Eruvin 103aעירובין ק״ג א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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103aק״ג א

אי אליבא דרבי אליעזר קאמר אפילו לכתחילה נמי

If he stated his ruling in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, why did he permit tying a bow only after the fact? It should also be permitted even ab initio, as Rabbi Eliezer maintains that preparations required for the performance of a mitzva override the prohibitions of Shabbat.

אלא לא קשיא הא רבי שמעון הא רבנן דתניא בן לוי שנפסקה לו נימא בכנור קושרה רבי שמעון אומר עונבה

Rather, the Gemara rejects the previous explanation: It is not difficult; this baraita that deems tying prohibited is according to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, while that mishna that rules that tying is permitted, is according to the opinion of the Rabbis. As it was taught in a baraita: If a string of the Levite’s harp was severed on Shabbat, he may tie it with a knot; Rabbi Shimon says: He may only form a bow. The Rabbis permit the preparations for a mitzva that could not have been performed before Shabbat, whereas Rabbi Shimon is stringent and prohibits even those preparations.

רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אף היא אינה משמעת את הקול אלא משלשל מלמטה וכורך מלמעלה או משלשל מלמעלה וכורך מלמטה

The Gemara continues its citation of the baraita. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even if he ties a knot or a bow, the harp will not issue the proper sound, and he would therefore be committing a transgression without performing the mitzva in a fitting manner. Rather, he unwinds the string from the lower knob and winds it around the upper one, or he unwinds the string from the upper knob and winds it around the lower one, before tightening the string until it produces the proper note.

ואיבעית אימא הא והא רבנן ולא קשיא כאן באמצע כאן מן הצד

And if you wish, say instead that both sources were taught in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who permit preparations for a mitzva that could not have been performed the day before, and even so it is not difficult; here, the mishna permits tying in a case where the string was severed in the middle, in which case the sound would be affected if the string were reconnected with a bow, whereas there, the baraita is referring to a string that was severed on the side near the end of the string, which can be fixed with a bow.

ואיבעית אימא הא והא באמצע מר סבר גזרינן ומר סבר לא גזרינן:

And if you wish, say instead that both sources are referring to a case where the string snapped in the middle, and the issue at hand is subject to a dispute between Rabbi Shimon and the Rabbis: One Sage, Rabbi Shimon, maintains in the baraita that it is prohibited even to tie a knot in the middle, as a decree, lest one unnecessarily tie a knot on the side as well. And the other Sage, the Rabbis, maintains in the mishna that we do not issue a decree of this kind.

מתני׳ חותכין יבלת במקדש אבל לא במדינה ואם בכלי כאן וכאן אסור:

MISHNA: A wart is an example of a blemish that temporarily disqualifies a priest from performing the Temple service, and disqualifies an animal from being offered on the altar; they regain their fitness once the wart is removed. Consequently, on Shabbat one may cut off a wart by hand in the Temple, as this constitutes a preparatory act required for the sacrificial service. However, he may not cut off a wart in the rest of the country. And if he seeks to cut off the wart with an instrument, it is prohibited in both places.

גמ׳ ורמינהו הרכיבו והבאתו מחוץ לתחום וחתיכת יבלתו אין דוחין רבי אליעזר אומר דוחין

GEMARA: And the Gemara raises a contradiction from another mishna: When Passover eve occurs on Shabbat, the acts of carrying a Paschal lamb on one’s shoulders, bringing it to the Temple from outside the Shabbat boundary, and cutting off its wart to render it fit for the altar, do not override the prohibitions of Shabbat. Rabbi Eliezer, conforming to his standard opinion, says: They override the Shabbat prohibitions. The mishna in Eiruvin apparently contradicts the opinion of these Sages.

רבי אלעזר ורבי יוסי (בן) חנינא חד אמר הא והא בלחה ולא קשיא כאן ביד כאן בכלי

Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥanina suggested different resolutions to this difficulty: One said that both sources are referring to a moist wart, and it is not difficult. Here, the mishna permits removing the wart by hand. It is prohibited by rabbinic decree, as that is not the usual manner of performing the procedure. Whereas there, the mishna prohibits removal of the wart with an instrument by Torah law.

וחד אמר הא והא ביד ולא קשיא הא בלחה הא ביבישה

And the other one said that in both cases the wart is removed by hand, and it is not difficult. There, the mishna prohibits the removal of a moist wart, whereas here, the mishna is referring to a dry wart, the removal of which does not constitute a prohibited labor.

ולמאן דאמר הא ביד הא בכלי מאי טעמא לא אמר הא בלחה הא ביבישה אמר לך יבישה אפילו בכלי נמי שרי מאי טעמא איפרוכי איפרכא

The Gemara raises a difficulty: And according to the one who said: This is referring to removal by hand, and that is referring to removal with an instrument; what is the reason that he did not say, as did his colleague: This is referring to a moist wart and that is referring to a dry one? The Gemara answers: He can say to you that with regard to a dry wart, it is permitted to remove it even with an instrument. What is the reason? As it crumbles on its own, cutting it is like cutting off dead skin.

ולמאן דאמר הא בלחה והא ביבישה מאי טעמא לא אמר הא ביד הא בכלי אמר לך בכלי הא תנן אם בכלי כאן וכאן אסור

And according to the one who said: This is referring to a moist wart and that is referring to a dry one, what is the reason that he did not say, like the other Sage: This is referring to removal by hand and that is referring to removal with an instrument? The Gemara answers: He can say to you that with regard to an instrument, we explicitly learned in the mishna: If he wishes to cut off the wart with an instrument, it is prohibited in both places. Consequently, it is unnecessary to teach again that it is prohibited to remove a wart with an instrument.

ואידך הא דקתני התם משום דקא בעי איפלוגי רבי אליעזר ורבנן

And the other Sage, how does he respond to this contention? He can say that the other mishna teaches this halakha there because it wants to record the dispute between Rabbi Eliezer and the Rabbis on this issue, i.e., to inform us that Rabbi Eliezer disagrees and permits cutting off the wart even with an instrument.

ואידך דומיא דהרכיבו והבאתו מחוץ לתחום קתני דרבנן

And the other Sage, how does he counter this reasoning? He can say that the tanna teaches the case of the wart parallel to the cases of carrying the animal and bringing it to the Temple from outside the Shabbat boundary, activities that are prohibited by rabbinic law. Consequently, the ruling involving a wart is also referring to cutting that is prohibited by rabbinic law, i.e., cutting by hand, not with an instrument.

ואידך הרכיבו דלא כרבי נתן דאמר החי נושא את עצמו הבאתו מחוץ לתחום כרבי עקיבא דאמר תחומין דאורייתא

And the other Sage maintains that these cases also involve Torah prohibitions. How so? With regard to carrying the animal, the mishna was taught not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan, who said: A living being carries itself, which means that carrying an animal on one’s shoulders is not considered carrying by Torah law, and is prohibited by rabbinic law. If we do not accept this opinion, one who carries the Paschal lamb transgresses the Torah prohibition against carrying an object four cubits in the public domain. As for the case of bringing the animal from outside the Shabbat boundary, the mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: Bringing an animal from outside the Shabbat boundaries is prohibited by Torah law.

מתיב רב יוסף אמר רבי אליעזר קל וחומר ומה שחיטה שהיא משום מלאכה דוחה את השבת אלו שמשום שבות אינו דין שידחו את השבת

Rav Yosef raised an objection against this explanation from a mishna. Rabbi Eliezer said that this halakha is an a fortiori inference: If slaughtering the Paschal lamb, which is prohibited due to the fact that it is a prohibited labor by Torah law, nonetheless overrides Shabbat in the Temple, with regard to these actions, i.e., carrying the animal, bringing it from outside the Shabbat boundary, and cutting off its wart, which are prohibited due to rabbinic decree, isn’t it right that they should override Shabbat? Evidently, the previous explanation must be rejected, as there too the mishna is referring to rabbinic prohibitions.

אלא אמר רב יוסף הא והא ביד ושבות מקדש במקדש התירו שבות דמקדש במדינה לא התירו

Rather, Rav Yosef said: Both sources are referring to a case where the wart is removed by hand, an activity that constitutes a rabbinic prohibition, and the contradiction can be resolved as follows: To transgress a rabbinic decree relating to the Temple within the confines of the Temple itself, they permitted doing so. However, to transgress a rabbinic decree relating to the Temple, in the country, they did not permit doing so. Consequently, although these procedures involving the Paschal lamb are prohibited due to rabbinic decree and are indeed related to the Temple service, since they are performed outside the Temple, the Sages did not permit their performance.

