תָּרוּ בַּהּ כִּיתָּנָא — אֲסַר לְהוּ.
they were soaking flax in the water, he prohibited them from drawing water by means of a wheel, so that they should not draw water for prohibited purposes.
וּמִבְּאֵר הַקַּר. מַאי בְּאֵר הַקַּר? אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: בּוֹר שֶׁהִקְרוּ עָלֶיהָ דְּבָרִים וְהִתִּירוּהָ.
We learned in the mishna that water may be drawn on a Festival from the Heker Well. The Gemara asks: What is the Heker Well? Shmuel said: It is a cistern with regard to which they advanced [hikru] arguments and permitted drawing water from it on a Festival, by proving that the Torah permits doing so.
מֵיתִיבִי: לֹא כׇּל הַבּוֹרוֹת הַקָּרוֹת הִתִּירוּ, אֶלָּא זוֹ בִּלְבַד. וְאִי אָמְרַתְּ ״שֶׁהִקְרוּ דְּבָרִים עָלֶיהָ״, מַאי ״זוֹ בִּלְבַד״?
The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: They did not permit all Heker wells, but only this one. And if you say it was named because it is a cistern with regard to which they put forward arguments and permitted it, what is the meaning of Heker wells in the plural, and what does only this one mean? If it was named because of a particular announcement, how could other wells, about which no announcement was issued, bear the same name?
אֶלָּא אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״כְּהָקִיר בַּיִר מֵימֶיהָ וְגוֹ׳״.
Rather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The term Heker well denotes a well of living water, as it is stated: “As a well keeps its water fresh [hakir], so she keeps fresh her wickedness” (Jeremiah 6:7), i.e., it is a well of spring water.
גּוּפָא: לֹא כׇּל הַבּוֹרוֹת הַקָּרוֹת הִתִּירוּ, אֶלָּא זוֹ בִּלְבַד. וּכְשֶׁעָלוּ בְּנֵי הַגּוֹלָה חָנוּ עָלֶיהָ, וּנְבִיאִים שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן הִתִּירוּ לָהֶן. וְלֹא נְבִיאִים שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן, אֶלָּא מִנְהַג אֲבוֹתָם בִּידֵיהֶם.
Returning to the matter itself, the Gemara cites the above baraita in full: They did not permit all Heker wells, but only this one. And when the exiles ascended from Babylonia, they encamped by it, and the prophets among them, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, permitted it to them. And it was not really the prophets among them who permitted them to draw water from this well on a Festival, but rather, it was a customary practice that was handed down to them from their forefathers, a practice the prophets permitted them to continue.
מַתְנִי׳ שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ — כֹּהֵן מוֹצִיאוֹ בְּהֶמְיָינוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁהוֹת אֶת הַטּוּמְאָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: בִּצְבַת שֶׁל עֵץ, שֶׁלֹּא לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַטּוּמְאָה.
MISHNA: With regard to the carcass of a creeping animal, of one of the eight species of reptile or rodent listed in Leviticus 11:29–30, one of the primary sources of ritual impurity that is found in the Temple, a priest should carry it out on Shabbat in his girdle, which was one of the priestly garments. Although the girdle will be defiled by the carcass of the creeping animal, this is the best way to proceed, so as not to delay the removal of the impurity from the Temple. This is the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka. Rabbi Yehuda says: The creeping animal carcass should be removed with wooden prongs, so as not to increase the impurity, as a wooden prong is not susceptible to impurity.
מֵהֵיכָן מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ — מִן הַהֵיכָל, וּמִן הָאוּלָם, וּמִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן נַנָּס.
It is obvious that on a weekday the creeping animal carcass is removed from wherever it is found in the Temple, but from where does one remove it on Shabbat? From the Sanctuary, from the Entrance Hall, and from the area in the courtyard between the Entrance Hall and the altar, the most sanctified precincts of the Temple. However, it need not be removed from the rest of the courtyard. This is the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Nannas.
רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר: כׇּל מָקוֹם שֶׁחַיָּיבִין עַל זְדוֹנוֹ כָּרֵת וְעַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ חַטָּאת — מִשָּׁם מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ. וּשְׁאָר כׇּל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת — כּוֹפִין עָלָיו פְּסַכְתֵּר.
Rabbi Akiva says: Any place where one is liable to be punished with karet if he intentionally enters there in a state of ritual impurity, and is liable to bring a sin-offering if he does so unwittingly, from there one must remove it. This includes the entire area of the Temple courtyard. And as for the rest of the places in the Temple, one covers the creeping animal carcass with a bowl [pesakhter] and leaves it there until the conclusion of Shabbat.
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר: מָקוֹם שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לְךָ חֲכָמִים, מִשֶּׁלְּךָ נָתְנוּ לָךְ — שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ לְךָ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת.
Rabbi Shimon says that this is the principle: Wherever the Sages permitted something to you, they granted you only from your own, as they permitted to you only activities that are prohibited due to rabbinic decree, not labors prohibited by Torah law.
גְּמָ׳ אָמַר רַב טָבִי בַּר קִיסְנָא אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: הַמַּכְנִיס טְמֵא שֶׁרֶץ לַמִּקְדָּשׁ — חַיָּיב, שֶׁרֶץ עַצְמוֹ — פָּטוּר. מַאי טַעְמָא? אָמַר קְרָא: ״מִזָּכָר וְעַד נְקֵבָה תְּשַׁלֵּחוּ״, מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ טׇהֳרָה בְּמִקְוֶה. יָצָא שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ טׇהֳרָה.
