חוקק בה ארבע על ארבע וממלא
one may carve in it a hole of four by four handbreadths and draw water through it. Even if there are no actual partitions around the hole, the section surrounding the hole is considered as though it were bent downward and formed partitions ten handbreadths high on all sides. Consequently, it is permitted to draw water through the hole.
אמר ליה אביי ודילמא לא היא עד כאן לא קאמר רבי יהודה התם אלא דאמר גוד אחית מחיצתא אבל כוף וגוד לא
Abaye said to him: But perhaps that is not so, as we can distinguish between the opinions. It is possible that Rabbi Yehuda stated his opinion only there, with regard to the wall of the courtyard and the cistern, as he said that we rely on the halakhic principle of extend and lower the partition. The partition above the cistern is considered as though it descended to the bottom. But the principle of bend the partition and extend it downward, as suggested by Rabbi Ḥananya ben Akavya, no, he does not accept this principle.
ועד כאן לא קאמר רבי חנניא בן עקביא התם אלא בימה של טבריא הואיל ויש לה אוגנים ועיירות וקרפיפות מקיפות אותה אבל בשאר מימות לא
And we can likewise say that Rabbi Ḥananya ben Akavya stated his opinion only there, in the case of the balcony, with regard to the Sea of Tiberias, i.e., the Sea of Galilee, since it has clearly defined banks around it, and towns and enclosures surround it on all sides. The Sea of Galilee is surrounded by clear boundaries on all sides and is therefore somewhat similar to a private domain in appearance. Consequently, even a minor adjustment is sufficient. However, with regard to other waters, no, Rabbi Ḥananya ben Akavya did not permit this practice.
אמר אביי ולדברי רבי חנניא בן עקביא היתה סמוכה לכותל בפחות משלשה טפחים צריך שיהא אורכה ארבע אמות ורוחבה אחד עשר ומשהו
Abaye said: And according to the statement of Rabbi Ḥananya ben Akavya, if the balcony was less than three handbreadths away from the wall, it is permitted to draw water from it in the following circumstances: Its length must be four cubits, and its width must be eleven handbreadths and any amount. By carving out a hole of slightly more than one handbreadth by four handbreadths on the side near the wall, alongside the other three handbreadths, one creates a hole of four handbreadths by four handbreadths. This hole is surrounded by partitions ten handbreadths high on each side. How so? The wall itself is one partition. The four-cubit length is viewed as bent down on both sides of the hole, forming two partitions of ten handbreadths; the remaining ten handbreadths of the width is seen as though it were bent down, which creates a partition on the fourth side of the balcony.
היתה זקופה צריך שיהא גובהה עשרה טפחים ורוחבה ששה טפחים ושני משהויין
If the balcony was upright, i.e., it had upright partitions on all sides (Rabbeinu Ḥananel), the height of these partitions must be ten handbreadths, and the width of the balcony must be six handbreadths and two minimal amounts. This leaves slightly more than a handbreadth on each side of the hole of four handbreadths, on which he can stand.
אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע היתה עומדת בקרן זוית צריך שיהא גובהה עשרה טפחים ורוחבה שני טפחים ושני משהויין
Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: If it was positioned in a corner between two walls (Rabbeinu Ḥananel), the height of the partition must be ten handbreadths, and the requisite width of the balcony must be two handbreadths and two minimal amounts. As he is able to stand, he is provided with actual partitions.
ואלא הא דתניא רבי חנניא בן עקביא אומר גזוזטרא שיש בה ארבע אמות על ארבע אמות חוקק בה ארבעה על ארבעה וממלא היכי משכחת לה
The Gemara asks: However, with regard to that which is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Ḥananya ben Akavya said: If a balcony that has an area of four cubits by four cubits is suspended above water, one carves in it a hole of four by four handbreadths and then draws water through it, under what circumstances can a balcony with these dimensions be found?
דעבידא כי אסיתא:
The Gemara answers: It is necessary in the case of a balcony that is built in the shape of a mortar, where the balcony is positioned over the water on its own pillars and far removed from any wall. In that case, all of the partitions must be constructed from its floor space. And the balcony must be four cubits by four cubits in size.
מתני׳ אמת המים שהיא עוברת בחצר אין ממלאין הימנה בשבת אלא אם כן עשו לה מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים בכניסה וביציאה רבי יהודה אומר כותל שעל גבה תידון משום מחיצה
MISHNA: With regard to a water channel that passes through a courtyard, the residents may not draw water from it on Shabbat, unless they erected for it a partition ten handbreadths high at the entrance and at the exit of the courtyard. Rabbi Yehuda says: There is no need for a special partition, as the wall that runs on top of it, i.e., the courtyard wall, is considered as a partition.
