Eruvin 100b:16-17עירובין ק׳ ב:ט״ז-י״ז
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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100bק׳ ב

דלא קא עביד איסורא אבל הכא דקא עביד איסורא הכי נמי דירד

where one does not commit a transgression by refraining from action. However, here, where one commits a transgression every additional moment he remains in the tree, indeed, he should descend from it.

תני חדא אחד אילן לח ואחד אילן יבש ותניא אידך במה דברים אמורים בלח אבל ביבש מותר

The Gemara cites an apparent contradiction: It was taught in one baraita that both a green tree and a dry tree are included in the prohibition against climbing a tree, whereas it was taught in another baraita: In what case are these matters, that one may not climb a tree, stated? With regard to a green tree. But in the case of a dry one, it is permitted to climb it.

אמר רב יהודה לא קשיא כאן בשגזעו מחליף כאן בשאין גזעו מחליף

Rav Yehuda said: It is not difficult. Here, the baraita that includes a dry tree in the prohibition is referring to a tree whose stump sends out new shoots when cut; whereas there, the baraita that excludes a dry tree from the prohibition is referring to one whose stump does not send out new shoots.

גזעו מחליף יבש קרית ליה אלא לא קשיא כאן בימות החמה כאן בימות הגשמים

The Gemara expresses surprise at this answer: You call a tree whose stump sends out new shoots dry? This tree is not dry at all. Rather, it is not difficult, as both baraitot deal with a dry tree whose stump will not send out any new shoots. However, here, the baraita that permits climbing a dry tree, is referring to the summer, when it is evident that the tree is dead; whereas there, the baraita that prohibits climbing the tree is referring to the rainy season, when many trees shed their leaves and it is not obvious which remain alive and which are dead.

בימות החמה הא נתרי פירי בדליכא פירי והא קא נתרי קינסי בגדודא

The Gemara raises a difficulty: In the summer, the fruit of the previous year left on the dry tree will fall off when he climbs it, and climbing the tree should therefore be prohibited lest he come to pick the fruit. The Gemara answers: We are dealing here with a case where there is no fruit on the tree. The Gemara asks: But small branches will fall off when he climbs the tree, and once again this should be prohibited in case he comes to break them off. The Gemara answers: We are dealing here with a tree that has already been stripped of all its small branches.

איני והא רב איקלע לאפסטיא ואסר בגדודא רב בקעה מצא וגדר בה גדר:

The Gemara asks: Is that really so? But Rav arrived at a place called Apsetaya and prohibited its residents from climbing even a tree that had already been stripped of all its branches. The Gemara answers: In truth, no prohibition was involved, but Rav found an unguarded field, i.e., a place where transgression was widespread, and fenced it in. He added a stringency as a safeguard and prohibited an action that was fundamentally permitted.

אמר רמי בר אבא אמר רב אסי אסור לאדם שיהלך על גבי עשבים בשבת משום שנאמר ואץ ברגלים חוטא

Rami bar Abba said that Rav Asi said: It is prohibited for a person to walk on grass on Shabbat, due to the fact that it is stated: “And he who hastens with his feet sins” (Proverbs 19:2). This verse teaches that mere walking occasionally involves a sin, e.g., on Shabbat, when one might uproot the grass on which he walks.

תני חדא מותר לילך על גבי עשבים בשבת ותניא אידך אסור לא קשיא הא בלחים הא ביבשים

The Gemara cites another apparent contradiction: It was taught in one baraita that it is permitted to walk on grass on Shabbat, and it was taught in another baraita that it is prohibited to do so. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita is referring to green grass, which one might uproot, thereby transgressing the prohibition against reaping on Shabbat. That other baraita is referring to dry grass, which has already been cut off from its source of life, and therefore the prohibition of reaping is no longer in effect.

ואי בעית אימא הא והא בלחים ולא קשיא כאן בימות החמה כאן בימות הגשמים

And if you wish, say instead that both baraitot are referring to green grass, and yet there is no difficulty: Here, the baraita that prohibits walking on grass is referring to the summer, when the grass includes seeds that might be dislodged by one’s feet, whereas there, the baraita that permits doing so is referring to the rainy season, when this problem does not exist.

ואיבעית אימא הא והא בימות החמה ולא קשיא הא דסיים מסאניה הא דלא סיים מסאניה

And if you wish, say instead that both baraitot are referring to the summer, and it is not difficult: This baraita, which permits walking on grass, is referring to a case where one is wearing his shoes, whereas that other baraita, which prohibits it, deals with a situation where one is not wearing his shoes, as the grass might get entangled between his toes and be uprooted.

ואיבעית אימא הא והא דסיים מסאניה ולא קשיא הא דאית ליה עוקצי הא דלית ליה עוקצי

And if you wish, say instead that both baraitot are referring to a case where one is wearing his shoes, and nevertheless this is not difficult: This baraita prohibits walking on grass, as it involves a case where one’s shoe has a spike on which the grass might get caught and be uprooted, whereas that other baraita permits it, because it deals a case where one’s shoe does not have a spike.

ואיבעית אימא הא והא דאית ליה עוקצי הא דאית ליה שרכא הא דלית ליה שרכא

And if you wish, say instead that both are referring to a case where the shoe has a spike, and it is not difficult: This baraita, which prohibits walking on grass, is referring to a case where the grass is long and entangled, and it can easily get caught on the shoe, whereas that other baraita is referring to a case where the grass is not long and entangled.

והאידנא דקיימא לן כרבי שמעון כולהו שרי:

The Gemara concludes: And now, when we maintain that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who maintains that there is no liability for a prohibited act committed unwittingly during the performance of a permitted act, all of these scenarios are permitted, as here too, one’s intention is merely to walk and not to uproot grass on Shabbat.

ואמר רמי בר חמא אמר רב אסי אסור לאדם שיכוף אשתו לדבר מצוה שנאמר ואץ ברגלים חוטא

The Gemara cites another halakha derived from the verse mentioned in the previous discussion. Rami bar Ḥama said that Rav Asi said: It is prohibited for a man to force his wife in the conjugal mitzva, i.e., sexual relations, as it is stated: “And he who hastens with his feet sins” (Proverbs 19:2). The term his feet is understood here as a euphemism for intercourse.

ואמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל הכופה אשתו לדבר מצוה הויין לו בנים שאינן מהוגנין אמר רב איקא בר חיננא מאי קראה גם בלא דעת נפש לא טוב

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who forces his wife to perform the conjugal mitzva will have unworthy children as a consequence. Rav Ika bar Ḥinnana said: What is the verse that alludes to this? “Also, that the soul without knowledge is not good” (Proverbs 19:2). If intercourse takes place without the woman’s knowledge, i.e., consent, the soul of the offspring will not be good.

תניא נמי הכי גם בלא דעת נפש לא טוב זה הכופה אשתו לדבר מצוה ואץ ברגלים חוטא זה הבועל ושונה

That was also taught in a baraita: “Also, without knowledge the soul is not good”; this is one who forces his wife to perform the conjugal mitzva. “And he who hastens with his feet sins”; this is one who has intercourse with his wife and repeats the act in a manner that causes her pain or distress.

איני והאמר רבא הרוצה לעשות כל בניו זכרים יבעול וישנה לא קשיא כאן לדעת כאן שלא לדעת:

The Gemara is surprised by this teaching: Is that so? But didn’t Rava say: One who wants all his children to be males should have intercourse with his wife and repeat the act? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: Here, where Rava issued this advice, he was referring to a husband who acts with his wife’s consent. There, the baraita that condemns this behavior is referring to one who proceeds without her consent.

אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן כל אשה שתובעת בעלה לדבר מצוה הווין לה בנים שאפילו בדורו של משה לא היו כמותן דאילו בדורו של משה כתיב הבו לכם אנשים חכמים ונבונים וידועים לשבטיכם וכתיב ואקח את ראשי שבטיכם אנשים חכמים וידועים ואילו נבונים לא אשכח

Apropos relations between husband and wife, the Gemara cites that Rav Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Any woman who demands of her husband that he fulfill his conjugal mitzva will have sons the likes of whom did not exist even in Moses’ generation. With regard to Moses’ generation, it is written: “Get you, wise men, and understanding, and well-known from each one of your tribes, and I will make them head over you” (Deuteronomy 1:13), and it is later written: “So I took the heads of your tribes, wise men, and well-known, and made them heads over you” (Deuteronomy 1:15). However, men possessing understanding, which is a more lofty quality than wisdom, Moses could not find any of these.

ואילו גבי לאה כתיב ותצא לאה לקראתו ותאמר אלי תבוא כי שכור שכרתיך וכתיב ומבני יששכר יודעי בינה לעתים לדעת מה יעשה ישראל ראשיהם מאתים וכל אחיהם על פיהם

While with regard to Leah, it is written: “And Leah went out to meet him, and said, You must come in to me, for indeed I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes” (Genesis 30:16). Her reward for demanding that Jacob fulfill the conjugal mitzva with her was the birth of Issachar, and it is written: “And of the children of Issachar, men who had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do; the heads of them were two hundred, and all their brethren were at their commandment” (I Chronicles 12:33).

איני והאמר רב יצחק בר אבדימי עשר קללות נתקללה חוה דכתיב

The Gemara poses a question: Is that so? Is it proper for a woman to demand her conjugal rights from her husband? But didn’t Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi say: Eve was cursed with ten curses, due to the sin of the Tree of Knowledge, as it is written: “To the woman He said, I will greatly multiply your pain and your travail; in sorrow you shall bring forth children; and yet your desire shall be to your husband, and he shall rule over you” (Genesis 3:16)?

אל האשה אמר הרבה ארבה אלו שני טפי דמים אחת דם נדה ואחת דם בתולים עצבונך זה צער גידול בנים והרונך זה צער העיבור בעצב תלדי בנים כמשמעו

Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi proceeds to explain this verse. “To the woman He said: I will greatly multiply [harba arbe]”; these are the two drops of blood unique to a woman, which cause her suffering, one the blood of menstruation and the other one the blood of virginity. “Your pain”; this is the pain of raising children. “And your travail”; this is the pain of pregnancy. “In sorrow you shall bring forth children”; in accordance with its plain meaning, i.e., the pain of childbirth.

ואל אישך תשוקתך מלמד שהאשה משתוקקת על בעלה בשעה שיוצא לדרך והוא ימשל בך מלמד שהאשה תובעת בלב והאיש תובע בפה זו היא מדה טובה בנשים

“And yet your desire shall be to your husband” teaches that the woman desires her husband, e.g., when he sets out on the road; “and he shall rule over you” teaches that the woman demands her husband in her heart but is too shy to voice her desire, but the man demands his wife verbally. Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi adds: This is a good trait in women, that they refrain from formulating their desire verbally. Apparently, it is improper for a woman to demand her conjugal rights from her husband.

כי קאמרינן דמרציא ארצויי קמיה

The Gemara answers: When we say that a woman who demands her conjugal rights from her husband is praiseworthy, it does not mean she should voice her desires explicitly. Rather, it means that she should make herself pleasing to him, and he will understand what she wants on his own.

הני שבע הווין כי אתא רב דימי אמר עטופה כאבל ומנודה מכל אדם וחבושה בבית האסורין

The Gemara analyzes the above statement with regard to Eve’s ten curses: Are they in fact ten? They are only seven. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that the other curses are: A woman is wrapped like a mourner, i.e., she must cover her head; and she is ostracized from all people and incarcerated within a prison, as she typically spends all her time in the house.

מאי מנודה מכל אדם אילימא משום דאסיר לה ייחוד איהו נמי אסיר ליה ייחוד אלא דאסירא לבי תרי

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of ostracized from all people? If you say this is because it is forbidden for her to seclude herself with a man, it is also forbidden for a man to seclude himself with women. Rather, it means that it is forbidden for her to marry two men, whereas a man can marry two women.

במתניתא תנא מגדלת שער כלילית ויושבת ומשתנת מים כבהמה ונעשית כר לבעלה

It was taught in a baraita that the three additional curses are: She grows her hair long like Lilit, a demon; she sits and urinates, like an animal; and serves as a pillow for her husband during relations.

ואידך הני שבח הוא לה

And why doesn’t the other Sage include these curses? The Gemara answers: He maintains that these are praise for her, not pain, either because they are modest practices, e.g., urinating in a seated position, or because they add to her comfort, e.g., her bottom position during relations.

דאמר רבי חייא מאי דכתיב מלפנו מבהמות ארץ ומעוף השמים יחכמנו מלפנו מבהמות זו פרידה שכורעת ומשתנת מים ומעוף השמים יחכמנו זה תרנגול שמפייס ואחר כך בועל

As Rabbi Ḥiyya said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Who teaches us by the beasts of the earth, and makes us wiser by the birds of the sky” (Job 35:11)? He explains: “Who teaches us by the beasts of the earth”; this is the female mule, which crouches and urinates and from which we learn modesty. “And makes us wiser by the birds of the sky”; this is the rooster, which first cajoles the hen and then mates with it.

אמר רבי יוחנן אילמלא לא ניתנה תורה היינו למידין צניעות מחתול וגזל מנמלה ועריות מיונה דרך ארץ מתרנגול שמפייס ואחר כך בועל

Similarly, Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even if the Torah had not been given, we would nonetheless have learned modesty from the cat, which covers its excrement, and that stealing is objectionable from the ant, which does not take grain from another ant, and forbidden relations from the dove, which is faithful to its partner, and proper relations from the rooster, which first appeases the hen and then mates with it.

ומאי מפייס לה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב הכי קאמר לה זביננא ליך זיגא דמטו ליך עד כרעיך לבתר הכי אמר לה לישמטתיה לכרבלתיה דההוא תרנגולא אי אית ליה ולא זביננא ליך:

What does the rooster do to appease the hen? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Prior to mating, it spreads its wings as if to say this: I will buy you a coat that will reach down to your feet. After mating, the rooster bends its head as if to say this: May the crest of this rooster fall off if he has the wherewithal and does not buy you one. I simply have no money to do so.