Gittin 89aגיטין פ״ט א
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89aפ״ט א

הרי זו מגורשת מאי טעמא קול ושוברו עמו

she is considered to be divorced and may remarry. What is the reason for this? The rumor came with its receipt. The rumor that she is betrothed is canceled by the rumor that she is divorced.

אמר רבא יצא לה שם מזנה בעיר אין חוששין לה מ"ט פריצותא בעלמא הוא דחזו לה

§ Rava said: If a rumor circulated in the city that a woman engaged in licentious sexual intercourse, we are not concerned that the rumor is true with regard to her eligibility to marry a priest. What is the reason for this? It is assumed that people saw her engage in merely licentious behavior, in a manner that does not disqualify her from marrying a priest.

כתנאי אכלה בשוק גירגרה בשוק הניקה בשוק בכולן ר"מ אומר תצא ר"ע אומר משישאו ויתנו בה מוזרות בלבנה

This statement is parallel to one side of a dispute among the tanna’im: If a woman ate in the marketplace, walked with her neck stretched forward in an arrogant manner in the marketplace, or nursed in the marketplace, with regard to all of these cases Rabbi Meir says that she must leave her husband, since all of these behaviors are considered licentious behavior. Rabbi Akiva says that she must leave him only once the women who spin [mozerot] by the moonlight converse about her having engaged in promiscuous sexual intercourse, as this indicates that the matter is well known and accepted as fact.

אמר לו רבי יוחנן בן נורי א"כ לא הנחת בת לאברהם אבינו שיושבת תחת בעלה והתורה אמרה (דברים כד, א) כי מצא בה ערות דבר ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים יט, טו) על פי שנים עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר מה להלן דבר ברור אף כאן דבר ברור:

Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri said to him: If so, you have not allowed any daughter of Abraham our forefather to remain with her husband, i.e., all wives will be forced to leave their husbands, as it is common for women to slander their peers. And the Torah said: “Because he has found some unseemly matter in her, and he writes her a scroll of severance” (Deuteronomy 24:1), and it says over there: “At the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established” (Deuteronomy 19:15). Just as there, the word “matter” is referring to a clear matter, as it is established through witnesses, so too here, the unseemly matter that is considered a cause for divorce is also referring to a clear matter that was not established merely through a rumor. Rava’s statement is in accordance with this opinion.

ת"ר בעולה אין חוששין לה נשואה אין חוששין לה ארוסה אין חוששין לה שלא לפלוני אין חוששין לה בעיר אחרת אין חוששין לה

The Sages taught: If a rumor circulated that a certain unmarried woman is a non-virgin, one is not concerned about it, and she may marry a High Priest. If a rumor circulated that she is a married woman, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is a betrothed woman, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is betrothed, but not to so-and-so, i.e., the man who betrothed her is not specified, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she was betrothed in another city, one is not concerned about it.

ממזרת אין חוששין לה שפחה אין חוששין לה

If a rumor circulated that she is a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship [mamzeret], one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is a maidservant, one is not concerned about it.

הקדיש פלוני נכסיו הפקיר פלוני נכסיו אין חוששין להן

Similarly, if a rumor circulated that so-and-so consecrated his property, or that so-and-so renounced ownership of his property, we are not concerned about these rumors, and his property cannot be taken away by the Temple treasury or another person.

אמר עולא לא ששמעו קול הברה אלא כדי שיהו נרות דולקות ומטות מוצעות ובני אדם נכנסין ויוצאין ואומרים פלונית מתקדשת היום

§ Ulla says: The rumor mentioned in the mishna with regard to betrothal is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where there is circumstantial evidence, as there are candles lit and beds made in the woman’s house, as was the custom for brides, and people entering and leaving and saying that so-and-so is becoming betrothed today.

מתקדשת ודלמא לא אקדשה אימא פלונית נתקדשה היום

The Gemara asks: If people merely are saying that she is becoming betrothed, what is the reason for concern? Perhaps she was not betrothed in the end. Rather, say that people are saying that so-and-so was betrothed today.

וכן תני לוי לא שישמעו קול הברה אלא כדי שיהו נרות דולקות ומטות מוצעות ונשים טוות לאור הנר ושמחות לה ואומרות פלונית מתקדשת היום מתקדשת ודלמא לא אקדשה א"ר פפא אימא פלונית נתקדשה היום

And similarly, Levi taught a baraita: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only hear an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where candles are lit and beds are made, and women are spinning by candlelight and rejoicing for her and saying that so-and-so is becoming betrothed today. The Gemara asks: If they are merely saying that she is becoming betrothed, what is the reason for concern? Perhaps she was not betrothed in the end. Rav Pappa said: Say that they are saying that so-and-so was betrothed today.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן לא ששמעו קול הברה אלא כדי שיהו נרות דולקות ומטות מוצעות ובני אדם נכנסין ויוצאין אמרו דבר זה הוא קול לא אמרו דבר זהו אמתלא

Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where there are candles lit and beds made and people entering and leaving. If they made an explicit statement that the woman was betrothed, this is a rumor that renders her betrothed. If they did not make such a statement, this is the explanation mentioned in the mishna.

