דלא אבציל זירתא אבל אבציל זירתא לית לן בה
in a case where the bulb has not grown to the size of a span, the distance between the thumb and the little finger of a hand that is spread apart, because at that stage the leaves are very toxic; however, if it has grown to the size of a span, we have no problem with it.
אמר רב פפא לא אמרן אלא דלא אישתי שיכרא אבל אישתי שיכרא לית לן בה
Rav Pappa said: We only stated this concern about eating onion leaves in a case where one did not drink beer afterward; however, if he drank beer afterward, we have no problem with it.
תנו רבנן לא יאכל אדם בצל מפני נחש שבו ומעשה ברבי חנינא שאכל חצי בצל וחצי נחש שבו וחלה ונטה למות ובקשו חביריו רחמים עליו וחיה מפני שהשעה צריכה לו:
The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should not eat onion because of the toxins in it. There was an incident with Rabbi Ḥanina, who ate half an onion and half of its toxins, and he fell deathly ill, and his colleagues prayed for mercy for him, and he survived. He was rescued only because the time needed him, as his generation was in need of his teaching, but otherwise he would not have recovered.
אמר רבי זירא אמר שמואל שכר מערבין בו ופוסל את המקוה בשלשת לוגין מתקיף לה רב כהנא פשיטא וכי מה בין זה למי צבע דתנן רבי יוסי אומר מי צבע פוסלין את המקוה בשלשת לוגין אמרי התם מיא דצבעא מיקרי הכא שיכרא איקרי
Rabbi Zeira said that Shmuel said: One may establish an eiruv with beer, and it invalidates a ritual bath with a measure of three log, similar to drawn water. Rav Kahana strongly objects to this: This is obvious, for what is the difference between this and dye-water? As we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yosei says: Dye-water invalidates a ritual bath with a measure of three log, like regular drawn water. They said: There is a difference between the two cases, as there, the liquid is called dye-water; here, it is called beer. Therefore, it might have been possible to argue that beer is not considered like water at all, in which case it would only invalidate a ritual bath if it changed the color of the water, and so Shmuel’s novel teaching was necessary.
ובכמה מערבין סבר רב אחא בריה דרב יוסף קמיה דרב יוסף למימר בתרין רבעי שכרא כדתנן המוציא יין כדי מזיגת הכוס ותני עלה כדי מזיגת כוס יפה מאי כוס יפה כוס של ברכה ואמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה כוס של ברכה צריך שיהא בו רובע רביעית כדי שימזגנו ויעמוד על רביעית וכדרבא דאמר רבא כל חמרא דלא דרי על חד תלת מיא לאו חמרא הוא
The Gemara asks: And how much beer is needed to establish an eiruv? Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Yosef, thought to say before Rav Yosef as follows: Two-quarters of a log of beer. Rav Aḥa’s reasoning is now spelled out in detail. As we learned in a mishna: If one carries out wine on Shabbat from a private domain to a public domain, he is liable if he carries out enough wine for diluting a cup, i.e., enough undiluted wine to fill a cup after it has been diluted with water. And a baraita was taught about this mishna: Enough wine for diluting a fine cup. They inquired: What is meant by a fine cup? They answered: A cup of blessing. And Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: A cup of blessing must contain a quarter of a quarter-log of wine, so that after one dilutes the wine with water, it amounts to a full quarter-log. And this measure is in accordance with the statement of Rava with regard to the strength of wine, as Rava said: Any wine that is not strong enough to require that it be diluted with three parts water to one part wine is not proper wine.
וקתני סיפא ושאר כל המשקין ברביעית וכל השופכין ברביעית מדהתם על חד ארבע הכא נמי על חד ארבע
And we learned in the latter clause of the aforementioned mishna: And one is liable for carrying out all other liquids, and similarly all waste water, in the measure of a quarter-log. Now, Rav Aḥa argues as follows: Since there, with respect to liability for carrying on Shabbat, the ratio is one to four, as one is liable for carrying out a quarter of a quarter-log of wine, and one is only liable for carrying out other liquids if one carries out a quarter-log; here, too, with respect to making an eiruv, the ratio of one to four should be maintained. Therefore, since Rav said that two-quarters of a log of wine are required for an eiruv, the minimum amount of beer one may use should be two full log.
ולא היא התם הוא דבציר מהכי לא חשיב אבל הכא לא דעבידי אינשי דשתו כסא בצפרא וכסא בפניא וסמכי עילויהו
The Gemara rejects this argument: And this is not so. There, with regard to carrying on Shabbat, we require four times as much beer as wine because less than that amount, i.e., less than a quarter-log of beer, is insignificant. However, here, with regard to establishing an eiruv, this is not relevant, as it is common for people to drink a cup of beer in the morning and a cup of beer in the evening, and they rely on them as their meals, as beer is satisfying even in such quantities. Therefore, we should require only two-quarters of a log of beer for an eiruv.
