Eruvin 86aעירובין פ״ו א
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86aפ״ו א

פנו מקום לבן מאתים מנה אמר לפניו רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי רבי אביו של זה יש לו אלף ספינות בים וכנגדן אלף עיירות ביבשה אמר לו לכשתגיע אצל אביו אמור לו אל תשגרהו בכלים הללו לפני

Make way even more for one who possesses two hundred maneh. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said before him: My teacher, Bonyas, father of this one, has a thousand ships out at sea and, corresponding to them, a thousand towns on land. He should be granted pride of place due to his exorbitant wealth. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: When you reach his father, tell him: Do not send him to me in these garments. Dress him in accordance with his wealth and status, so that he will be honored accordingly.

רבי מכבד עשירים רבי עקיבא מכבד עשירים כדדרש רבא בר מרי ישב עולם לפני אלהים חסד ואמת מן ינצרהו אימתי ישב עולם לפני אלהים בזמן שחסד ואמת מן ינצרהו

In explanation of this story, the Gemara comments: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would honor the wealthy, and Rabbi Akiva would likewise honor the wealthy, in accordance with Rava bar Mari’s interpretation of the verse: “May he be enthroned before God forever; appoint mercy and truth, that they may preserve him” (Psalms 61:8). When may he be enthroned before God forever? When he appoints [man] mercy and truth that they may preserve him. Rava bar Mari explains the word man as referring to portions of food and interprets the verse as follows: If one provides food to others, he deserves to be enthroned before God, to be shown honor and respect. Consequently, it is proper to honor the wealthy who bestow such kindnesses.

רבה בר בר חנה אמר כגון יתד של מחרישה

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: What is considered a right of usage? For example, if the homeowner stores the pin of a plough in his tenant’s quarters. The tenant is prohibited to remove this pin from his residence on Shabbat due to its being set aside from use [muktze], and the homeowner therefore enjoys a fixed right of usage there.

אמר רב נחמן תנא דבי שמואל דבר הניטל בשבת אוסר דבר שאינו ניטל בשבת אינו אוסר

Rav Naḥman said: A Sage of the school of Shmuel taught the following baraita: If the homeowner stores an object that can be moved on Shabbat with his tenant, the tenant’s residence renders the other residence prohibited if he neglected to join the eiruv. This is not considered a right of usage. If the object being stored is one that cannot be moved on Shabbat, the tenant’s residence does not render it prohibited for them to use the courtyard.

תניא נמי הכי יש לו טבל יש לו עששית וכל דבר שאינו ניטל בשבת אינו אוסר:

The Gemara adds: So too, it was taught in a baraita that if the tenant has untithed produce that may not be moved on Shabbat; or if he has lumps of glass or iron; or anything else that may not be moved on Shabbat that the homeowner deposited with him, the tenant does not render it prohibited for the other residents to use the courtyard.

מתני׳ המניח ביתו והלך לשבות בעיר אחרת אחד נכרי ואחד ישראל הרי זה אוסר דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר אינו אוסר

MISHNA: One who leaves his house, which is located in a shared courtyard, and goes to spend Shabbat in a different town, whether he is a gentile or a Jew, he renders it prohibited for the other residents to use the courtyard as though he were still at home; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: He does not render it prohibited for them, as he left behind him an empty residence.

רבי יוסי אומר נכרי אוסר ישראל אינו אוסר שאין דרך ישראל לבא בשבת

Rabbi Yosei says: A gentile renders it prohibited but a Jew does not render it prohibited, as it is not the manner of a Jew to come home on Shabbat. A Jew will not return home, therefore his empty residence does not render it prohibited. By contrast, a gentile might return over the course of Shabbat. Therefore, he is not considered to have fully uprooted himself from his house, and he renders it prohibited.

רבי שמעון אומר אפילו הניח ביתו והלך לשבות אצל בתו באותה העיר אינו אוסר שכבר הסיע מלבו:

Rabbi Shimon says: Even if the Jew left his house and went to spend Shabbat with his daughter who lived in the same town, he does not render it prohibited. Although he can return home at any time, it is assumed that he has already removed from his mind any thought of going back there and has established his Shabbat residence away from his home.

