The Talmud now rejects that interpretation of the “blessing” in the baraita. The blessing does not refer to shehiyanu, it refers to saying “Shemini Atzeret” in birkat hamazon and the tefillah (the amidah) and not Sukkot.
This is also a more reasonable explanation of the baraita for R. Judah said that the seven days all have their own “blessing.” This cannot be “shehiyanu” for this blessing is recited only on the first night.
At first the Talmud says that the previous line is not a difficulty because the blessing over the season could be recited on any of the seven days, if he forgot to recite it on the first day. This means that just as the first seven days could have a shehiyanu recited on them, the eighth day does have a shehiyanu.
But the idea that one could recite shehiyanu after the first night is also difficult because it requires a cup of wine, as we do for Kiddush. Since there is no Kiddush after the first night, it does seem that the baraita refers to the blessing that is part of the Amidah or Birkat Hamazon.
However, there does seem to be an amora who holds that the blessing over the season can be recited even without wine, in the marketplace.
Since we can assume that people don’t always have wine, it must mean that shehiyanu can be recited without wine.
This too is rejected for it may be that R. Nahman refers to a case where he did happen to have wine.
Thus in the end, we see that one must recite the shehiyanu over a cup of wine, but that this still could occur any day of the festival.
In yesterday’s section there was a baraita that stated that one must sleep over in Jerusalem the night after the festival. Our section picks up on this topic.
In this baraita R. Judah teaches that if one has to offer the pesah sacrifice on Pesah Sheni, the second chance to observe Pesah a month after the first Pesah, he doesn’t have to spend the night in Jerusalem, as he would for first Pesah. Only the first Pesah, which is six (actually seven) days does one have to stay overnight after offering the pesah sacrifice. Pesah Sheni is only one day, so there is no requirement to stay overnight.
This seems to imply that Shemini Atzeret which is also only a one day holiday does not have a requirement to stay overnight, contradicting what R. Judah himself taught in the earlier baraita.
The Talmud corrects the previous understanding—Shemini Atzeret does require staying overnight; only Pesah Sheni does not. The derashah excluded Pesah Sheni which is similar to the first Pesah. It did not exclude Shavuot or Shemini Atzeret which are both one day holidays.
The Talmud now proves that R. Judah does hold that only Pesah Sheni does not require staying overnight. Every other holiday, including one day holidays, does. They prove this by first citing a baraita which states that when one brings his first fruit, the bikkurim, to the Temple, he must also stay overnight. This opinion must belong to R. Judah for he is the sage who holds that one must wave the first fruits. This is shown in a baraita which uses a midrashic technique focusing on the repetition of the phrase “and he put it down” which appears twice in Deuteronomy. One time refers to literally putting the basket of first fruits down, but the other time is interpreted as waving. Since R. Judah is the one that holds that the bikkurim must be waved, he must also hold that one is required to sleep overnight in Jerusalem when bringing the bikkurim, for both were mentioned in the same baraita.
In yesterday’s section we learned that the baraita which required one to waive the bikkurim and to sleep in Jerusalem overnight was the opinion of R. Judah. But today the Talmud offers another possibility as to the author of this baraita.
In this baraita we learn that R. Eliezer ben Yaakov also holds that bikkurim must be waved. He derives this from the fact that the same word “hand” is used in Deuteronomy 26:4 which discusses the bikkurim as is used in Leviticus 7:3, which discusses the waving of shelamim offerings. R. Eliezer b. Yaakov rules that for both offerings the priest and the owner together wave the offering before God.
In this final section of the sugya two amoraim argue directly whether we say shehiyanu on Shemini Atzeret. The ruling is that we do.
This baraita agrees with R. Nahman that Shemini Atzeret is a separate festival. It lists six ways in which this halakhah is manifested. Some of these we have seen before, so I’ll explain only the two that are new.
Drawing (piyyus): This means they had a separate lottery among the priests as to who gets to offer which sacrifice. Shemini Atzeret is not part of the lottery that occurred for Sukkot.
The nature of the festival: According to Rashi this means that we do not sit in the sukkah on Shemini Atzeret.
The other issues have all been explained before.