GEMARA: Rav Tavi bar Kisna said that Shmuel said: With regard to one who brings into the Temple an object that was defiled by a creeping animal carcass, he is liable, but if he brings in the carcass of a creeping animal itself, he is exempt. What is the reason for this distinction? The verse said: “Both male and female shall you put out, without the camp shall you put them; that they defile not their camp, in the midst whereof I dwell” (Numbers 5:3). This verse teaches that the obligation to send out of the camp applies only to one who has the option of purification in a ritual bath, i.e., the male and female mentioned by the Torah; this excludes the carcass of a creeping animal, which has no purification. Consequently, one who brings the carcass of a creeping animal into the Temple is exempt, as he did not transgress the Torah’s commandment to send away the impure.
לֵימָא מְסַיַּיע לֵיהּ: ״מִזָּכָר עַד נְקֵבָה תְּשַׁלֵּחוּ״ — פְּרָט לִכְלִי חֶרֶשׂ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי. מַאי טַעְמָא, לָאו מִשּׁוּם דְּלֵית לֵיהּ טׇהֳרָה בְּמִקְוֶה?
The Gemara suggests: Let us say that a baraita supports him: “Both male and female shall you put out”; this excludes an earthenware vessel. This is the statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili. What is the reason for this? Is it not because an earthenware vessel does not have purification in a ritual bath, in accordance with the opinion of Rav Tavi bar Kisna?
לָא, מִי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה אַב הַטּוּמְאָה. יָצָא כְּלִי חֶרֶס, שֶׁאֵינוֹ נַעֲשָׂה אַב הַטּוּמְאָה.
The Gemara rejects this contention: No, the reason is that only something that can become a primary source of ritual impurity, i.e., a human being or a metal utensil, must be sent out of the camp. This excludes an earthenware vessel, which cannot become a primary source of ritual impurity.
לֵימָא כְּתַנָּאֵי: שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ — כֹּהֵן מוֹצִיאוֹ בְּהֶמְיָינוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁהוֹת אֶת הַטּוּמְאָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: בִּצְבָת שֶׁל עֵץ מוֹצִיאוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַטּוּמְאָה.
The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this issue, whether or not there is liability for bringing a creeping animal carcass into the Temple, is parallel to a dispute between tanna’im, as we learned in the mishna: With regard to a creeping animal carcass that is found in the Temple, a priest should carry it out on Shabbat in his girdle, so as not to delay the removal of the impurity. This is the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka. Rabbi Yehuda says: He should remove it with wooden prongs, so as not to increase the impurity.
מַאי לָאו, בְּהָא קָא מִיפַּלְגִי: דְּמַאן דְּאָמַר שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁהוֹת, קָסָבַר: הַמַּכְנִיס שֶׁרֶץ לַמִּקְדָּשׁ — חַיָּיב. וּמַאן דְּאָמַר שֶׁלֹּא לְרַבּוֹת, קָסָבַר: הַמַּכְנִיס שֶׁרֶץ לַמִּקְדָּשׁ — פָּטוּר.
What, isn’t it the case that this is the matter with regard to which the two tanna’im disagree: The one who said we should not delay the removal of the impurity maintains that one who brings a creeping animal carcass into the Temple is liable, and therefore every effort must be made to remove it immediately. And the one who said we should not increase impurity maintains that one who brings a creeping animal carcass into the Temple is exempt. As no special command is in effect, the correct procedure is to prevent any additional impurity.
לָא, דְּכוּלֵּי עָלְמָא חַיָּיב. וְהָכָא בְּהָא קָא מִיפַּלְגִי, מָר סָבַר: שַׁהוֹיֵי טוּמְאָה — עֲדִיף. וּמָר סָבַר: אַפּוֹשֵׁי טוּמְאָה — עֲדִיף.
The Gemara rejects this explanation: No, everyone agrees that one who brings a creeping animal carcass itself into the Temple is liable, and here, this is the matter with regard to which they disagree: The one Sage, Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, holds: Delaying removal of the impurity is the consideration that takes precedence. Consequently, it is permitted even to defile the priestly garments to prevent any delay in the removal of the impurity from the holy place. Whereas the other Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, holds: Increasing impurity is the consideration that takes precedence, and therefore the impurity should be removed only by means of wooden prongs.
אֶלָּא כְּהָנֵי תַּנָּאֵי, דִּתְנַן: מֵהֵיכָן מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ כּוּ׳.
Rather, the Gemara suggests that this issue is the subject of a dispute between these tanna’im, as we learned in that same mishna: From where does one remove the creeping animal carcass? Rabbi Shimon ben Nannas and Rabbi Akiva disagree whether it is removed only from the Sanctuary, the Entrance Hall, and the area of the courtyard between the Entrance Hall and the altar, or from the entire area of the courtyard as well.
מַאי לָאו, בְּהָא קָא מִיפַּלְגִי: דְּמַאן דְּאָמַר מֵעֲזָרָה לָא, קָסָבַר: הַמַּכְנִיס שֶׁרֶץ לַמִּקְדָּשׁ — פָּטוּר, וּמַאן דְּאָמַר מִכּוּלַּהּ עֲזָרָה, קָסָבַר — חַיָּיב.
Isn’t it the case that the two tanna’im disagree about the following: The one who said we do not remove it from the Temple courtyard maintains that one who brings a creeping animal carcass into the Temple is exempt, and there is therefore no obligation to remove it from the courtyard on Shabbat. And the one who said that it must be removed from the entire courtyard maintains that one who brings a creeping animal carcass into the Temple is liable.