כְּשֶׁנִּגְלָה בְסִינַי קִבְּלָהּ בִּכְלָלוֹתֶיהָ וּפְרָטֶיהָ וְדִקְדּוּקֶיהָ, וְלֹא נִתְחַדְּשָׁה לוֹ הֲלָכָה, וְכִדְאִיתָא בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים שֶׁהֵבִיא רַשִׁ"י בִּתְחִלַּת פָּרָשַׁת בְּהַר סִינַי. וּלְהוֹרָאָה זוֹ אָמַר מִסִּינַי. וְלֹא דָּבָר רֵיק הוּא, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה אוֹת עַל הַדָּת, אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ, כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁקִּבְּלוּהָ, בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ, הַתַּלְמִידִים בָּנִים הֵם לַה', מַה שֶּׁתַּלְמִיד וָתִיק עָתִיד לְחַדֵּשׁ הַכֹּל קִבֵּל מֹשֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַעֲלֵיהֶם כְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים, וְכִדְדָרְשִׁינַן בִּמְגִלָּה כוּ'. וְעַיֵּן תּוֹסְפוֹת יוֹם טוֹב:
When [the Torah] was revealed at Sinai, he received it with its general principles, its particulars and its inferences and there was no law that was to be innovated [later]. And it is as it is found in Torat Cohanim which is cited by Rashi on Leviticus 25:1 at the beginning of Parshat Behar. And to teach this, [the mishna] states "from Sinai." And 'it is not an empty thing,' since, behold, it is a sign of the religion: it is one for its nation, the congregation of Israel that received it. It is complete to its Creator - the students, they are the children of God; what an experienced student is to innovate in the future, all of it was received by Moshe. As it is stated (Deuteronomy 9:10), "and upon them, as all of the words," and as we expound it in Megillah. And see the Tosafot Yom Tov.
וּמְסָרָהּ כוּ'. מַה שֶּׁקִּבֵּל מָסַר לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ. אֲבָל בְּמֹשֶׁה לֹא יוּכַל לוֹמַר שֶׁנִּמְסְרָה לוֹ, כִּי לֹא נִמְסַר לוֹ שַׁעַר הַחֲמִשִּׁים, כִּמְבֹאָר בְּמַסֶּכֶת רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה דַּף כ"א:
and he passed it on, etc.: As everything that he received, he passed on to Yehoshua. But concerning Moshe, it cannot state that it was passed on to him, since the fiftieth gate [of wisdom] was not passed on to him, as is elucidated in Tractate Rosh Hashanah 21b.
וּנְבִיאִים מְסָרוּהָ כוּ'. כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא כָּל הַכְּנֵסִיָּה הָיוּ נְבִיאִים נִמְסְרָה לָהֶם הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ כוּ'. אֲבָל אַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲטוּ הַדּוֹרוֹת לֹא נִמְסְרָה כֻּלָּהּ, אֲבָל קִבֵּל כָּל אֶחָד כְּפִי כֹּחוֹ. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ קַבָּלָה הִיא אִישׁ מִפִּי אִישׁ עַד מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם:
and the prophets passed it on to the men of the Great Assembly: [Meaning] to say that even though not all of the Assembly were prophets, the entire Torah was passed on to them, etc. But afterwards - as the generations declined - not the entire thing was passed on. But [rather] everyone received it according to his ability. And nonetheless, the [portion of] the Torah that was in his hand was a transmission to him, [that had been passed on] one man from another [going back] to Moshe, our teacher - peace be upon him.
וְהַעֲמִידוּ. אָמְרוּ לְשׁוֹן עֲמִידָה, לְפִי שֶׁמִּיְמוֹת מֹשֶׁה עַד יְמוֹת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הָיוּ לוֹמְדִין בַּעֲמִידָה וְהָרַב יוֹשֵׁב עַל הַכִּסֵּא. מִדְרַשׁ שְׁמוּאֵל. וְלִי נִרְאֶה לְשׁוֹן וְהַעֲמִידוּ, לְהַעֲמִידָם בַּהֲבָנַת אֲמִתָּה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה [וְעִם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַתַּלְמִידִים הַרְבֵּה], כִּי זֶהוּ עֲמִידָה וְקִיּוּם, וְשֶׁקֶר אֵין לוֹ רַגְלַיִם: (עיקר תוי"ט).
"and stand up": They [used] an expression of standing, since from the days of Moshe until the days of Rabban Gamliel, they would study while standing and the teacher would sit on a chair (Megillah 21a) - Midrash Shmuel. And it appears to me that the expression, "and stand up," is [meaning to say] to stand them up in understanding the truth of the Torah [and even though there were many students], since this is [something's] standing and preservation, and falsehood has 'no feet,'