חתוכה נמי לישדר ליה דהא לא אתו למזבן מיניה אלא במקום שמכריזין שלימה נמי לא לישדר ליה דחתיך ליה ומזבין ליה
Consequently, it should also be permitted to send to a gentile a thigh that has been cut, because Jews will not come to purchase it from him. Rather, if the mishna is referring to a place where all the butchers are Jewish, and they announce every time they sell a tereifa to a gentile, in which case Jews may purchase meat from the local gentiles when such an announcement is not made, one should not be permitted to send even a whole thigh to a gentile, due to the concern that he might cut it up and sell it to Jews who would not realize that it still contains the sciatic nerve.
אי בעית אימא במקום שמכריזין ואי בעית אימא במקום שאין מכריזין
The Gemara offers two answers: If you wish, say that the mishna is referring to a place where they announce every time they sell a tereifa; and if you wish, say that the mishna is referring to a place where they do not announce every time they sell a tereifa.
איבעית אימא במקום שמכריזין חיתוכא דעובד כוכבים מידע ידיע
The Gemara explains: If you wish, say that the mishna is referring to a place where they announce every time they sell a tereifa, and nevertheless it is permitted to send a whole thigh of meat to a gentile. There is no concern that the gentile will sell the thigh to a Jew, because the Jew would know that it is non-kosher by the manner of cutting of the gentile. Jewish butchers would cut the meat in a distinctive manner that would not be replicated by a gentile who cut the meat.
ואיבעית אימא במקום שאין מכריזין גזירה שמא יתננה לו בפני ישראל אחר
And if you wish, say that the mishna is referring to a place where they do not announce every time they sell a tereifa, and nevertheless it is prohibited to give the gentile a thigh that has been cut up. The Sages issued a decree against doing so, lest he give it to the gentile in the presence of another Jew, who will think that it is kosher and purchase it from the gentile.
ואי בעית אימא משום דקא גניב ליה לדעתיה דאמר שמואל אסור לגנוב דעת הבריות ואפילו דעתו של עובד כוכבים
And if you wish, say that there is an entirely different reason why one may not send a gentile a cut-up thigh without removing the sciatic nerve: Because he thereby deceives the gentile. The gentile will think that the Jew has exerted himself to cut up the leg and remove the sciatic nerve and that although the Jew could have eaten the meat himself he decided to send it to the gentile. The gentile will therefore be more appreciative of the gift than he would be if he realized that the sciatic nerve had not been removed. This is as Shmuel said: It is prohibited to deceive people, and even to deceive a gentile.
והא דשמואל לאו בפירוש איתמר אלא מכללא איתמר דשמואל הוה קא עבר במברא א"ל לשמעיה פייסיה למבוריה פייסיה ואיקפד
And the Gemara points out that this ruling of Shmuel was not stated explicitly; rather, it was stated by inference, i.e., it was inferred based upon the following incident: Shmuel was once crossing a river in a ferry [mavra]. He said to his attendant: Compensate the ferryman with an appropriate gift. The attendant compensated him, but Shmuel became angry with his attendant.
מ"ט איקפד אמר אביי תרנגולת טרפה הואי ויהבה ניהליה במר דשחוטה רבא אמר אנפקא אמר ליה לאשקויי ואשקייה חמרא מזיגא
The Gemara asks: What is the reason that Shmuel became angry? Abaye said: The compensation that the attendant gave the ferryman was a chicken that was a tereifa, and he gave it to him as though it were a slaughtered, kosher chicken. Rava said: Shmuel told him to give the ferryman wine for drinking in an anpaka, i.e., a utensil that holds a quarter-log and which was generally used for undiluted wine, but he gave him diluted wine for drinking. According to both Abaye and Rava, Shmuel was upset that his attendant deceived the gentile ferryman.
וכי מכללא מאי למ"ד טרפה הואי א"ל אמאי תשהא איסורא
The Gemara asks: And if Shmuel’s opinion was derived by inference, what of it? The story clearly demonstrates that according to Shmuel it is prohibited to deceive a gentile. The Gemara answers that it cannot be ascertained with certainty that this is the reason Shmuel became angry. According to the one who said it was a chicken that was a tereifa that was given as compensation, perhaps Shmuel became angry and said to his attendant: Why did you retain in your possession an animal that is forbidden for consumption? This could have led to a Jew accidentally eating it.
למ"ד אנפקא א"ל לאשקויי אנפקא חייא משמע
Similarly, according to the one who said that Shmuel told him to give the ferryman wine to drink in an anpaka, since anpaka indicates undiluted wine and the attendant gave the ferryman diluted wine, perhaps Shmuel became angry simply because his attendant disobeyed his instruction.
תניא היה ר' מאיר אומר אל יסרהב אדם לחבירו לסעוד אצלו ויודע בו שאינו סועד ולא ירבה לו בתקרובת ויודע בו שאינו מקבל
§ Apropos the prohibition against acting deceitfully, the Gemara cites other statements on this topic. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: A person may not importune [yesarhev] another to eat with him, making it seem as though he genuinely wants his company, but in reality he entreats him only because he knows that the other will not eat with him, i.e., will not accept the invitation. And similarly, one may not send another person many gifts merely because he knows that the other will not accept them.
ולא יפתח לו חביות המכורות לחנוני אא"כ הודיעו ולא יאמר לו סוך שמן מפך ריקן ואם בשביל כבודו מותר
And one may not open barrels of wine for a guest if they have already been sold to a storekeeper, unless he notifies the guest beforehand that the barrel had been sold. And he may not say to another: Anoint yourself with oil, and place an empty jug before him with the knowledge that he will not attempt to anoint himself. But if he does so for the guest’s honor, to show that he holds his guest in high esteem, rather than to deceive the guest so that he will feel indebted to him, it is permitted.
איני והא עולא איקלע לבי רב יהודה פתח לו חביות המכורות לחנוני אודועי אודעיה ואיבעית אימא שאני עולא דחביב ליה לרב יהודה דבלאו הכי נמי פתוחי מפתח ליה
The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn’t Ulla happen to come to the house of Rav Yehuda, and Rav Yehuda opened barrels of wine for Ulla that had already been sold to a storekeeper? The Gemara answers: Rav Yehuda notified Ulla that he was not opening the barrels especially for him. And if you wish, say that Ulla is different from an ordinary guest because he was very dear to Rav Yehuda, so that even without this, i.e., even if he had not already sold the barrels to a storekeeper, Rav Yehuda would have opened the barrels for him.
ת"ר לא ילך אדם לבית האבל ובידו לגין המתקשקש ולא ימלאנו מים מפני שמתעהו ואם יש שם חבר עיר מותר
The Sages taught in a baraita: A person may not go to a house of mourning with a wine jug [lagin] in his hand that is mostly empty and where the small amount of wine rattles about, because the mourner will think that his visitor is bringing him a full jug of wine. And he may not fill up that jug of wine with water, because he thereby misleads the mourner into thinking he has brought him a full jug of undiluted wine. But if there is a crowd of people [ḥever ir] and the guest wants to honor the mourner in their presence, it is permitted.
ת"ר לא ימכור אדם לחבירו סנדל של מתה בכלל של חיה שחוטה מפני ב' דברים א' מפני שמתעהו וא' מפני הסכנה
The Sages taught in a baraita: A person may not sell to another a sandal made from the hide of an animal that died of natural causes as though it were a sandal made from the hide of a healthy animal that was slaughtered. This is prohibited due to two factors: One, because he misleads the customer into thinking that the leather is of higher quality than it really is; and another, because of the danger involved, as it is possible that the animal died from a snakebite and the poison seeped into the part of the animal’s hide from which the sandal is made.
ולא ישגר אדם לחבירו חבית של יין ושמן צף על פיה ומעשה באחד ששיגר לחבירו חבית של יין ושמן צף על פיה והלך וזימן עליה אורחין ונכנסו מצאה שהיא של יין וחנק את עצמו
And furthermore a person may not send a barrel of wine to another with oil floating at its mouth, such that the recipient thinks that it is a barrel of oil. There was an incident involving a certain individual who sent a barrel of wine to another with oil floating at its mouth, and that recipient, thinking it was a barrel of oil, went and invited guests to share it with him, and the guests arrived. When the host went to bring them oil, he found that it was a barrel of wine rather than oil, and in his shame at not having oil for them, he hanged himself and died.
ואין האורחין רשאין ליתן ממה שלפניהם לבנו ולבתו של בעה"ב אא"כ נטלו רשות מבעה"ב
The baraita continues: And guests are not permitted to give some of the food that is placed before them to the son or to the daughter of the host unless they first receive permission from the host.
ומעשה באחד שזמן ג' אורחין בשני בצורת ולא היה לו להניח לפניהם אלא כשלש ביצים בא בנו של בעה"ב נטל אחד מהן חלקו ונתנו לו וכן שני וכן שלישי בא אביו של תינוק מצאו שעוזק א' בפיו ושתים בידו חבטו בקרקע ומת כיון שראתה אמו עלתה לגג ונפלה ומתה אף הוא עלה לגג ונפל ומת
And there was an incident involving a certain individual who invited three guests during years of famine, and he had enough to place only three eggs before them. The son of the host came, and one of the guests took his portion and gave it to the son. And similarly the second guest gave his portion to the son, and similarly the third guest. The father of the child came and found that his son was holding one egg in his mouth and two in his hand. The father became so angry with his son for taking all the food that he hit the son to the ground, and the son died. When his mother saw what had happened, she ascended to the roof and fell down to the ground and died. And when the father saw that both his son and his wife were dead he also ascended to the roof and fell down to the ground and died.
א"ר אליעזר בן יעקב על דבר זה נהרגו ג' נפשות מישראל מאי קמ"ל דכולה ר"א בן יעקב היא
Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov said: For this matter of giving food to the child of the host, three Jewish souls were killed. The Gemara asks: What does this statement teach us? It is obvious from the incident that three people were killed. The Gemara answers: It teaches that the entire baraita is taught by Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov.
ת"ר השולח ירך לחבירו שלימה אינו צריך שיטול הימנה גיד הנשה חתוכה צריך ליטול הימנה גיד הנשה ובעובד כוכבים בין חתוכה ובין שלימה א"צ ליטול הימנה גיד הנשה
§ The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of one who sends a whole thigh of an animal to another, he is not required to first remove the sciatic nerve from it. This is because the recipient can see that it has not yet been removed and will not eat it until he removes the sciatic nerve himself. But if one sends a thigh that has been cut up, he is required to first remove the sciatic nerve from it so that the recipient does not eat it unwittingly. And in the case of one who sends a thigh to a gentile, regardless of whether it is cut or whole he is not required to remove the sciatic nerve from it.
ומפני ב' דברים אמרו אין מוכרין נבילות וטרפות לעובד כוכבים אחד מפני שמתעהו ואחד שמא יחזור וימכרנה לישראל אחר
And it was due to two factors that the Sages said that one may not sell meat from unslaughtered animal carcasses or tereifot to a gentile: One, because it misleads him, as he thinks that it is kosher meat, which is more desirable; and another factor is the concern lest the gentile then sell the meat to another Jew, who will think it is kosher since it originally was sold by a Jew.
ולא יאמר אדם לעובד כוכבים קח לי בדינר זה בשר מפני ב' דברים
And similarly, a person may not say to a gentile: Purchase meat for me from a Jewish butcher with this dinar, due to two factors: