוֹקֵחַ יָכוֹל לַחֲזוֹר בּוֹ. רָעוֹת וְנִמְצְאוּ יָפוֹת הַמּוֹכֵר יָכוֹל לַחֲזוֹר בּוֹ. רָעוֹת וְנִמְצְאוּ רָעוֹת יָפוֹת וְנִמְצְאוּ יָפוֹת אֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָכוֹל לַחֲזוֹר בּוֹ. שְׁחַמְתִּית וְנִמְצֵאת לְבָנָה לְבָנָה וְנִמְצֵאת שְׁחַמְתִּית עֵצִים שֶׁלְּזַיִת וְנִמְצְאוּ שֶׁלְּשִׁיקְמָה שֶׁלְּשִׁיקְמָה וְנִמְצְאוּ שֶׁלְּזַיִת יַיִן וְנִמְצָא חוֹמֶץ חוֹמֶץ וְנִמְצָא יַיִן שְׁנֵיהֶן יְכוֹלִין לַחֲזוֹר בָּהֶן. הַמּוֹכֵר פֵּירוֹת לַחֲבֵירוֹ מָשַׁךְ וְלֹא מָדַד קָנָה מָדַד וְלֹא מָשַׁךְ לֹא קָנָה. אִם הָיָה פִיקֵּחַ שׂוֹכֵר אֶת מְקוֹמָן. הַלּוֹקֵחַ פִּישְׁתָּן מֵחֲבֵירוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיְּטַלְטְלֶנּוּ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וְאִם הָיָה בִּמְחוּבָּר לַקַּרְקַע וְתָלַשׁ כָּל־שֶׁהוּא קָנָה. הַמּוֹכֵר יַיִן וָשֶׁמֶן לַחֲבֵירוֹ וְהוּקְרוּ אוֹ שֶׁהוּזְלוּ אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַלֵּאת הַמִּידָּה לַמּוֹכֵר מִשֶׁנִּתְמַלֵּאת הַמִּידָּה לַלּוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם הָיָה סִרְסוּר בֵּינֵיהֶן נִשְׁבְּרָה הֶחָבִית נִשְׁבְּרָה לַסִּרְסוּר. חַייָב לְהַטִּיף לוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ טִיפִּין. הִירְכִּינָהּ וּמִיצָּת הֲרֵי זֶה שֶׁל מוֹכֵר. וְהַחֶנְװָנִי אֵינוֹ חַייָב לְהַטִּיף לוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ טִיפִּין. רִבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר לֵילֵי שַׁבָּת עִם חֲשֵׁיכָה פָּטוּר. MISHNAH: Four situations for sellers. If one contracted to sell high quality wheat and it turned out to be low quality, the buyer may annul the contract. Low quality and it turned out to be high quality, the seller may annul the contract. Low quality and it turned out to be low quality, high quality and it turned out to be high quality, neither of them may annul the contract77If the seller is unable to fill the contract as written, the party which would be disadvantaged can annul the contract without penalty or censure.. Brown grain and it turned out to be white grain, white grain and it turned out to be brown grain78White grain is better quality than brown; the former is human food, the latter animal feed. If the delivery does not satisfy the buter’s needs, he need not accept delivery., olive wood and it turned out to be sycamore wood, sycamore wood and it turned out to be olive wood79Olive wood is more valuable than sycamore wood, but olive wood is for furniture and sycamore wood for building., wine and it turned out to be vinegar, vinegar and it turned out to be wine, either of them may annul the contract.
If somebody sold produce to another and this one moved it without measuring, he took possession80Moving merchandise after taking title always gives possession, Mishnah Qiddušin 1:5; Bava meṣia‘ 4:2.. If he was measuring without moving, he did not take possession. If he is intelligent, he rents its place81If he is worried whether the seller may annul the sale, since real estate always conveys possession of what was acquired by its owner, Mishnah Qiddušin 1:5.. If somebody buys flax from another he he did not take possession until he moved it from place to place;82If he starts moving it, i. e., lifting it. but if it still was standing on the ground and he plucked anything, he took possession.
If somebody sold wine or oil to another83And the contract specified that it was sold at the market price on delivery. and it rose or fell in price, if it was before the measure was filled it is for the seller, after the measure was filled for the buyer. If a broker was involved84Who transports the amphora from the seller to the buyer. A standard contract implies delivery f.o.b. and the amphora broke, it broke for the broker. He85If less than an entire barrel is sold, the seller has to empty the measuring vessel into the buyer’s vessel and after the flow has stopped has to wait until three single drops drip into the buyer’s vessel. The fluid which then still clings to the seller’s vessel remains his property. is obligated to let it drip three drops. If he tilted and emptied it, [the remainder] is for the seller. The grocer does not have to let it drip three drops86If he has many clients and the time spent in waiting for the three drops would seriously interfere with his business. (Mishnah Yom Tov 3:8 reports that a grocer who was a holy man never emptied measuring cups into his client’s vessel but gave them his measuring vessel so they could pour themselves and take all the time to empty the vessel to the last drop.). Rebbi Jehudah says, Friday evenings close to sundown he is not liable87The retail grocer is required to wait until three drops drip exept for Fridays late in the afternoon when everybody is trying to get home quickly for the Sabbath..
הלכה: אַרְבַּע מִדּוֹת בַּמּוֹכְרִים כול׳. וְהֵיכִי. אִם בְּשֶׁהָֽיְתָה הַמִּידָּה לַמּוֹכֵר חֲזָקָה לַמּוֹכֵר. אִם הָֽיְתָה לַלּוֹקֵחַ חֲזָקָה לַלּוֹקֵחַ. רִבִּי יְהוּדָה בְשֵׁם שְׁמוּאֵל רִבִּי לָא בְשֵׁם רִבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרִיבִי. כֵּינִי מַתְנִיתָא. בְּשֶׁהָֽיְתָה הַמִּידָּה לְאָדָם אַחֵר. תַּנֵּי. רִבִּי יוּדָה אוֹמֵר. ו לֵילֵי שַׁבָּת עִם חֲשֵׁיכָה פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים. בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ חַייָב. מַאי טַעֲמָא אָמַר רִבִּי יוּדָן. אִם שָׂכִיר הוּא בָּא בִּשְׂכָרוֹ. HALAKHAH: “Four situations for sellers.,” etc. How is this? If the measuring vessel belonged to the seller, he has the property rights, if to the buyer, he has the property rights88This refers to Mishnah 10. Why should it make any difference when the measuring vessel was full? As long as the fluid is in the seller’s vessel it is not delivered.. Rav89This has to be read here. Jehudah in the name of Samuel, Rebbi La90In the Babli, 97a, he identifies the third person as the broker. The passage is missing in E. in the name of the Great Rebbi Jehudah, so is the Mishnah: If the measuring vessel belonged to a third person. It was stated: Rebbi Jehudah says, Friday evenings close to sundown he is not liable since he has permission, but the Sages say, in any case he is liable91This baraita contradicts the Mishnah which frees the retail grocer from the obligation to wait for three drops.. What is the reason for what Rebbi Jehudah said? “If he is hired, it is paid for by his wages.92Ex. 22:14. The quote has nothing to do with the preceding baraita but refers to the sentence in the Mishnah which holds the broker responsible for the delivery; in Tosephta 5:2 this is R. Jehudah’s opinion. The verse quoted states that if a hired animal dies, the fee paid for it represents indemnification. The fee paid to the broker is indemnification for the risk which he assumes. Pseudo-Jonathan translates the verse: “If he works for a fee, his loss is covered by his fee.””