Chullin 63a:10חולין ס״ג א:י
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63aס״ג א

בת מזגא חמרא שריא וסימניך יפה כח הבן מכח האב

But the bird called the little wine pourer is permitted. And your mnemonic to remember this is the idiom of the Sages: The power of the son is greater than the power of the father, i.e., the larger is forbidden while the smaller is permitted.

אמר רב יהודה שקיטנא אריכי שקי וסומקי שריא וסימניך מורזמא גוצי וסומקי אסירי וסימניך ננוס פסול אריכי שקי וירוקי אסירי וסימניך ירוקין פסולין

Rav Yehuda says: There are several types of shekitena. The long-shanked red ones are permitted. And your mnemonic to remember this is the murzema bird, which is similar in appearance and known to be kosher. The little red ones are forbidden, and your mnemonic for this is the halakha that a dwarf priest is unfit for Temple service. The long-shanked green, i.e., yellow, ones are forbidden, and your mnemonic for this is the mishna (56a): Innards that have turned green render an animal a tereifa and unfit for consumption.

אמר רב יהודה שלך זה השולה דגים מן הים דוכיפת שהודו כפות תניא נמי הכי דוכיפת שהודו כפות וזהו שהביא שמיר לבית המקדש

Rav Yehuda says: As for the shalakh, listed as a non-kosher bird (see Leviticus 11:17), this is the bird that scoops [sholeh] fish out of the sea. The dukhifat (see Leviticus 11:19) is the bird whose comb seems bent [hodo kafut] due to its thickness. The Gemara notes: This is also taught in a baraita: The dukhifat is the bird whose comb seems bent, and this is the bird that brought the shamir to the Temple. As recounted in tractate Gittin (68b), King Solomon required a unique worm called the shamir to carve stones of the Temple, as the verse states: “There was neither hammer nor ax nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building” (I Kings 6:7).

ר' יוחנן כי הוה חזי שלך אמר (תהלים לו, ז) משפטיך תהום רבה כי הוה חזי נמלה אמר (תהלים לו, ז) צדקתך כהררי אל

The Gemara recounts: When Rabbi Yoḥanan would see a shalakh, he would say: “Your judgments are like the great deep” (Psalms 36:7), as God exacts retribution even upon the fish in the sea. When he would see an ant, he would say the first half of the same verse: “Your righteousness is like the mighty mountains,” as God provides sustenance for the tiny ant just as He does for the largest creatures.

אמר אמימר לקני ובטני שריין שקנאי ובטנאי מקום שנהגו לאכול אוכלין מקום שנהגו שלא לאכול אין אוכלין אטו במנהגא תליא מילתא אין ולא קשיא הא באתרא דשכיחי פרס ועזניה הא באתרא דלא שכיחי פרס ועזניה

Ameimar says: The laknei and batnei birds are permitted. As for the sakna’ei and batna’ei birds, in any place that it is customary to eat them, one may eat them; in any place that it is customary not to eat them, one may not eat them. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that the matter of whether it is permitted depends on custom? The Gemara responds: Yes, but it is not difficult: This place where they are forbidden is a place where the peres and ozniyya are found. Since they are similar to these birds, one must be concerned that people will confuse them, even though the sakna’ei and batna’ei are themselves kosher. That place where they are permitted is a place where the peres and ozniyya are not found.

אמר אביי קואי וקקואי אסירי קקואתא שריא במערבא מלקו עילוה וקרו לה תחוותא

Abaye says: The birds called kevai and kakvai are forbidden, but the kakvata is permitted. Still, in the West, Eretz Yisrael, they flog one who eats it on its account, and they call it taḥveta.

ת"ר (ויקרא יא, יח) תנשמת באות שבעופות אתה אומר באות שבעופות או אינו אלא באות שבשרצים אמרת צא ולמד מי"ג מדות שהתורה נדרשת בהן דבר הלמד מענינו במה הכתוב מדבר בעופות אף כאן בעופות

The Sages taught in a baraita: The tinshemet, listed in the Torah as non-kosher (see Leviticus 11:18), is the ba’ut among birds. One might ask: Do you say that it is the ba’ut among birds, or is it only the ba’ut among creeping animals? The tinshemet is also listed among the creeping animals (see Leviticus 11:30). Say: Go out and learn from the thirteen hermeneutical principles, of which one is: A matter derived from its context. What are the adjacent verses speaking about? They are speaking about birds. So too here, the word tinshemet is referring to birds.

תניא נמי גבי שרצים כה"ג תנשמת באות שבשרצים אתה אומר באות שבשרצים או אינו אלא באות שבעופות אמרת צא ולמד מי"ג מדות שהתורה נדרשת בהן דבר הלמד מענינו במה הכתוב מדבר בשרצים אף כאן בשרצים

The Gemara notes: It is also taught in a baraita in this way with regard to the tinshemet listed among the creeping animals: The tinshemet here is the ba’ut among creeping animals. One might ask: Do you say that it is the ba’ut among creeping animals, or it is only the ba’ut among birds? Say: Go out and learn from the thirteen hermeneutical principles, of which one is: A matter derived from its context. What are the adjacent verses speaking about? They are speaking about creeping animals. So too here, the word tinshemet is referring to creeping animals.

אמר אביי באות שבעופות קיפוף באות שבשרצים קורפדאי אמר רב יהודה קאת זו הקוק רחם זו שרקרק

Abaye says: The ba’ut among birds is commonly called the kifof. The ba’ut among creeping animals is commonly called the kurpedai. Rav Yehuda says: As for the ka’at listed in the Torah as non-kosher (see Leviticus 11:18), this is the bird called a kuk. As for the raḥam, this is the sherakrak.

