Gittin 46a:7גיטין מ״ו א:ז
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46aמ״ו א

משום נדר אני מוציאך קסבר טעמא מאי משום קלקולא אי אמר לה הכי מצי מקלקל לה ואי לא לא מצי מקלקל לה

or: I am removing you from the house due to a vow. The Gemara explains that Rav Naḥman holds: What is the reason that he is prohibited from remarrying her? This is due to potential harm caused to her. If he would wish to remarry her after she had married someone else, he may cast aspersions on the validity of the bill of divorce by claiming that he gave it under a false impression. This may lead to her child from her second marriage to be considered a mamzer. Therefore, if he said to her at the time of the divorce that this is the reason he is divorcing her, then he will be able to cause this harm to her, but if he did not state this explicitly at the time of the divorce, he will not be able to cause this harm to her, as his claim will be disregarded.

איכא דאמרי אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן צריך שיאמר לה הוי יודעת שמשום שם רע אני מוציאך ומשום נדר אני מוציאך קסבר טעמא מאי כדי שלא יהו בנות ישראל פרוצות בעריות ובנדרים הלכך צריך למימר לה הכי

There are those who say a different version of Rav Yosef bar Minyumi’s statement. Rav Yosef bar Minyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: He must say to her: Be aware that I am removing you from the house due to your bad reputation, or: Be aware that I am removing you from the house due to a vow. The Gemara explains that Rav Naḥman holds: What is the reason that he is prohibited from remarrying her? So that Jewish women will not be promiscuous with regard to forbidden sexual relations or lax with regard to vows. The Sages penalized these women who acted improperly by instituting that if they were divorced due to their actions, they cannot return to their husbands. Therefore he must say this to her: Be aware. It will therefore serve as a warning for other women.

תניא כלישנא קמא ותניא כלישנא בתרא

The Gemara comments: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the first version of Rav Yosef bar Minyumi’s statement citing Rav Naḥman, and it is taught in another baraita in accordance with the latter version.

תניא כלישנא קמא א"ר מאיר מפני מה אמרו המוציא את אשתו משום שם רע לא יחזיר ומשום נדר לא יחזיר שמא תלך ותנשא לאחר ונמצאו דברים בדאין ויאמר אילו הייתי יודע שכן הוא אפי' אם היו נותנים לי מאה מנה לא הייתי מגרשה ונמצא גט בטל ובניה ממזרין לפיכך אומרים לו הוי יודע שהמוציא את אשתו משום שם רע לא יחזיר ומשום נדר לא יחזיר

It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 3:4) in accordance with the first version: Rabbi Meir said: For what reason did they say that a man who divorces his wife due to her bad reputation may not remarry her, and one who divorces his wife due to a vow may not remarry her? Perhaps she will go and marry another man, and later the matter will be found to have been fabricated, i.e., he will find that the rumor was false or that it was possible to dissolve the vow, and he will say: If I would have known that it is like this, then even if they would have given me one hundred times one hundred dinars to divorce her I would not have divorced her; and the bill of divorce will be found to be void, and her children from her second husband will be considered mamzerim. Therefore, one says to him from the outset: Be aware that a man who divorces his wife due to her bad reputation may not remarry her, and one who divorces his wife due to a vow may not remarry her.

תניא כלישנא בתרא אמר רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי מפני מה אמרו המוציא את אשתו משום שם רע לא יחזיר ומשום נדר לא יחזיר שלא יהו בנות ישראל פרוצות בעריות ובנדרים לפיכך אומרים לו אמור לה הוי יודעת שמשום שם רע אני מוציאך ומשום נדר אני מוציאך:

It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 3:4) in accordance with the latter version: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: For what reason did they say that a man who divorces his wife due to her bad reputation may not remarry her, and one who divorces his wife due to a vow may not remarry her? So that Jewish women will not be licentious with regard to forbidden sexual relations or lax with regard to vows. Therefore, in order to publicize this matter, one says to him upon divorcing his wife: Say to her: Be aware that I am removing you from the house due to your bad reputation, or: I am removing you from the house due to a vow.

רבי יהודה אומר כל נדר שידעו בו רבים לא יחזיר ושלא ידעו בו רבים יחזיר: אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי מ"ט דר' יהודה דכתיב (יהושע ט, יח) ולא הכום בני ישראל כי נשבעו להם נשיאי העדה

§ The mishna taught that Rabbi Yehuda says: If he divorced her due to any vow that the public was aware of, he may not remarry her, but if he divorced her due to a vow that the public was not aware of, he may remarry her. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehuda? Based on what does he make the distinction of whether the public is aware of the vow or not? As it is written in the Torah portion describing the interaction of the Jews with the people of Gibeon: “And the children of Israel did not strike them, for the leaders of the congregation swore to them” (Joshua 9:18). This teaches that a vow taken in the presence of the public cannot be dissolved. In this case as well, if she took an oath that is known by the public, it cannot be dissolved.

ורבנן התם מי חלה שבועה עילוייהו כלל כיון דאמרו להו מארץ רחוקה באנו ולא באו לא חיילה שבועה עילוייהו כלל והאי דלא קטלינהו משום קדושת השם

And the Rabbis, who hold that such a vow can also be dissolved, respond to this claim in the following manner: There, did the oath take effect with regard to them at all? Since the people of Gibeon said to them: “We came from a far country” (Joshua 9:6), and they did not come from a far country, the oath did not take effect with regard to the Jewish people at all, as it was taken under false pretenses. And this, that the Jewish people did not kill the Gibeonites, like they did to the other nations who resided in the land of Canaan, despite the fact that the vow did not take effect, was due to the sanctity of God’s name. If they would have killed them, they would have desecrated God’s name by not fulfilling their word, although this vow did not take effect.

וכמה רבים רב נחמן אמר ג' ר' יצחק אמר עשרה

The Gemara asks: And how many people constitute the public with regard to this halakha? Rav Naḥman says: Three people. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Ten people. The Gemara explains their opinions.

רב נחמן אמר ג' ימים ב' רבים ג' רבי יצחק אמר עשרה דכתיב עדה:

Rav Naḥman says: Three, and he derives this from a verse written with regard to a zava. The verse states: “And if a woman has an issue of her blood for many days [yamim rabbim]” (Leviticus 15:25). Rav Naḥman holds that “days” are a minimum of two, so the addition of the word “many” indicates that it means three days. Here too, where the mishna uses the term many [rabbim], it is a minimum of three people. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The halakha that a vow taken in the presence of the public cannot be dissolved is referring to a vow taken in the presence of at least ten people, as it is written in the Torah portion discussing the people of Gibeon, which is the source for this halakha: “For the leaders of the congregation swore to them,” and a congregation consists of at least ten people, as is derived from the episode concerning the spies.

רבי מאיר אומר כל נדר שצריך וכו': תניא רבי אלעזר אומר לא אסרו צריך אלא מפני שאינו צריך

§ The mishna taught that Rabbi Meir says: If he divorced her due to any vow that requires investigation and dissolution by a halakhic authority, he may not remarry her; however, if he divorced her due to a vow that does not require investigation and dissolution by a halakhic authority, he may remarry her. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar says: They prohibited him from remarrying her in the case where she stated a vow that requires dissolution by a halakhic authority only due to a case where she stated a vow that does not require dissolution by a halakhic authority.

במאי קמיפלגי ר"מ סבר אדם רוצה שתתבזה אשתו בב"ד

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? The Gemara explains that Rabbi Meir holds: A man desires, i.e., does not mind, that his wife should be disgraced in court. Even though her vow would necessitate dissolution by a halakhic authority, the husband may still claim that had he known that it could be dissolved, he would not have divorced her. However, with regard to a vow that did not require dissolution by a halakhic authority but could have been nullified by the husband, he would not be deemed credible to state that he was not aware that he had the ability to nullify it. In such a case, if he were to claim that the divorce was in error, his claim would be disregarded.

ור"א סבר אין אדם רוצה שתתבזה אשתו בב"ד:

And Rabbi Elazar holds: A man does not desire that his wife should be disgraced in court. Therefore, if he were to claim that had he known that her vow could have been dissolved by a halakhic authority he would not have divorced her, his claim would have been disregarded. He is, however, deemed credible if he were to state that he did not know that he had the ability to nullify her vow. Therefore, in the case of a vow that does not require dissolution by a halakhic authority, the Sages instituted that he would not be permitted to remarry her, lest he bring the validity of the divorce into question, as explained earlier. Rabbi Elazar also holds that once the Sages instituted this ordinance with regard to vows that do not require dissolution by a halakhic authority, they applied this ordinance with regard to vows that do require dissolution by a halakhic authority as well.

א"ר יוסי בר' יהודה מעשה בצידן וכו: מאי תנא דקתני מעשה

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, said: There was an incident in Tzaidan involving one man who said to his wife: It is konam if I do not divorce you, and he divorced her; and the Sages permitted him to remarry her, for the betterment of the world. What did the mishna teach that causes Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda to teach this incident? The mishna had just discussed a case where the woman took a vow, and it relates an incident where the man took a vow.

חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני בד"א כשנדרה היא אבל נדר איהו יחזיר ואמר רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה מעשה נמי בצידן באחד שאמר לאשתו קונם אם איני מגרשיך וגירשה והתירו לו חכמים שיחזירנה מפני תיקון העולם

The Gemara answers: The mishna is incomplete and this is what it is teaching: In what case is this statement said? When she took a vow, since he may not remarry her in that case. However, if he took a vow, he may remarry her. And Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, said: There was also an incident in Tzaidan involving one man that said to his wife: It is konam if I do not divorce you, and he divorced her; and the Sages permitted him to remarry her, for the betterment of the world.