לא אמרו והא לא אמרו ולא כלום לאפוקי מדרבה בר רב הונא דאמר אמתלא שאמרו אפי' מכאן ועד י' ימים קמ"ל לא אמרו הוא דהויא אמתלא הא אמרו לא הויא אמתלא

The Gemara asks: If they did not make such a statement, why is it considered an explanation? But they did not say anything that requires an explanation. The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yoḥanan did not mean that the people did not say anything, but rather that they did not state unequivocally that the woman is betrothed, to the exclusion of that which Rabba bar Rav Huna said: The explanation mentioned in the mishna negates the rumor even if it circulates at some point from now until ten days after the rumor begins to circulate. Rabbi Yoḥanan therefore teaches us that only if the people did not say unequivocally that she is betrothed is it considered an explanation that negates the rumor. But if they said so unequivocally, any later explanation is not considered an explanation that negates the rumor.

א"ר אבא אמר רב הונא אמר רב לא ששמעו קול הברה אלא כדי שיאמרו פלוני מהיכן שמע מפלוני ופלוני מפלו' ובודקין והולכין עד שמגיעין לדבר הברור

Rabbi Abba said that Rav Huna said that Rav said: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where people say: From where did so-and-so hear that this woman is betrothed? From so-and-so, and so-and-so heard it from so-and-so. And as a result, the judges investigate the rumor continuously, tracing the hearsay until they reach a clear matter, i.e., eyewitnesses.

דבר הברור עדות מעלייתא הוא אלא כי אתא רב שמואל בר יהודה א"ר אבא אמר רב הונא אמר רב לא ששמעו קול הברה אלא כדי שיאמרו פלוני מהיכן שמע מפלוני ופלוני מפלוני והלכו להם למדינת הים

The Gemara raises an objection: If the court reaches a clear matter it is proper testimony, not a rumor. Rather, when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda came from Eretz Yisrael he taught that Rabbi Abba said that Rav Huna said that Rav said: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where people say: From where did so-and-so hear this? From so-and-so, and so-and-so heard it from so-and-so, and they went overseas, so that the court cannot investigate further.

א"ל אביי לרב יוסף מבטלינן קלא או לא מבטלינן א"ל מדאמר רב חסדא עד שישמעו מפי הכשרים ש"מ מבטלינן קלא

§ Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Do we suppress a rumor that was not substantiated by the court, or do we not suppress it? He said to him: Since Rav Ḥisda says that a rumor is not treated stringently until the court hears it from valid witnesses, which indicates that rumors are generally treated leniently, learn from it that we suppress a rumor.

א"ל אדרבה מדאמר רב ששת אפי' מפי נשים הוי קול ש"מ לא מבטלינן קלא

Abaye said to him: On the contrary, since Rav Sheshet said that even if the court hears it from women it is considered a serious rumor, indicating that rumors are treated stringently, learn from it that we do not suppress a rumor.

א"ל אתרוותא נינהו בסורא מבטלי קלא בנהרדעא לא מבטלי קלא

Rav Yosef said to him: These opinions correspond to the local custom in two different places. In Sura they suppress a rumor, whereas in Neharde’a they do not suppress a rumor.

ההיא דנפק עלה קלא דאיקדשה לבר בי רב אתייה רב חמא לאבוה אמר ליה אימא לי היכי הוה עובדא אמר ליה על תנאי קדיש אדעתא דלא אזיל לבי חוזאי ואזל א"ל כיון דבעידנא דהואי קלא לא הואי אמתלא לאו כל כמינך דמחזקת אמתלא

The Gemara relates several incidents: A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed to a student of Torah. Rav Ḥama summoned her father and said to him: Tell me exactly how the incident transpired. The father said to him: The student betrothed her conditionally, with the intention that he would not go to the city of Bei Ḥozai, and he subsequently went there, thereby nullifying the betrothal. Rav Ḥama said to him: Since at the time that the rumor existed this explanation did not exist, it is not in your power to create the presumption of an explanation. Therefore, the rumor must be treated stringently.

ההיא דנפק עלה קלא דאיקדשה באציפא דתוחלא בעינא דבי שיפי שלחה רב אידי בר אבין לקמיה דאביי כי האי גוונא מאי אמר ליה אפי' למאן דאמר לא מבטלינן קלא בהא מבטלינן קלא מימר אמרי עיינו בהו רבנן בקידושיה ולא הוה בהו שוה פרוטה:

A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed with a mat of dates [atzifa detoḥela] from the spring of Bei Shifei. Rav Idi bar Avin sent the case to be presented before Abaye, asking him: What is the halakha in a case like this? Should this rumor be suppressed? Abaye said to him: Even according to the one who said that we do not suppress a rumor, in this case we suppress the rumor. This is because if she marries someone else people will not slander her. Rather, they will say that the Sages investigated her betrothal, i.e., the value of the mat of dates with which she was betrothed, and concluded that it was not worth one peruta and therefore the betrothal was invalid.

ההיא דנפק עלה קלא דאיקדשה

A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed