משנה: כָּל־חֲזָקָה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ טַעֲנָה אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. כֵּיצַד אָמַר לוֹ מָה אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בְתוֹךְ שֶׁלִּי. שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לִי אָדָם דָּבָר מֵעוֹלָם אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. אַתָּה מָכַרְתָּה לִי אַתָּה נָתַתָּה לִי מַתָּנָה הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה. וְהַבָּא מִשּׁוּם יְרוּשָּׁה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ טַעֲנָה. MISHNAH: Any claim of undisturbed possession not accompanied by a claim of legal ownership is not a claim of undisturbed possession. How is this? He59The former owner. said to him, what are you doing on my property? Nobody ever said anything to me58The occupant. is not a claim of undisturbed possession. You sold it to me, you gave it to me as a gift, is a claim of undisturbed possession. A person entering because of inheritance does not need a claim64The heir does not have to establish his ownership by investigating how the bequeather acquired title..
הלכה: כָּל־חֲזָקָה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ טַעֲנָה כול׳. וְצָרִיךְ חֲזָקָה. תַּמָּן תַּנִּינָן. מוֹדֶה רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֶירוֹ. שָׂדֶה זוֹ כול׳. כְּהָדָא. רְאוּבֵן אוֹכֵל שָׂדֶה בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהִיא שֶׁלּוֹ וְהֵבִיא שִׁמְעוֹן עֵדִים שֶׁמֵּת אָבִיו מִתּוֹכָהּ. מַפְקִין לָהּ מֵרְאוּבֵן וִיהָבִין לְשִׁמְעוֹן. אֶלָּא הָלַךְ רְאוּבֵן וְהֵבִיא עֵדִים שֶׁלֹּא מֵת אָבִיו מִתּוֹכָהּ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יַעֲקֹב. אֲנָא אַפִּיקְתֵּיהּ מֵרְאוּבֵן אֲנָא מַחֲזִרֶנָּה לֵיהּ. רַב אָמַר. כְּשֶׁנָּתַתָּהּ עַל פִּי בֵּית דִּין נָתַתַּה. מִיכָּן וָהֵילָךְ הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵירוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָייָה. HALAKHAH: “Any claim of undisturbed possession not accompanied by a claim of legal ownership,” etc. But it needs proof of undisturbed possession65In order to be safe from actions against his title, the owner has to hold on to his deed until he has established a three years’ claim of undisturbed possession.. There66Mishnah Ketubot 2:2. If a person informs another that property which he holds did belong to his father, he must be believed without proof that he holds legal title since “the mouth which forbade is the mouth which permitted.”, we have stated: “Rebbi Joshua agrees that if somebody says to anothet, ‘this field’, etc.” 67A shortened reformulation of a paragraph in Ketubot 2:2, Notes 37–43. As the following. Reuben ate from a field claiming that it was his. Simeon brought witnesses that his father died in possession. One removes [the field] from Reuben and hands it over to Simeon. Reuben went and brought witnesses that [Simeon’s] father did not die in possession. Rebbi Naḥman ben Jacob said, I took it from Reuben, I am returning it to him. Rav68Since Rav died before Rav Naḥman b. Jacob became Chief Judge, one must read with the text of Ketubot: “The rabbis here” who disagree with the Babylonian decision and hold that a revision of a prior court decision has to be treated as a new case and must follow standard court procedure. said, when you gave it to him, you gave it on the basis of a court decree. From there on the burden of proof is on the claimant.
מִי מוֹדִיעַ. אָמַר רִבִּי בָּא. עֵידֵי מִיתָה מוֹדִיעִין. הַגַּע עַצְמָךְ שֶׁאֵין הָעֵדִים יוֹדְעִין. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹסֵי. לְעוֹלָם הַשָּׂדֶה בְחֶזְקַת בְּעָלֶיהָ. מִיכָּן וָהֵילָךְ הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵירוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָייָה. Who informs69This also refers to the last statement of the Mishnah, that the heir is not required to establish title.? Rebbi Abba said, the witnesses to the death inform. Think of it, if the witnesses did not know! Rebbi Yose said, the field always is in the possession of its owner. From there on the burden of proof is on the claimant70An heir is always held prima facie as owner and possessor. The burden of proof in an attack on his title rests on the attacker..