Chullin 64aחולין ס״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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64aס״ד א

עוברי דגים

fish embryos, i.e., fish eggs found in the fish’s innards.

ותניא גבי ביצים אלו הן סימני ביצים כל שכודרת ועגולגולת ראשה אחד כד וראשה אחד חד טהורה ב' ראשיה כדין או ב' ראשיה חדין טמאין חלבון מבחוץ וחלמון מבפנים טהורה חלמון מבחוץ וחלבון מבפנים טמאה חלמון וחלבון מעורבין זה בזה בידוע שהיא ביצת השרץ

The Gemara continues: And it is taught in a baraita about eggs that these are the signs of bird eggs: Any egg that narrows at the top and is rounded, so that one of its ends is rounded and the other one of its ends is pointed, is kosher. If both of its ends are rounded or both of its ends are pointed, they are non-kosher. If the albumen is on the outside and the yolk on the inside, it is kosher. If the yolk is on the outside and the albumen on the inside, it is non-kosher. If the yolk and albumen are mixed with each other, it is certainly the egg of a creeping animal. Therefore, if it is possible to recognize a kosher egg by these signs, there is no need to rely on the gentile.

לא צריכא דחתוכות וליבדוק בחלמון וחלבון בטרופות בקערה

The Gemara responds: No, it is necessary if the eggs have already been cut and one cannot know their original shape. The Gemara challenges: But let him inspect the yolk and the albumen, to see which is inside and which is outside. The Gemara responds: The baraita deals with a case where the eggs are mixed in a bowl, and it is impossible to discern this.

וכה"ג מי זבנינן מינייהו והא תניא אין מוכרין ביצת טרפה לעובד כוכבים אלא א"כ טרופה בקערה לפיכך אין לוקחין מהם ביצים טרופות בקערה

The Gemara counters: But in a case like this, where the eggs are mixed, may we buy eggs from them? Isn’t it taught in another baraita: One may sell the egg of a tereifa bird to a gentile only if it is mixed in a bowl; therefore, one may not buy eggs mixed in a bowl from them, because they may be from tereifot? If so, it cannot be that the baraita deals with a case where they are mixed, and one should be able to inspect the yolk and albumen.

אלא אמר ר' זירא סימנין לאו דאורייתא דאי לא תימא הכי הא דאמר רב אסי שמנה ספיקות הן ליבדוק בביצים דידהו אלא ש"מ סימנין לאו דאורייתא

Rather, Rabbi Zeira said: The signs of a kosher egg are not valid by Torah law. As, if you do not say so, one encounters difficulty with that which Rav Asi says: There are eight birds whose kosher status is uncertain. Why is there uncertainty? Let one inspect their eggs for the signs listed in the baraita to determine whether they are kosher. Rather, learn from it that the signs are not valid by Torah law and one may not rely on them.

אלא למאי הלכתא קתני לה הכי קאמר ב' ראשיה כדין או ב' ראשיה חדין או חלמון מבחוץ וחלבון מבפנים ודאי טמאה רישיה חד חד רישיה חד כד וחלבון מבחוץ וחלמון מבפנים ואמר לך של עוף פלוני וטהור הוא סמוך עליהם בסתמא לא תסמוך עליהם דאיכא דעורבא דדמי לדיונה

The Gemara asks: But if one may not rely on these signs, with regard to what halakha is the baraita teaching them? The Gemara responds: This is what the baraita is saying: If both of its ends are rounded, or both its ends are pointed, or the yolk is on the outside and the albumen is on the inside, it is certainly non-kosher. But if one of its ends is pointed and one of its ends is rounded, and the albumen is on the outside and the yolk on the inside, and the gentile says to you that it is from such and such bird, and that bird is kosher, rely on the signs. But if he offers no specification of the type of bird, or if one simply finds eggs with these signs, do not rely on them, since there are crow’s eggs that resemble those of a pigeon.

אמר מר חלבון וחלמון מעורבין זה בזה בידוע שהיא ביצת השרץ למאי הלכתא אמר רב עוקבא בר חמא לומר שאם ריקמה וניקבה (בכעדשה מטמא)

The Gemara analyzes the baraita: The Master said: If the albumen and yolk are mixed with each other, it is certainly the egg of a creeping animal and not of a non-kosher bird. The Gemara asks: For what halakha is this information necessary? Either way, the egg is forbidden. Rav Ukva bar Ḥama said: The baraita means to say that if tissue of an embryo developed [rikema] inside it and it was perforated, and one touched it, it transmits ritual impurity provided that the embryo is at least the size of a lentil-bulk, because the carcass of a creeping animal of this size is a source of ritual impurity.

מתקיף לה רבינא ודלמא דנחש היא אלא אמר רבא שאם ריקמה ואכלה לוקה עליה משום שרץ השורץ על הארץ

Ravina objects to this: But perhaps it is the egg of a snake, whose carcass does not transmit ritual impurity, even though the albumen and yolk of its eggs are mixed together. Rather, Rava said: The baraita does not teach about ritual impurity, but rather that if tissue of an embryo developed inside the egg and one ate it, he is flogged on its account, due to the prohibition: “And every swarming thing that swarms upon the earth is a detestable thing; it shall not be eaten” (Leviticus 11:41).

אי הכי מאי איריא דטמאה אפילו דטהורה נמי דתניא (ויקרא יא, מא) כל השרץ השורץ על הארץ

The Gemara asks: If so, why specifically mention the egg of a non-kosher creeping animal? The same would apply even for one who eats the embryo of a kosher bird as well. In either case, one is flogged, as it is taught in a baraita that the verse: “Every swarming thing that swarms upon the earth,”