Gittin 45a:14גיטין מ״ה א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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45aמ״ה א

ורב ענן ברייתא לא שמיע ליה

The Gemara says: And as for Rav Anan, who could not determine in which case the money of the sale is returned, the baraita was not known to him, so he was not able to use it in order to resolve his dilemma.

ואי מדשמואל ממאי דאינה מכורה ומעות חוזרין דילמא אינה מכורה ומעות מתנה נינהו מידי דהוה אמקדש את אחותו דאיתמר המקדש את אחותו רב אמר מעות חוזרין ושמואל אמר מעות מתנה

And if Rav Anan would attempt to resolve his dilemma from the statement of Shmuel, who said that the sale does not take effect at all, this should mean that the money used in the sale is returned, it is possible to say: From where can you assume that it is not sold, and therefore the money is returned? Perhaps it is not sold and the money is considered to be a gift, just as it is according to the opinion of Shmuel in the case of one who betroths his sister. As it was stated with regard to one who betroths his sister, Rav said: The money he gave for the betrothal is returned, since the betrothal does not take effect; and Shmuel said: This money is a gift, meaning that he wished to give a gift to his sister and he did so in this manner. Therefore, Rav Anan remained uncertain as to when Shmuel required the money to be returned.

אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף מאי חזית דקנסינן ללוקח נקנסיה למוכר א"ל לאו עכברא גנב אלא חורא גנב א"ל אי לאו עכברא חורא מנא ליה

With regard to the halakha that if one sells his slave to a Jew outside of Eretz Yisrael it is the purchaser who loses his money, Abaye said to Rav Yosef: What did you see to cause you to say that we apply the penalty to the purchaser, in that he is required to emancipate the slave and loses his money; we should apply the penalty to the seller, and he should be required to return the money. Rav Yosef answered Abaye with a parable and said to him: It is not the mouse that steals, but the hole that steals. In other words, a mouse cannot steal anything unless he has a hole for hiding the stolen items. Here too, the slave would not have been sold without the help of the purchaser. The Gemara questions this logic: But if not for the mouse, from where would the hole have the stolen item; since they both contribute to the prohibited act, each of them is deserving of being penalized.

מסתברא היכא דאיכא איסורא התם קנסינן:

Rav Yosef responded to him: It stands to reason that anywhere that the forbidden item, i.e., the slave, is, in this case, with the purchaser, there we should penalize.

ההוא עבדא דערק מחוצה לארץ לארץ אזל מריה אבתריה אתא לקמיה דרבי אמי אמר ליה נכתוב לך שטרא אדמיה וכתוב ליה גיטא דחירותא ואי לא מפקנא ליה מינך מדרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה

§ The Gemara relates: There was a certain slave who fled from his master from outside of Eretz Yisrael to Eretz Yisrael. His master followed him to Eretz Yisrael and came before Rabbi Ami. Rabbi Ami said to the master: We will write a promissory note for his value for you, and you should write a bill of manumission for him. And if you do not do this, I will remove him from you entirely, since he does not have to return to outside of Eretz Yisrael, based on the statement of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya.

דתניא (שמות כג, לג) לא ישבו בארצך פן יחטיאו אותך לי וגו' יכול בעובד כוכבים שקיבל עליו שלא לעבוד עבודת כוכבים הכתוב מדבר ת"ל (דברים כג, טז) לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו אשר ינצל אליך מעם אדוניו מאי תקנתו עמך ישב בקרבך וגו'

As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the residents of the Land of Canaan: “They shall not dwell in your land lest they make you to sin against Me, for you will serve their gods; for they will be a snare to you” (Exodus 23:33). One might have thought that the verse is also speaking of a gentile who accepted upon himself not to engage in idol worship, and is teaching that such a gentile may not dwell in Eretz Yisrael as well; therefore the verse states: “You shall not deliver to his master a slave who escaped to you from his master” (Deuteronomy 23:16). The baraita understands that the verse is speaking in metaphoric terms about a gentile who has come to Eretz Yisrael, escaping his idolatrous past. The baraita continues: What is this gentile’s remedy? “He shall dwell with you in your midst” (Deuteronomy 23:17). This teaches that as long as he accepts upon himself not to engage in idol worship, he may remain in Eretz Yisrael.

וקשיא ליה לר' יאשיה האי מעם אדוניו מעם אביו מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבי יאשיה במוכר עבדו לחוצה לארץ הכתוב מדבר

And the explanation of the verse in the baraita is difficult for Rabbi Yoshiya: This expression employed in the verse: “From his master,” is imprecise if it is speaking about a gentile who abandons idol worship, as it should have stated: From his father, as a father is a more apt metaphor for the religion in which one was raised. Rather, Rabbi Yoshiya explains differently and says: The verse is speaking of one who sells his slave to a Jew who lives outside of Eretz Yisrael, and the continuation of the verse: “He shall dwell with you,” means that he does not go to his new master outside of Eretz Yisrael, but is emancipated and remains in Eretz Yisrael.