אמר רבי יהודה מעשה באמה של אבל שהיו ממלאין ממנה על פי זקנים בשבת אמרו לו מפני שלא היה בה כשיעור:
Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving a water channel that passed through the courtyards of the town of Avel, from which the residents would draw water from it on Shabbat by the authority of the Elders, relying on the courtyard wall suspended above it. They said to him: It is due to the fact that channel was not of the size that requires a partition, i.e., it was less than ten handbreadths deep or less than ten handbreadths wide, it was permitted to draw water from it even without a partition.
גמ׳ תנו רבנן עשו לה בכניסה ולא עשו לה ביציאה עשו לה ביציאה ולא עשו לה בכניסה אין ממלאין הימנה בשבת אלא אם כן עשו לה מחיצה עשרה טפחים ביציאה ובכניסה רבי יהודה אומר כותל שעל גבה תידון משום מחיצה
GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: If they erected a partition for the water channel at the entrance but they did not erect one for it at the exit, or if they erected a partition for it at the exit but they did not erect one for it at the entrance, one may not draw water from it on Shabbat, unless they erected for it a partition ten handbreadths high both at the exit and at the entrance. Rabbi Yehuda says: The wall that runs on top of it, i.e., the courtyard wall, is considered as a partition. Therefore, there is no need for a special partition.
אמר רבי יהודה מעשה באמת המים שהיתה באה מאבל לצפורי והיו ממלאין הימנה בשבת על פי הזקנים
Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving the water channel that went from Avel to Tzippori, and the residents would draw water from it on Shabbat by the authority of the Elders, without any additional partition.
אמרו לו משם ראייה מפני שלא היתה עמוקה עשרה טפחים ורוחבה ארבעה
They said to him: Are you trying to bring a proof from there? That was either due to the fact that the channel was not ten handbreadths deep or because it was not four handbreadths wide. It lacked the requisite measure to be considered a domain in its own right. Everyone agrees that it is permitted to draw water from it even without an additional partition.
תניא אידך אמת המים העוברת בין החלונות פחות משלשה משלשל דלי וממלא שלשה אין משלשל דלי וממלא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר פחות מארבעה משלשל דלי וממלא ארבעה אין משלשל דלי וממלא
It was taught in another baraita: With regard to a water channel that passes between the windows of two houses, if it is less than three handbreadths, one may lower a bucket from the window and draw water from it; however, if it is three handbreadths, one may not lower a bucket and draw water from it. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: If it is less than four handbreadths, one may lower a bucket and draw water from it; but if it is at least four handbreadths, one may not lower a bucket and draw water.
במאי עסקינן אילימא באמת המים גופה ואלא הא דכי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן אין כרמלית פחותה מארבעה
With regard to these measures of three and four handbreadths, the Gemara asks: With what are we dealing here? If you say this halakha is referring to the water channel itself, that it was three or four handbreadths wide, this presents a difficulty, for when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: A karmelit cannot be less than four handbreadths wide. The karmelit is an intermediate domain established by the Sages, whose status is between a public and a private domain. Any open area that is not a public thoroughfare, e.g., a field, sea, river, alleyway, or a lane, is classified as a karmelit. It is prohibited to carry an article four cubits within a karmelit, or to transfer an object from a private domain or a public domain to a karmelit, or vice versa. One who draws water through a window from a water channel into a house has carried from a karmelit to a private domain. Consequently, if the tanna’im of the baraita dispute the width of the channel, they are in effect disagreeing about the minimal size of a karmelit.
לימא כתנאי אמרה לשמעתיה
The Gemara resumes its question: Let us say, then, that the teaching that Rav Dimi cited, that a karmelit cannot be less than four handbreadths wide, was actually the subject of a dispute of tanna’im and not a unanimous halakha.
אלא באגפיה ולהחליף
The Gemara rejects the previous explanation. Rather, the measure of three or four handbreadths is referring not to the channel itself but to the banks of the channel, and it is stated with regard to an act of exchange. The dispute here does not concern the measure of a karmelit, but the measure of an exempt domain. It is permitted to transfer the empty bucket from the window, which is a private domain, by way of the channel’s banks, which are exempt domains, to the water channel, which is a karmelit, and back again with the full bucket.
והא כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן מקום שאין בו ארבעה על ארבעה מותר לבני רשות היחיד ולבני רשות הרבים לכתף עליו ובלבד שלא יחליפו
The Gemara raises a difficulty: But when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: A place that does not have an area of four by four handbreadths is an exempt domain. Consequently, if this place is situated between a public domain and a private domain, it is permitted for both the people of the private domain and for the people of the public domain to adjust the burdens on their shoulders on it, provided that they do not exchange objects between them via the exempt domain. How, then, can the bucket be transferred from the window to the channel, and vice versa, by means of the banks?
התם רשויות דאורייתא
The Gemara answers: There, Rav Dimi is referring to domains by Torah law, i.e., this halakha involves the transfer of objects from a private domain to a public domain via an exempt domain. The Sages forbade this activity, so that people would not transfer objects directly from the private domain to the public domain.