Chullin 63bחולין ס״ג ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save 'Chullin 63b'
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
63bס״ג ב

מכדי משנה תורה לאוסופי הוא דאתא מאי שנא הכא דכתיב דאה ומ"ש הכא דכתיב ראה ולא כתיב דאה אלא ש"מ מין ראה ודאה אחת היא

one might ask: Since it is assumed that the list in Deuteronomy comes to add to the list in Leviticus, what is different here, in Leviticus, that it is written: “Da’a,” and what is different here, in Deuteronomy, that it is written: “Ra’a,” and da’a is not written? Rather, conclude from the presence of each on only one list that the ra’a and da’a are one species.

ואכתי כ"ה הוו אמר אביי כשם שראה ודאה אחת היא כך איה ודיה אחת היא דאי ס"ד תרתי אינון מכדי משנה תורה לאוסופי הוא דאתא מאי שנא הכא דכתיב למינה אאיה ומ"ש התם דכתיב למינה אדיה אלא ש"מ איה ודיה אחת היא

The Gemara objects: But still, there are twenty-five birds, not twenty-four. Abaye said: Just as the ra’a and da’a are one species, so too, the ayya and the dayya, the latter of which is mentioned only in Deuteronomy, are one species. As, if it enters your mind that they are two different species, one might ask: Since it is assumed that the list in Deuteronomy comes to add to the list in Leviticus, what is different here, in Leviticus, that it is written: “After its kinds,” about the ayya, prohibiting some other kind of ayya, and what is different there, in Deuteronomy, that it is written: “After its kinds,” about the dayya? Why is the ayya not mentioned? Rather, learn from the use of the same phrase with regard to the ayya and dayya that they are one species.

וכי מאחר שאיה ודיה אחת היא למה ליה למיכתב איה ודיה כדתניא רבי אומר אקרא אני איה דיה למה נאמרה כדי שלא תתן פתחון פה לבעל דין לחלוק שלא תהא אתה קורא איה והוא קורא דיה אתה קורא דיה והוא קורא איה לכך כתב במשנה תורה (דברים יד, יג) והראה ואת האיה והדיה למינה

The Gemara asks: And now that the ayya and dayya are one species, why did the Torah need to write both ayya and dayya in Deuteronomy? The Gemara responds: As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Given that the two are one species, I will read ayya and know that it is forbidden. Why is dayya stated? It is so as not to give a claim to a litigant to disagree, and it should not occur that you call it an ayya and he calls it a dayya and eats it. Likewise, the Torah did not write only dayya so that it will not occur that you call it a dayya and he calls it an ayya and eats it. Therefore, the Torah writes in Deuteronomy: “And the ra’a, and the ayya, and the dayya after its kinds” (Deuteronomy 14:13). Consequently, both the list in Leviticus and that in Deuteronomy enumerate twenty-four birds, in accordance with the statement attributed to Rav.

מיתיבי למה נשנו בבהמה מפני השסועה ובעופות מפני הראה מאי לאו מדבהמה דהתם לאוסופי עופות נמי לאוסופי לא התם לאוסופי הכא לפרושי

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Why is the list of non-kosher animals in Leviticus repeated? It is due to the necessity of adding the shesua (Deuteronomy 14:7), which was not listed in Leviticus. And the list of non-kosher birds is repeated due to the ra’a. What, is it not understood from the fact that the extra list of animals there, in Deuteronomy, is to add animals, that the list of birds is also repeated to add birds? The Gemara responds: No, there, i.e., with regard to animals, the list is repeated to add, but here, with regard to birds, it is repeated only to explain.

ופליגא דרבי אבהו דא"ר אבהו ראה זו איה ולמה נקרא שמה ראה שרואה ביותר וכן הוא אומר (איוב כח, ז) נתיב לא ידעו עיט ולא שזפתו עין איה תנא עומדת בבבל ורואה נבלה בארץ ישראל

And the opinion that the da’a and ra’a are one species, and that the ayya and dayya are another species, differs from the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu says: The ra’a is the ayya. And why is it called the ra’a? Since it sees [ro’ah] most vividly. And so the verse states: “That path no bird of prey knows, neither has the eye of the ayya seen it” (Job 28:7). And a Sage taught: The ra’a can stand in Babylonia and see a carcass in Eretz Yisrael.

מדראה היינו איה מכלל דדאה לאו היינו ראה מכדי משנה תורה לאוסופי הוא דאתא מאי שנא הכא דכתיב דאה ומאי שנא התם דלא כתיב דאה אלא לאו ש"מ דאה וראה ואיה אחת היא

The Gemara discusses Rabbi Abbahu’s statement: Since the ra’a is the same as the ayya, by inference, one may conclude that the da’a is not the same as the ra’a; otherwise, there are not twenty-four non-kosher birds. But since it is assumed that the list in Deuteronomy comes to add to the list in Leviticus, what is different here, in Leviticus, that it is written: “Da’a,” and what is different there, in Deuteronomy, that da’a is not written? Rather, must one not conclude from the discrepancy that the two are the same? If so, one must conclude that according to Rabbi Abbahu, the da’a and ra’a and ayya are all one species.

ומדראה היינו איה מכלל דדיה לאו היינו איה מאי שנא התם דכתיב למינהו אאיה ומ"ש הכא דלא כתיב למינהו אאיה אלא אדיה אלא ש"מ דאה וראה דיה ואיה אחת היא

And furthermore, from the fact that Rabbi Abbahu holds that the ra’a is the same as the ayya, by inference, one may conclude that the dayya is not the same as the ayya. But if so, one may ask again: What is different there, in Leviticus, that it is written: “After its kinds,” about the ayya, and what is different here, in Deuteronomy, that it is not written: “After its kinds,” about the ayya but about the dayya? Rather, the ayya and dayya must be one species. And one may learn from the combination of the two disputes that according to Rabbi Abbahu, the da’a and ra’a, dayya and ayya are all one species. Consequently, according to Rabbi Abbahu, there are only twenty-three non-kosher species.

תניא איסי בן יהודה אומר מאה עופות טמאין יש במזרח וכולן מין איה הן תני אבימי בריה דר' אבהו ז' מאות מיני דגים הן וח' מאות מיני חגבים ולעופות אין מספר עופות כ"ד הוו אלא ולעופות טהורים אין מספר

§ With regard to the phrase: “The ayya after its kinds” (Leviticus 11:14), it is taught in a baraita that Isi ben Yehuda says: There are one hundred non-kosher birds in the East, and they are all species of ayya. Avimi, son of Rabbi Abbahu, taught: There are seven hundred types of non-kosher fish, and eight hundred types of non-kosher grasshopper, and there are countless birds. The Gemara protests: Are there countless non-kosher birds? But there are only twenty-four non-kosher birds mentioned in the Torah. Rather, Avimi must have meant: And there are countless kosher birds.

תניא רבי אומר גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שבהמה טמאה מרובה מן הטהורות לפיכך מנה הכתוב בטהורה גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שעופות טהורין מרובין על הטמאין לפיכך מנה הכתוב בטמאין

It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that the species of non-kosher animals are more numerous than the kosher ones. Therefore, the Torah lists the kosher animals, teaching that all the rest are non-kosher. On the other hand, it is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that the species of kosher birds are more numerous than the non-kosher ones. Therefore, the Torah lists the non-kosher birds.

מאי קמ"ל כדרב הונא אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא אמר רב משום ר' מאיר לעולם ישנה אדם לתלמידו דרך קצרה

The Gemara asks: What is this baraita teaching us? The Gemara responds: As Rav Huna says that Rav says, and some say that Rav Huna says that Rav says in the name of Rabbi Meir: A person should always teach his student in a concise manner, just as the Torah is concise in its language.

א"ר יצחק עוף טהור נאכל במסורת נאמן הצייד לומר עוף זה טהור מסר לי רבי א"ר יוחנן והוא שבקי בהן ובשמותיהן

Rabbi Yitzḥak says: A kosher bird may be eaten on the strength of a tradition that it is kosher, without inspecting for the signs listed in the mishna. And the hunter is deemed credible to say: My teacher conveyed to me that this bird is kosher. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And this is the halakha only when the teacher is familiar with the non-kosher birds and with their names.

בעי ר' זירא רבו חכם או רבו צייד ת"ש דא"ר יוחנן והוא שבקי בהן ובשמותיהן אי אמרת בשלמא רבו צייד שפיר אלא אי אמרת רבו חכם בשלמא שמייהו גמיר להו אלא אינהו מי ידע להו אלא לאו ש"מ רבו צייד ש"מ

Rabbi Zeira raises a dilemma: Was Rabbi Yoḥanan referring to the hunter’s teacher the Sage, or to his teacher the hunter, i.e., the one who taught him how to hunt? The Gemara responds: Come and hear proof from that which Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And this applies only when the teacher is familiar with them and with their names. Granted, if you say this is referring to his teacher the hunter, this works out well. But if you say it is referring to his teacher the Sage, granted, a Sage will know their names, since he has learned them, but does he recognize the birds themselves? Rather, must one not conclude from it that Rabbi Yoḥanan referred to his teacher the hunter? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from it that this is so.

ת"ר לוקחין ביצים מן העובדי כוכבים בכל מקום ואין חוששין לא משום נבלות ולא משום טרפות

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: One may buy eggs from the gentiles anywhere, and one need not be concerned, neither with regard to carcasses, i.e., that the egg may have been removed from a carcass of a bird and therefore forbidden, nor with regard to eggs from tereifot, because neither of these possibilities is likely.

ודילמא דעוף טמא נינהו אמר אבוה דשמואל באומר של עוף פלוני טהור ולימא של עוף טהור אי הכי אית ליה לאישתמוטי

The Gemara objects: But perhaps they are from a non-kosher bird. Shmuel’s father said: The baraita is referring to a case where the gentile says they are of such and such bird, which is known to be kosher. The Gemara challenges: But if the gentile is deemed credible, let him say only that they are of a kosher bird. Why does he need to name the species? The Gemara responds: If so, if he does not name the species, he has the opportunity to deflect scrutiny if he is dishonest; but if he names the species, one can bring other eggs of the same species to compare and validate the claim.

ולבדוק בסימנין דתניא כסימני ביצים כך סמני דגים סימני דגים ס"ד סנפיר וקשקשת אמר רחמנא אלא אימא כך סימני

The Gemara asks: But why must one rely on the gentile? Let him inspect the eggs for signs, as it is taught in a baraita: Like the signs of kosher eggs, so too are the signs of fish. The Gemara interjects: Can it enter your mind that the baraita is referring to the signs of fish? The Merciful One states them explicitly in the Torah: “Fins and scales” (Leviticus 11:9). Rather, say: So too are the signs of