וקשיא ליה לרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה האי אשר ינצל אליך אשר ינצל מעמך מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבי אחי בר' יאשיה בעבד שברח מחו"ל לארץ הכתוב מדבר

And the explanation of Rabbi Yoshiya is difficult for Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya: If it is referring to a slave who is sold to one outside of Eretz Yisrael, then this expression: “Who escaped to you,” is not accurate, as he is leaving from Eretz Yisrael, not escaping to Eretz Yisrael. According to Rabbi Yoshiya’s explanation, it should have stated: Who escaped from you. Rather, Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, said: The verse is speaking of a slave who escaped from outside of Eretz Yisrael to Eretz Yisrael, which indicates that in such a case he may dwell there and is not returned to his master. Based on this statement of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, Rabbi Ami told the master that the slave will in any case be emancipated.

תניא אידך לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו רבי אומר בלוקח עבד ע"מ לשחררו הכתוב מדבר היכי דמי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק דכתב ליה הכי לכשאקחך הרי עצמך קנוי לך מעכשיו

It is taught in another baraita: The verse states: “You shall not deliver to his master a slave” (Deuteronomy 23:16); Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The verse is speaking of one who acquires a slave in order to emancipate him. The court may not deliver him to this master, because he is not his slave and he may not treat him as such. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of this case? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: For example, when he wrote to the slave like this: When I will purchase you, you are hereby acquired to yourself from now. The new master does not take possession of the slave, as he is emancipated immediately upon being purchased.

רב חסדא ערק ליה עבדא לבי כותאי שלח להו הדרוה ניהלי שלחו ליה לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו (שלח להו (דברים כב, ג) וכן תעשה לחמורו וכן תעשה לשמלתו וכן תעשה לכל אבידת אחיך שלחו ליה והכתיב לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו) שלח להו ההוא בעבד שברח מחו"ל לארץ וכדרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה

The Gemara relates that Rav Ḥisda’s slave escaped to Bei Kutai, a place where Samaritans lived. He sent a request to the residents of that place: Return him to me. They sent a response to him: The verse states: “You shall not deliver to his master a slave,” so we will not return this slave to you. He sent a response to them: The verse also states with regard to lost items: “And you shall restore it to him…and so you shall do for his donkey and so you shall do for his garment and so you shall do for anything your brother has lost” (Deuteronomy 22:2–3). They sent a response to him again: But isn’t it written: “You shall not deliver to his master a slave”? Rav Ḥisda sent a response to them: That verse is referring to a slave who escaped from outside of Eretz Yisrael to Eretz Yisrael, and in accordance with the explanation of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, and my slave escaped from one location outside of Eretz Yisrael to another location outside of Eretz Yisrael.

ומאי שנא דשלח להו כדר' אחי בר' יאשיה משום דמשמע להו קראי

The Gemara asks: And what is different about this case that led him to send a response to them specifically in accordance with the explanation of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, and not in accordance with any other interpretation of the verse? The Gemara answers: Because that is how the Samaritans would understand the verse. Samaritans did not generally accept the explanations of the Sages, and this explanation accords with the straightforward reading of the verse, while the other explanations do not.

אביי אירכס ליה חמרא בי כותאי שלח להו שדרוה לי שלחו ליה שלח סימנא שלח להו דחיוורא כריסיה שלחו ליה אי לאו דנחמני את לא הוה משדרנא ליה ניהלך אטו כולי חמרי לאו כריסייהו חיוורין נינהו:

The Gemara relates that Abaye lost a donkey among the Samaritans in Bei Kutai. He sent a request to them: Send it to me. They sent a response to him: Send a distinguishing mark and we will return it to you. He sent the following distinguishing mark to them: That its belly is white. They sent a response to him: If not for the fact that you are Naḥmani, meaning that we know that you are a trustworthy man, we would not send it to you. Is that to say that bellies of all donkeys aren’t white? Therefore, it is not a true distinguishing mark.

מתני׳ אין פודין את השבויין יתר על כדי דמיהן מפני תיקון העולם ואין מבריחין את השבויין מפני תיקון העולם רשב"ג אומר מפני תקנת השבויין:

MISHNA: The captives are not redeemed for more than their actual monetary value, for the betterment of the world; and one may not aid the captives in their attempt to escape from their captors for the betterment of the world, so that kidnappers will not be more restrictive with their captives to prevent them from escaping. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For the betterment of the captives, so that kidnappers will not avenge the escape of the captives by treating other captives with cruelty.

גמ׳ איבעיא להו האי מפני תיקון העולם משום דוחקא דצבורא הוא או דילמא משום דלא לגרבו ולייתו טפי

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to this expression: For the betterment of the world, is it due to the financial pressure of the community? Is the concern that the increase in price will lead to the community assuming financial pressures it will not be able to manage? Or perhaps it is because the result of this will be that they will not seize and bring additional captives, as they will see that it is not worthwhile for them to take Jews captive?

ת"ש דלוי בר דרגא פרקא לברתיה בתליסר אלפי דינרי זהב

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear an answer based on the fact that Levi bar Darga redeemed his daughter who was taken captive with thirteen thousand gold dinars. This indicates that private citizens may pay excessive sums to redeem a captive if they so choose. Therefore, it must be that the reason for the ordinance was to avoid an excessive burden being placed upon the community. If the ordinance was instituted to remove the incentive for kidnappers to capture Jews, a private citizen would also not be permitted to pay an excessive sum.

אמר אביי ומאן לימא לן דברצון חכמים עבד דילמא שלא ברצון חכמים עבד:

Abaye said: And who told us that he acted in accordance with the wishes of the Sages? Perhaps he acted against the wishes of the Sages, and this anecdote cannot serve as a proof.

ואין מבריחין את השבויין מפני תיקון העולם רשב"ג אומר מפני תקנת שבויין: מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דליכא אלא חד:

The mishna taught: And one may not aid the captives in their attempt to escape from their captors, for the betterment of the world. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For the betterment of the captives. The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the two reasons given? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between them when there is only one captive. If this ordinance was instituted for the benefit of the other captives, so that the kidnappers should not avenge a captive’s escape by treating the others with cruelty, then if there is only one captive to begin with, one may help him to escape. If it was instituted so that kidnappers in general will not act restrictively with their captives, it would be prohibited in this case as well.

בנתיה דרב נחמן בחשן קדרא בידייהו קשיא ליה לרב עיליש כתיב (קהלת ז, כח) אדם אחד מאלף מצאתי ואשה בכל אלה לא מצאתי הא איכא בנתיה דרב נחמן גרמא להו מילתא ואשתביין ואישתבאי איהו נמי בהדייהו

§ The Gemara relates that Rav Naḥman’s daughters would stir a boiling pot with their bare hands, and people thought that the heat did not harm them due to their righteousness. Rav Ilish had a difficulty with a verse, as it is written: “A man one of a thousand I have found, and a woman among all those have I not found” (Ecclesiastes 7:28). Aren’t there Rav Naḥman’s daughters, who were exceptionally righteous? These words caused them to be taken captive, due to the evil eye, and Rav Ilish was also taken captive with them.

יומא חד הוה יתיב גביה ההוא גברא דהוה ידע בלישנא דציפורי אתא עורבא וקא קרי ליה אמר ליה מאי קאמר אמר ליה עיליש ברח עיליש ברח אמר עורבא שיקרא הוא ולא סמיכנא עליה

One day a certain man was sitting with him in captivity who knew the language of birds. A raven came and called to Rav Ilish. Rav Ilish said to the man: What is the raven saying? He said to him that it is saying: Ilish, escape; Ilish, escape. Rav Ilish said: It is a lying raven, and I do not rely on it.

אדהכי אתא יונה וקא קריא אמר ליה מאי קאמרה א"ל עיליש ברח עיליש ברח אמר כנסת ישראל כיונה מתילא ש"מ מתרחיש לי ניסא אמר איזיל אחזי בנתיה דרב נחמן אי קיימן בהימנותייהו אהדרינהו

In the meantime, a dove came and was calling out. Rav Ilish said to the man: What is it saying? He said to him that the dove said: Ilish, escape; Ilish, escape. Ilish said: The Congregation of Israel is compared to a dove; I conclude from the dove’s words that a miracle will happen for me, and I can attempt to escape. Rav Ilish said: Before I leave, I will go and I will see Rav Naḥman’s daughters. If they remained steadfast in their faith and are acting appropriately, then I will take them with me and I will return them to their home.

אמר נשי כל מילי דאית להו סדרן להדדי בבית הכסא שמעינהו דקאמרן עדי גוברין ונהרדעי גוברין לימא להו לשבוייהו דלירחקינהו מהכא דלא ליתו אינשין ולישמעי וליפרקינן

He said: Women tell all of their secret matters to each other in the bathroom, so he went there to eavesdrop on them. He heard them saying: These captors are now our husbands, and the men of Neharde’a to whom we are married are our husbands. We should tell our captors to distance us from here so that our husbands should not come to this area and hear that we are here, and redeem us, and take us home. They preferred to remain with their captors.

קם ערק אתא איהו וההוא גברא לדידיה איתרחיש ליה ניסא עבר במברא וההוא גברא אשכחוה וקטלוה כי הדרן ואתן אמר הוו קא בחשן קידרא בכשפים:

Upon hearing this Rav Ilish arose and escaped. He and that man who knew the language of the birds came to a river crossing. A miracle happened for him and he crossed the river on a ferry, and the captors found that man and killed him. When Rav Naḥman’s daughters were returned and they came back from their captivity, Rav Ilish said: They would stir the pot with witchcraft, and that is why they were not burned by the boiling pot, but it was not due to their righteousness.

מתני׳ ואין לוקחין ספרים תפילין ומזוזות מן העובדי כוכבים יותר על כדי דמיהן

MISHNA: And Torah scrolls, phylacteries, or mezuzot are not purchased from the gentiles when they acquire these objects, if they request more than their actual monetary value,