יתיב אביי וקאמר להא שמעתא איתיביה רב ספרא לאביי היה קורא בספר על האסקופה ונתגלגל הספר מידו גוללו אצלו והא הכא דשבות דמקדש במדינה הוא ולא גזרינן דילמא נפיל ואתי לאיתויי

Abaye sat with the scholars and recited this halakha in the name of Rav Yosef. Rav Safra raised an objection to the opinion cited by Abaye from a mishna: If one was reading a scroll of the Bible while sitting on the threshold of his house, and the scroll rolled out of his hand, i.e., while he was holding one end, the scroll rolled open into the public domain, he may roll the scroll back to himself. And here, isn’t it a rabbinic decree involving a sacred scroll, which due to its sanctity should have the legal status of a rabbinic decree relating to the Temple with regard to an incident that occurred in the country. And yet we do not issue a decree prohibiting one to roll the scroll back to himself, lest the scroll fall and he will forget and come to bring it in from the public domain to a private domain. Apparently, the Sages did not impose a rabbinic prohibition with regard to matters relating to the Temple, even outside the Temple compound.

ולא אוקימנא באסקופה כרמלית ורשות הרבים עוברת לפניה דכיון דאיגדו בידו אפילו שבות נמי ליכא

Abaye refutes this contention: Didn’t we already establish this mishna as referring to a threshold that is a karmelit, e.g., one that is four handbreadths wide but less than ten handbreadths high, and before which the public domain passes? As he holds one end of the scroll in his hand, it is not prohibited even by rabbinic decree. The reason is that even if the scroll fell from his hand and rolled into the public domain, and he were to carry it back from the public domain to the karmelit, he would not transgress a Torah prohibition.

איתיביה משלשלין את הפסח לתנור עם חשיכה והא הכא דשבות דמקדש במדינה ולא גזרינן שמא יחתה בגחלים

Rav Safra raised an objection from a different mishna: One may lower the Paschal lamb into the oven on Shabbat eve just before nightfall, after its blood is sprinkled and it is brought outside the Temple for roasting. But here we are dealing with a violation of a rabbinic decree relating to the Temple that occurred in the country, and yet we do not issue a decree against lowering the sacrifice into the oven at that late hour lest one rake the coals to hasten the cooking. Once again, the mishna indicates that the Sages did not issue a rabbinic decree prohibiting an action related to the Temple service, even outside the Temple.

אישתיק כי אתא לקמיה דרב יוסף אמר ליה הכי אמר לי רב ספרא אמר ליה מאי טעמא לא תשני ליה בני חבורה זריזין הן

Abaye was silent and did not answer. When he came before Rav Yosef, he said to him: This is what Rav Safra said to me, contrary to your approach. Rav Yosef said to him: What is the reason that you didn’t answer him: Members of a group who joined together to prepare and partake of a single Paschal lamb, which, like all sacrifices, requires careful attention, are certainly vigilant and exacting in the performance of this mitzva. Consequently, there is less concern that they might commit a transgression than with regard to people in other circumstances. However, other rabbinic decrees relating to the Temple remain in effect outside the Temple.

ואביי כהנים זריזין הן אמרינן בני חבורה זריזין הן לא אמרינן

The Gemara comments: And as for Abaye, why did he not accept this reasoning? He maintains that we say that only priests are vigilant, as they are constantly involved in the Temple service, and they will therefore not mistakenly commit a transgression. However, that members of a group of people who join together for a single Paschal lamb are vigilant, we do not say. As they are not accustomed to that level of watchfulness, they might forget.

רבא אמר רבי אליעזר היא דאמר מכשירי מצוה דוחין את השבת ומודה רבי אליעזר דכמה דאפשר לשנויי משנינן

Rava stated a different resolution of the contradiction between the two mishnayot: The mishna which permits the cutting of a wart, is according to Rabbi Eliezer, who said that the preparations for the performance of a mitzva override the prohibitions of Shabbat, and it is therefore permitted to cut the wart by hand. And if you say that in that case one should be permitted to do so with an instrument as well, Rabbi Eliezer concedes that as much as it is possible to alter the manner in which a procedure is performed to prevent violation of a Torah prohibition, we alter it, to emphasize that the day is Shabbat.