תמרים בכמה אמר רב יוסף תמרים בקב אמר רב יוסף מנא אמינא לה דתניא אכל גרוגרות ושילם תמרים תבוא עליו ברכה
The Gemara asks: How many dates are needed to establish an eiruv? Rav Yosef said: The minimal amount of dates one may use is a kav. Rav Yosef said: From where do I say this halakha? As it was taught in a baraita: If one inadvertently ate dried figs of teruma, and paid dates in compensation, may a blessing come upon him.
היכי דמי אילימא לפי דמים דאכל מיניה בזוזא וקא משלם ליה בזוזא מאי תבא עליו ברכה בזוזא אכל בזוזא קא משלם אלא לאו לפי מדה דאכל מיניה גריוא דגרוגרות דשויא זוזא וקא משלם ליה גריוא דתמרים דשוי ארבעה וקתני תבא עליו ברכה אלמא תמרים עדיפי
The Gemara proceeds to clarify this ruling: What are the circumstances of this case? If you say that one paid according to the value of the figs he ate, e.g., he ate a zuz worth of figs and he paid a zuz worth of dates, what is the reason it says: May a blessing come upon him? He ate a zuz and paid a zuz. Rather, is it not that he paid in accordance with the measure of the figs eaten, e.g., that he ate a se’a of dried figs worth one zuz, and he paid a se’a of dates worth four zuz. And it says: May a blessing come upon him. Apparently, dates are superior to dried figs. Accordingly, since we learned above that one may establish an eiruv with a kav of dried figs, a kav of dates should certainly suffice for the purpose of an eiruv.
אמר ליה אביי לעולם דאכל מיניה בזוזא וקא משלם בזוזא ומאי תבא עליו ברכה דאכל מיניה מידי דלא קפיץ עליה זבינא וקא משלם ליה מידי דקפיץ עליה זבינא
Abaye said to Rav Yosef: No proof can be brought from here. It can be argued that he actually ate a zuz worth of figs and he paid a zuz worth of dates. And what is the reason it says: May a blessing come upon him? For he ate something that buyers are not eager to buy, and he paid him something that buyers are eager to buy. Even though they are equal in value, the priest benefits, for it is easier for him to sell dates than to sell dried figs.
שתיתא אמר רב אחא בר פנחס תרי שרגושי כיסאני אמר אביי תרי בוני דפומבדיתא
With regard to shetita, a dish made of roasted flour and honey, Rav Aḥa bar Pineḥas said: Two large spoonfuls are needed for an eiruv. With regard to kisanei, a type of roasted grain, Abaye said: Two Pumbeditan bunei, the name of a particular of measurement.
אמר אביי אמרה לי אם הני כסאני מעלו לליבא ומבטלי מחשבתא
Having mentioned roasted grain, the Gemara tangentially relates that Abaye said: Mother, actually his foster mother, told me: These roasted grains are good for the heart and drive away worrisome thoughts.
ואמר אביי אמרה לי אם האי מאן דאית ליה חולשא דליבא לייתי בישרא דאטמא ימינא דדיכרא ולייתי כבויי דרעיתא דניסן ואי ליכא כבויי דרעיתא לייתי סוגייני דערבתא וניכבביה וניכול ונשתי בתריה חמרא מרקא:
And Abaye said: Mother told me about another remedy. One who suffers from weakness of the heart should go and bring the meat of the right thigh of a ram, and also bring the dung of grazing cattle from the month of Nisan, and if there is no cattle dung he should bring willow twigs, and then roast the meat on a fire made with the dung or twigs, and eat it, and drink afterward some diluted wine. This will improve his condition.
אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל שהוא ליפתן כדי לאכול בו כל שאינו ליפתן כדי לאכול הימנו בשר חי כדי לאכול הימנו בשר צלי רבה אמר כדי לאכול בו ורב יוסף אמר כדי לאכול הימנו
Returning to the matter of quantities of food required for an eiruv, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The minimum quantity for anything that serves as a relish is enough to eat two meals with it, i.e., enough to serve as a relish for the bread eaten in two meals. And with regard to anything that is not a relish, but rather is a food in its own right, one must use enough to eat two meals of it. The minimum quantity of raw meat is enough to eat two meals of it. Roasted meat is the subject of a dispute: Rabba said: Enough to eat the bread of two meals with it. That is to say, roasted meat is not a food in itself, but rather it serves as relish for other foods. And Rav Yosef said: Enough to eat two meals of it, as it is a food in its own right.
אמר רב יוסף מנא אמינא לה דהני פרסאי אכלי טבהקי בלא נהמא אמר ליה אביי ופרסאי הוו רובא דעלמא והתנן בגדי עניים לעניים בגדי עשירים לעשירים
Rav Yosef said: From where do I say this halakha? For these Persians eat pieces of roasted meat [tabahakki] without bread, which shows that meat itself is a food. Abaye said to him: But are the Persians a majority of the world? The halakha follows the customary practice of most of the world and not that of particular locales. Didn’t we learn the following in a baraita? Clothing of the poor, i.e., pieces of cloth measuring three by three fingerbreadths, contracts impurity when in the possession of any poor people because poor people attach importance even to scraps of cloth of such small size. Clothing of the wealthy measuring at least three by three handbreadths contracts impurity in all cases, whether or not it is owned by the wealthy.