בא אל פרעה. בא אליו זאת הפעם ואל תשתומם בעבור שחזק לבו עד עתה. כי אני הכבדתי את לבו ואת לב עבדיו בעבור שירך לבם בבוא מכת הארבה. GO IN UNTO PHARAOH. Go in unto him this time4This last time of your own accord; henceforth Pharaoh shall ask you to come to him (Weiser). and do not be astonished that he has hardened his heart until now,5Do not be discouraged by the fact that he has not as yet let Israel go. For I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants. God mentioned the heart of his servants because their hearts6Unlike Pharaoh’s heart. would mellow with the coming of the plague of the locusts.7See verse 7, And Pharaoh’s servants said unto him…Let the men go, that they may serve the Lord their God.
וטעם שהכבדתי את לבו למען שיתי אותותי אלה בקרבו. ואין דעת חכמי ספרד שוה. כי יש אומרים כי שיתי כמו בינו. שימו. והדומה להם. וככה ישית. ישים. יבין. והדומה להם בכל הסימנים. וי"א שהוא מבנין הפעיל. והוא הבנין חסר. בעבור שמצאו או מי ישום אלם לשוש עליך לטוב כאשר שש על אבותיך שהוא מבנין הקל. וי"א ישיש כמו וישוש ושיתי כמו שומי והכל מבנין הקל: [FOR I HAVE HARDENED HIS HEART.] Its meaning is: I have hardened his heart that I might show these My signs in the midst of them. The Spanish scholars differ with regard to the word shiti (I might show).8Literally, I might put. Some say that shiti is similar to binu9The root of which is bet, yod, nun. (consider) (Deut. 32:7), simu (set)10The root of which is sin, yod, mem. (Gen. 43:21), and other such words.11Words having a yod as their middle root letter. In other words, shiti is a kal from the root shin, yod, tav. The same is the case12They are all kals having a yod as their middle root letter. with yashit (he will put), yasim (he will place), yavin (he will understand), and comparable words13Words similarly vocalized. in all of their14Conjugational forms. forms. Others hold that shiti is a hifil minus the sign of the form,15The heh. Because it is a hifil the word should read hashiti. because they found the words yasum16Yasum is a kal from the root sin, vav, mem. Now if shiti was a kal it should read yashut (like yasum), rather than yashit, in the third person imperfect form. Hence the form yashit must be a hifil. Similarly, if shiti were a kal it would read shuti. It should be noted that these grammarians assume that the root of shiti is shin, vav, tav (Weiser). (maketh) and la-sus (rejoice)17La-sus is a kal infinitive from the root sin, vav, sin. Here too we see that such roots are vocalized in the kal with a shuruk, not with a chirik as shiti is. Hence shiti cannot be a kal. The point of these grammarians is that when we come across forms such as yasis, yashit and the like, we are dealing with hifils having a vav as a middle root letter. When we come across forms such as yasus, yashut, we are dealing with kals having a vav as a middle root letter. Hence the word shiti must be a hifil (Weiser). in who maketh a man dumb (Ex. 4:11) and for the Lord will again rejoice over thee for good, as He rejoiced over thy fathers (Deut. 30:9), all of which are kals. Others say that yasis is similar to yasus (he will rejoice)18In other words, yasis is not a hifil; it is a kal. The reason it is pronounced yasis and not yasus is that yasis comes from the root sin, yod, sin, and yasus comes from the root yod, vav, sin (Weiser). and shiti to sumi (set).19There are two roots for the word set. One comes from the root sin, yod, mem, and one from the root sin, vav, mem. Compare, som tasim (thou shalt in any wise set) (Deut. 17:15). Som comes from the root sin, vav, mem, and tasim from the root sin, yod, mem. Both som and tasim are kals. It is the same with the words for put/set. One word comes from the root shin, vav, vav, and the other from the root shin, yod, tav. Shiti comes from the latter root, hence its vocalization. They are all kals. In Ex. 12:9 we find: “Behold, I the writer add to the words of this sage as I heard from his mouth.”