גמ׳ אמר רב הלכה כרבי שמעון ודוקא בתו אבל בנו לא דאמרי אינשי נבח בך כלבא עול נבח בך גורייתא פוק:

GEMARA: Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. The Gemara comments: And this is the halakha only if one went to his daughter’s house; but if he went to his son’s house, no, this is not the halakha. One cannot be sure that he will be able to stay at his son’s house, for his daughter-in-law might object to his presence and force him to return home. As people say: If a dog barks at you, enter; if a female dog barks at you, leave. In other words, the objections of a female, such as one’s daughter-in-law, who will certainly not be opposed by her husband, are more powerful than those of a male, such as one’s son-in-law.

מתני׳ בור שבין שתי חצירות אין ממלאין ממנו בשבת אלא אם כן עשו לו מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים בין מלמטה בין מתוך אוגנו

MISHNA: In the case of a cistern that is located between two courtyards, situated partly in each courtyard, one may not draw water from it on Shabbat, lest the residents of one courtyard draw water from the domain of the other courtyard, unless a partition ten handbreadths high was erected for it as a separation between the domains. This partition is effective whether it is below, in the water, or whether it is within the airspace of the cistern below the rim, above the surface of the water.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר בית שמאי אומרים מלמטה ובית הלל אומרים מלמעלה אמר רבי יהודה לא תהא מחיצה גדולה מן הכותל שביניהם:

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: This is the subject of an early dispute of tanna’im, as Beit Shammai said that the partition, which permits drawing water, must be placed below; and Beit Hillel said it should be positioned above. Rabbi Yehuda said: A partition is no better than the wall between them. A wall dividing the two courtyards passes over the cistern, therefore it is not necessary to erect an additional partition in the cistern’s airspace.

גמ׳ אמר רב הונא למטה למטה ממש למעלה למעלה ממש וזה וזה בבור ורב יהודה אמר למטה למטה מן המים למעלה למעלה מן המים

GEMARA: Rav Huna said: When Beit Shammai said below, they meant actually below, near the water; the partition need not touch the water itself. When Beit Hillel said above, they meant actually above, higher than the water and near the rim of the cistern. And both of these are within the airspace of the cistern. And Rav Yehuda said: Below means below the water, so that part of the partition is inside the water; whereas above means above the water, in such a manner that the partition does not come into contact with the water.

אמר ליה רבה בר רב חנן לאביי הא דאמר רב יהודה למטה למטה מן המים מאי שנא למטה ממש דלא דעריבי מיא למטה מן המים נמי הא עריבי מיא

Rabba bar Rav Ḥanan said to Abaye: With regard to that which Rav Yehuda said: Below means below the water, what is different about a case where the partition is actually below, in the airspace cistern near the water, that led Rav Yehuda to say that one may not draw water in that case? It is because he was concerned lest the water of the two courtyards become intermingled beneath the partition. In a case where the partition is located below the water, near the bottom of the cistern, as well, won’t the water of the two courtyards become intermingled above it?

אמר ליה לא שמיע לך הא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ומטו בה משום רבי חייא צריך שיראו ראשן של קנים למעלה מן המים טפח

Abaye said to him: Didn’t you hear that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said, and some arrived at this statement in the name of Rabbi Ḥiyya: The tops of the reeds of the partition must be visible a handbreadth above the surface of the water? This will ensure that there is a full partition between the two sides of the cistern.

ותו הא דאמר רב יהודה למעלה למעלה מן המים מאי שנא למעלה ממש דלא דעריבי מיא למעלה מן המים נמי הא עריבי מיא אמר ליה לא שמיע לך הא דתני יעקב קרחינאה צריך שישקע ראשי קנים במים טפח

And Rabba bar Rav Ḥanan further asked: With regard to that which Rav Yehuda said: Above means above the water, we can inquire: What is different about a case where the partition is actually above, i.e., near the rim of the cistern that led Rav Yehuda to say that one may not draw water in that case? It is because he was concerned lest the water of the two courtyards become intermingled beneath the partition. However, even if the partition is above the water below the rim of the cistern, the water of the two courtyards will also become intermingled beneath it. Abaye said to him: Haven’t you heard that which Ya’akov from Karḥina taught: The ends of the reeds of a partition must be immersed at least a handbreadth into the water, so that they divide the water in the cistern?

ואלא הא דאמר רב יהודה קורה ארבע מתרת בחורבה ורב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה

But the Gemara raises a further question. Rav Yehuda said: If there is a cross beam of four handbreadths, it permits one to carry underneath it in a ruin. If a crossbeam four handbreadths wide is laid across the walls of a ruin, its edges are viewed as though they descended to the ground on each side, thereby forming partitions that permit one to carry under the cross beam. And Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: