Chullin 79aחולין ע״ט א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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79aע״ט א

ולחנניה כתיב אותו דמשמע זכר וכתיב בנו מי שבנו כרוך אחריו דמשמע נקבה הלכך נוהג בין בזכרים בין בנקבות

And according to the opinion of Ḥananya, the reason for his ruling is that it is written “it,” which indicates a male, and it is written “its offspring,” teaching that the prohibition applies to that parent whose offspring clings to it, which indicates a female. Therefore, this prohibition applies to both males and females.

אמר רב הונא בר חייא אמר שמואל הלכתא כחנניה ואזדא שמואל לטעמיה דתנן ר' יהודה אומר הנולדים מן הסוס אע"פ שאביהן חמור מותרין זה בזה אבל הנולדין מן החמור עם הנולדין מן הסוס אסורין

Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya says that Shmuel says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Ḥananya. And Shmuel follows his line of reasoning, as we learned in a mishna (Kilayim 8:4): Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to two animals that are born from a female horse, even if the father of one is a donkey and the father of the other is a horse, they are permitted to mate with one another. Since the mothers of both are horses, the offspring are all considered of the same species. But to mate animals that are born from a female donkey with animals that are born from a female horse, even if one animal was born from a male horse and a female donkey and the other was born from a male donkey and a female horse, is prohibited, due to the prohibition of diverse kinds.

ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל זו דברי ר' יהודה דאמר אין חוששין לזרע האב אבל חכמים אומרים כל מיני פרדות אחת הן

And, commenting on that mishna, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, who says: One need not be concerned with its paternity in determining the species of an animal, as the species is determined solely by the mother. But the Rabbis say: The species of an animal is determined according to both its mother and its father. Therefore, all types of mules, regardless of which parent is a horse and which is a donkey, are considered a single species and may mate with each other.

מאן חכמים חנניה הוא דאמר חוששין לזרע האב והאי בר סוסיא וחמרא והאי בר חמרא וסוסיא כולהו חדא מינא נינהו

Now, whose opinion is referred to as that of the Rabbis here? It is that of Ḥananya, who says: One needs to be concerned with paternity, as, in his opinion, the prohibition against slaughtering an animal and its offspring applies to a male and its offspring as well. And therefore, with regard to the prohibition of diverse kinds as well, this mule that is the offspring of a female horse and a male donkey, and that mule that is the offspring of a female donkey and a male horse are all a single species.

איבעיא להו (מי פשיט) ליה לר' יהודה דאין חוששין לזרע האב או דלמא ספוקי מספקא ליה למאי נפקא מינה

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is Rabbi Yehuda certain that one need not be concerned with its paternity in determining the species of the offspring, or perhaps he is uncertain whether or not one need be concerned with its paternity? The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference?

למישרא פרי עם האם אי אמרת מיפשט פשיטא ליה פרי עם האם שרי (אלא אי) אמרת ספוקי מספקא ליה פרי עם האם אסור

The Gemara answers: The practical difference is with regard to permitting the mating of the offspring with the species of the mother, e.g., the mating of the offspring of a female horse and a male donkey together with a horse. If you say that Rabbi Yehuda is certain that one need not be concerned with its paternity, then the mating of the offspring with the species of the mother is permitted, as, in this case, they are both considered horses. But if you say that Rabbi Yehuda is uncertain, then the mating of the offspring with the species of the mother is prohibited, as one must be concerned about the species of the father.

מאי ת"ש ר' יהודה אומר כל הנולדים מן הסוס אע"פ שאביהן חמור מותרין זה בזה היכי דמי אילימא דאבוה דהאי חמור ואבוה דהאי חמור צריכא למימר אלא לאו דאבוה דהאי סוס ואבוה דהאי חמור

What, then, is the answer to the question? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a possible resolution from the mishna cited earlier: Rabbi Yehuda says: All that are born from a female horse, even if the father of one of them is a donkey, are permitted to mate with each other. What are the circumstances here? If we say that the father of this male animal is a donkey, and the father of that female animal, with which the male is to be mated, is a donkey, does it need to be said? Since the mothers of both animals are horses, they are both of exactly the same species and may certainly mate with each other. Rather, is it not that the father of this one is a horse, and the father of that other one is a donkey?

וקתני מותרים זה עם זה אלמא מיפשט פשיטא ליה

And yet it is taught that they are permitted to mate with each other. Evidently, Rabbi Yehuda is certain that one need not be concerned with its paternity in determining the species of the offspring. If he were uncertain, he would deem their mating prohibited, as the father of one is a horse while the father of the other is a donkey.

לא לעולם דאבוה דהאי חמור ואבוה דהאי חמור ודקאמרת צריכא למימר מהו דתימא אתי צד דסוס משתמש בצד חמור וצד חמור משתמש בצד סוס קמ"ל

The Gemara responds: No, one cannot cite proof from this, as it can be said that actually, the father of this male animal is a donkey, and the father of that female animal is also a donkey. And with regard to that which you say: Does it need to be said that these two may mate? It does need to be said, lest you say: The horse component of the male mule comes and copulates with the donkey component of the female mule, and the donkey component of the male mule copulates specifically with the horse component of the female mule, which would violate the prohibition of diverse kinds. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda teaches us that they are both of the same species and may mate.

ת"ש ר' יהודה אומר פרדה שתבעה אין מרביעין עליה לא סוס ולא חמור אלא מינה ואי אמרת מפשט פשיטא ליה לרבע עלה מינא דאמה דלא ידעינן מינא דאמה מאי ניהו

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a possible resolution from a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to a female mule in heat, one may not mate a horse or a donkey with her, due to the prohibition against crossbreeding diverse kinds of livestock. Rather, one mates her with one of her kind, another mule. And if you say that Rabbi Yehuda is certain that one need not be concerned with its paternity in determining the species of the offspring, then why not mate her with the species of her mother? Evidently, Rabbi Yehuda is uncertain and therefore deems it prohibited to mate her with either a horse or a donkey. The Gemara responds: The baraita is referring to a case where we do not know what the mother’s species is.

והא אלא מינה קתני הכי קאמר אין מרביעין עליה לא מין סוס ולא מין חמור לפי שאין יודעין במינה וליבדוק בסימנין דאמר אביי עבי קליה בר חמרא צניף קליה בר סוסיא ואמר רב פפא רברבן אודניה וזוטרא גנובתיה בר חמרא זוטרן אודניה ורבה גנובתיה בר סוסיא הכא במאי עסקינן באלמת וגידמת

The Gemara challenges: But the baraita teaches: Rather, one mates her with one of her kind, indicating that her species is known. The Gemara explains that this is what the baraita is saying: One may not mate the species of a horse or the species of a donkey with her, because one does not usually know the species of the mother of a mule that one encounters. The Gemara suggests: But let one check her species by her distinguishing characteristics, as Abaye says: If its voice is deep, it is the offspring of a female donkey; if its voice is shrill, it is the offspring of a female horse. And Rav Pappa says: If its ears are large and its tail is small, it is the offspring of a female donkey; if its ears are small and its tail is large, it is the offspring of a female horse. The Gemara answers: Here we are dealing with a mule who is mute, and whose ears and tail are lopped off, and whose species cannot be determined. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion cannot be proven from this case.

מאי הוי עלה ת"ש דאמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע הכל מודין בפרי עם האם שאסור שמע מינה ספוקי מספקא ליה ש"מ

The Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached about it? Come and hear a resolution, as Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, says: All, including Rabbi Yehuda, agree with regard to mating the offspring with the species of its mother that it is prohibited. Conclude from it that Rabbi Yehuda is uncertain. If he were certain that one need not be concerned with its paternity, he would deem mating the offspring with the species of its mother permitted, since the father’s species would not matter. The Gemara affirms: Conclude from it that this is so.

אמר ליה ר' אבא לשמעיה אי מעיילת לי כודנייתא בריספק עיין להנך דדמיין להדדי ועייל לי אלמא קסבר אין חוששין לזרע האב

The Gemara relates with regard to this issue that Rabbi Abba said to his servant: If you bring me mules attached to a wagon [rispak], look for those that are similar to each other in their voices and the sizes of their ears and tails, and bring those for me, in order not to violate the prohibition of diverse kinds. Evidently, Rabbi Abba holds that with regard to the offspring of diverse kinds, one need not be concerned with its paternity, since, as explained earlier, these distinguishing characteristics indicate only the species of the mother.