Gittin 37bגיטין ל״ז ב
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37bל״ז ב

המחזיר חוב לחבירו בשביעית צריך שיאמר לו משמט אני ואם אמר לו אע"פ כן יקבל הימנו שנאמר (דברים טו, ב) וזה דבר השמטה

In the case of one who repays a debt to his friend during the Sabbatical Year, the creditor must say to him: I abrogate the debt, but if the debtor then said to him: Nevertheless, I want to repay you, he may accept it from him, as it is stated: “And this is the manner [devar] of the abrogation” (Deuteronomy 15:2). From the fact that the verse employed a term, devar, that can also mean: This is the statement of the cancellation, the Sages derived that the creditor must state that he cancels the debt, but he is allowed to accept the payment if the debtor insists on repaying.

אמר רבה ותלי לי' עד דאמר הכי איתיביה אביי כשהוא נותן לו אל יאמר לו בחובי אני נותן לך אלא יאמר לו שלי הן ובמתנה אני נותן לך אמר ליה תלי ליה נמי עד דאמר הכי

Rabba said: And the creditor is permitted to lift up his eyes to him hopefully, demonstrating that he wishes to accept the payment, until the debtor says this, that he nevertheless wishes to repay him. Abaye raised an objection to Rabba’s statement from a baraita: When the debtor gives the creditor payment for a debt that has been canceled he should not say to him: I give this to you in payment of my debt; rather, he should say to him: This is my money and I give it to you as a gift. This indicates that the debt is repaid only by the initiative of the debtor. Rabba said to him: The creditor is permitted to lift up his eyes to him hopefully as well, until the debtor says this, that he gives it as a gift, but the initiative may come from the creditor.

אבא בר מרתא דהוא אבא בר מניומי הוה מסיק ביה רבה זוזי אייתינהו ניהליה בשביעית אמר ליה משמט אני שקלינהו ואזל אתא אביי אשכחיה דהוה עציב אמר ליה אמאי עציב מר אמר ליה הכי הוה מעשה

The Gemara relates: There was a man by the name of Abba bar Marta, who is also known as Abba bar Minyumi, from whom Rabba was attempting to collect a debt. He brought it to him in the Sabbatical Year. Rabba said to him: I abrogate this debt. Abba bar Marta took the money and left. Abaye came before Rabba and found that he was sad. Abaye said to him: Why is the Master sad? Rabba said to him: This was the incident that occurred, explaining that Abba bar Marta understood his statement literally and did not repay the debt.

אזל לגביה אמר ליה אמטת ליה זוזי למר אמר ליה אין אמר ליה ומאי אמר לך אמר ליה משמט אני אמר ליה ואמרת ליה אף על פי כן אמר ליה לא אמר ליה ואי אמרת ליה אף על פי כן הוה שקלינהו מינך השתא מיהת אמטינהו ניהליה ואימא ליה אע"פ כן אזל אמטינהו ניהליה ואמר ליה אף על פי כן שקלינהו מיניה אמר לא הוה ביה דעתא בהאי צורבא מרבנן מעיקרא

Abaye went to Abba bar Marta, and said to him: Did you bring the money to the Master? He said to him: Yes. Abaye said to him: And what did he say to you? He said to him that Rabba had responded: I abrogate this debt. Abaye said to him: And did you say to him: Nevertheless, I want to repay you? Abba bar Marta said to him: No. Abaye said to him: But if you had said to him: Nevertheless, I want to repay you, he would have taken it from you. Now, in any event, bring it to him and say to him: Nevertheless, I want to repay you. Abba bar Marta went and brought the money to Rabba and said to him: Nevertheless, I want to repay you, and Rabba took it from him. In the end, Rabba said: This Torah scholar was not knowledgeable from the beginning, as it was necessary to teach him how to react.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב נחמן נאמן אדם לומר פרוסבול היה בידי ואבד ממני מאי טעמא כיון דתקינו רבנן פרוסבול לא שביק היתירא ואכיל איסורא

§ Rav Yehuda says that Rav Naḥman says: A person is deemed credible to say: I had a prosbol and I lost it, and collect payment of his debt. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this? Since the Sages instituted the prosbol in a manner that allows anyone to write one without difficulty, in a situation such as this one does not leave aside a permitted item, i.e., collecting a debt after having written a prosbol, and eat a forbidden item, i.e., collecting a debt without having written a prosbol.

כי אתו לקמיה דרב אמר ליה מידי פרוסבול היה לך ואבד כגון זה פתח פיך לאלם הוא

When they would come before Rav with a case where a creditor who did not have a prosbol was demanding payment of a debt after the Sabbatical Year, he would say to the creditor: Did you have any prosbol and it was lost? The Gemara explains that this is a case where the directive of the verse: “Open your mouth for the mute” (Proverbs 31:8) is applicable; this is not considered an intervention on behalf of one party, as it is only providing assistance for someone who was unaware of a claim that he should make.

תנן וכן בעל חוב שמוציא שטר חוב ואין עמו פרוסבול הרי אלו לא יפרעו

The Gemara challenges: Didn’t we learn in a mishna (Ketubot 89a): And similarly, a creditor who presents a promissory note unaccompanied by a prosbol, these debts may not be collected. This demonstrates that even if a creditor himself claims that he had written a prosbol but it was lost, his claim is not accepted and the debt is canceled.

תנאי היא דתניא המוציא שטר חוב צריך שיהא עמו פרוסבול וחכמים אומרים אינו צריך:

The Gemara answers: It is a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to one who presents a promissory note after the Sabbatical Year, he must present a prosbol along with it in order to collect payment, and the Rabbis say: He does not need to present a prosbol, as it is assumed that he wrote one.

מתני׳ עבד שנשבה ופדאוהו אם לשום עבד ישתעבד אם לשום בן חורין לא ישתעבד רשב"ג אומר בין כך ובין כך ישתעבד:

MISHNA: In the case of a Canaanite slave that was captured, and Jews who had not owned him redeemed him, if he was redeemed to be a slave then he will be a slave. If he was redeemed to be a freeman then he will not be a slave. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Both in this case and in that case he will be a slave.

גמ׳ במאי עסקינן אילימא לפני יאוש לשום בן חורין אמאי לא ישתעבד אלא לאחר יאוש לשום עבד אמאי ישתעבד

GEMARA: With what are we dealing? If we say that the slave was redeemed before the first owner reached a state of despairing with regard to recovering the slave, then even if he was redeemed to be a freeman, he should still belong to his first owner; why would the mishna state that he will not be a slave? Rather, we might say that the slave was redeemed after the despairing of the first owner. Then, even if he was redeemed to be a slave, why will he be a slave? After his owner despairs of recovering him, he becomes ownerless property and consequently acquires his own freedom.

אמר אביי לעולם לפני יאוש ולשום עבד ישתעבד לרבו ראשון לשום בן חורין לא ישתעבד לא לרבו ראשון ולא לרבו שני לרבו שני לא דהא לשום בן חורין פרקיה לרבו ראשון נמי לא דילמא ממנעי ולא פרקי

Abaye said: Actually, the mishna is referring to a case where the slave was redeemed before the despairing of the owner. Therefore, according to the unattributed opinion of the mishna, if he was redeemed to be a slave, he will be a slave to his first master. If he was redeemed to be a freeman, he will not be a slave, neither to his first master nor to his second master, i.e., the one who redeemed him. He will not be a slave to his second master because he redeemed him as a freeman and cannot now demand that he become a slave. He will also not be a slave to his first master lest people refrain from redeeming slaves. If they know that a redeemed slave remains a slave of his original owner, they will not see any reason to redeem them from captivity.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר בין כך ובין כך ישתעבד קסבר כשם שמצוה לפדות את בני חורין כך מצוה לפדות את העבדים

Abaye continues his explication of the mishna: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Both in this case and in that case he will be a slave to his first master. The Gemara explains: He holds that just as it is a mitzva to redeem freemen, so too, it is a mitzva to redeem slaves, and there is no concern that people will refrain from redeeming captured slaves.

רבא אמר לעולם לאחר יאוש ולשום עבד ישתעבד לרבו שני לשום בן חורין לא ישתעבד לא לרבו ראשון ולא לרבו שני לרבו שני לא דהא לשום בן חורין פרקיה לרבו ראשון נמי לא דהא לאחר יאוש הוה

Rava said: The mishna should be understood differently. Actually, the mishna is referring to a case where the slave was redeemed after the despairing of the owner. And therefore, according to the unattributed opinion in the mishna, if he was redeemed to be a slave then he will be a slave to his second master, as his original owner had despaired of recovering him. If he was redeemed to be a freeman then he will not be a slave, neither to his first master nor to his second master. He will not be a slave to his second master as he redeemed him as a freeman. He will also not be a slave to his first master, as he was freed after the despairing of the first master.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר בין כך ובין כך ישתעבד כדחזקיה דאמר חזקיה מפני מה אמרו בין כך ובין כך ישתעבד שלא יהא כל אחד ואחד הולך ומפיל עצמו לגייסות ומפקיע עצמו מיד רבו

Rava continues his explication of the mishna: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Both in this case and in that case he will be a slave. This should be understood in accordance with the statement of Ḥizkiyya, as Ḥizkiyya said: For what reason did they say that both in this case and in that case he will be a slave? They said it so that each and every slave should not go and hand himself over to gentile troops, and in this manner release himself from the possession of his master.

מיתיבי אמר להן רשב"ג כשם שמצוה לפדות את בני חורין כך מצוה לפדות את העבדים בשלמא לאביי דאמר לפני יאוש היינו דקאמר כשם

The Gemara raises an objection to Rava’s explanation from a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to them: Just as it is a mitzva to redeem freemen, so too, it is a mitzva to redeem slaves. Granted, according to Abaye this works out well as he said that the mishna is referring to a slave that was redeemed before the despairing of his owner, and the unattributed opinion of the mishna rules that he will not be a slave to his original owner due to a concern that people will refrain from redeeming slaves. This is the reason that he said: Just as, since he was explaining that this concern does not exist.

אלא לרבא דאמר לאחר יאוש האי כשם משום דחזקיה הוא

However, according to Rava, who said that the mishna is referring to a slave that was redeemed after the owner’s despairing, and the unattributed opinion of the mishna is not concerned that people will refrain from redeeming slaves, is this the rationale of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, that just as it is a mitzva to redeem freemen, so too, it is a mitzva to redeem slaves? His reason is because of the statement of Ḥizkiyya.

אמר לך רבא רשב"ג לא הוי ידע מאי קאמרי רבנן והכי קאמר להו אי לפני יאוש קאמריתו היינו כשם אי לאחר יאוש קאמריתו כדחזקיה

The Gemara answers: Rava could have said to you: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel did not know what exactly the Rabbis said, and this is what he said to them: If you say this ruling with regard to a slave who was redeemed before his owner’s despairing, this is my response, that just as it is a mitzva to redeem freemen, so too, it is a mitzva to redeem slaves. If you say that this case was after his owner’s despairing, then the reason that I disagree is in accordance with the statement of Ḥizkiyya.

ולרבא דאמר לאחר יאוש ולרבו שני רבו שני ממאן קני ליה משבאי שבאי גופיה מי קני ליה

The Gemara asks: And according to Rava, who said that the mishna is referring to where the slave was redeemed after the despairing of the owner, and he will be a slave to his second master, one can ask: With regard to the second master, from whom did he acquire the slave? If you say that he acquired him from the captor, did the gentile captor himself acquire the slave? The ownership of the second master is contingent on his acquiring the slave from someone who himself had ownership over the slave.

אין קני ליה למעשה ידיו דאמר ריש לקיש מנין לעובד כוכבים שקנה את העובד כוכבים למעשה ידיו שנאמר (ויקרא כה, מה) וגם מבני התושבים הגרים עמכם מהם תקנו אתם קונים מהם

The Gemara answers: Yes, he acquired ownership with regard to his labor, as Reish Lakish says: From where is it derived that a gentile can acquire another gentile as a slave with regard to his labor? As it is stated: “Moreover, of the children of the strangers who sojourn among you, of them you may acquire” (Leviticus 25:45). This indicates that you, Jews, can acquire slaves from them,