א"ר יוחנן למה נקרא שמו רחם כיון שבא רחם באו רחמים לעולם אמר רב ביבי בר אביי והוא דיתיב אמידי ועביד שרקרק וגמירי דאי יתיב אארעא ושריק אתא משיחא שנאמר (זכריה י, ח) אשרקה להם ואקבצם

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Why is it called the raḥam? Because when the raḥam comes to Eretz Yisrael, mercy [raḥamim] comes to the world, as it appears at the beginning of the rainy season. Rav Beivai bar Abaye said: And it is a sign of rain only when it sits on something and makes a sherakrak sound. And it is learned as a tradition that if it sits on the ground and hisses [veshareik], this is a sign that the Messiah is coming, as it is stated: “I will hiss [eshreka] for them, and gather them” (Zechariah 10:8).

א"ל רב אדא בר שימי למר בר רב אידאי והא ההוא דיתיב בי כרבא ושרק ואתא גלל אפסקיה למוחיה א"ל ההוא ביידא הוה

Rav Adda bar Shimi said to Mar bar Rav Idai: But wasn’t there a certain raḥam that sat on a plowed field and hissed, and a stone came and broke its head? Mar bar Rav Idai said to him: That raḥam was a liar and was punished for prophesying falsely.

ת"ר עורב זה עורב את כל העורב להביא עורב העמקי למינו להביא עורב הבא בראשי יונים

With regard to the verse: “Every orev after its kinds” (Leviticus 11:15), the Sages taught in a baraita: As for the orev, this is the crow. When the verse states: “Every orev,” this serves to include the valley crow as non-kosher. And the verse states: “After its kinds,” to include the crow that comes at the heads of pigeons.

אמר מר עורב זה עורב אטו קמן קאי אלא אימא עורב זה עורב אוכמא וכן הוא אומר (שיר השירים ה, יא) קווצותיו תלתלים שחורות כעורב העמקי חיוורא וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא יג, כה) ומראהו עמוק מן העור כמראה חמה העמוקה מן הצל

The Gemara explains: The Master said: As for the orev, this is the crow. Is that to say that the particular crow stands before us, such that one immediately knows which one it is? Rather, say: As for the orev, this is the black crow, and so the verse states: “His locks are curled, and black as a crow” (Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara continues to explain the baraita: The valley crow [ha’amaki] is the white crow. And so the verse states with regard to leprosy: “If the appearance thereof be deeper [amok] than the skin” (Leviticus 13:30), and the Sages explained: As the appearance of an area lit by the sun, which seems deeper than the shade, which appears to cover it. There is therefore an association between a valley and the color white.

ועורב הבא בראשי יונים אמר רב פפא לא תימא דאתי בריש יוני אלא דדמי רישיה לדיונה

And with regard to the crow that comes at the heads of pigeons, Rav Pappa said: Do not say that the baraita means that it comes at the head of pigeons, i.e., it dwells with them; rather, it means that this crow’s head resembles that of a pigeon.

ת"ר הנץ זה הנץ למינהו להביא את בר חיריא מאי בר חיריא אמר אביי שורינקא

With regard to the verse: “And the netz after its kinds” (Leviticus 11:16), the Sages taught: As for the netz, this is the hawk. The verse states: “After its kinds,” to include the bird called bar ḥireya. The Gemara asks: What is the bar ḥireya? Abaye said: It is the bird commonly called the shurineka.

אמר רב יהודה החסידה זו דיה לבנה למה נקרא שמה חסידה שעושה חסידות עם חברותיה האנפה זו דיה רגזנית למה נקרא שמה אנפה שמנאפת עם חברותיה

With regard to the verse: “And the ḥasida, and the anafa after its kinds” (Leviticus 11:19), Rav Yehuda says: As for the ḥasida, this is the white dayya. And why is it called ḥasida? Since it performs charity [ḥasidut] for its fellows, giving them from its own food. As for the anafa, this is the irritable dayya. And why is it called anafa? Since it quarrels [mena’efet] with its fellows.

אמר רב חנן בר רב חסדא אמר רב חסדא אמר רב חנן בריה דרבא אמר רב עשרים וארבעה עופות טמאין הן א"ל רב חנן בר רב חסדא לרב חסדא דהיכא אי דויקרא עשרים הוו אי דמשנה תורה עשרים וחד הוו וכי תימא דאה דכתיבא בויקרא ולא כתיבא במשנה תורה שדייה עלייהו אכתי עשרין ותרין הוו

§ Rav Ḥanan bar Rav Ḥisda says that Rav Ḥisda says that Rav Ḥanan, son of Rava, says that Rav says: There are twenty-four non-kosher birds. Rav Ḥanan bar Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Ḥisda, his father: From where in the Torah is this number obtained? If you are referring to the list of Leviticus (11:13–19), there are only twenty birds listed there. If you are referring to the list of Deuteronomy (14:12–18), there are only twenty-one there. And if you would say: Add the da’a, which is written in Leviticus but is not written in Deuteronomy, to the others in Deuteronomy, still there are only twenty-two.

אמר ליה הכי אמר אבוה דאמך משמיה דרב (ויקרא יא, יד) למינה למינה למינו (דברים יד, טו) למינהו הרי כאן ארבע אי הכי עשרין ושית הוו אמר אביי דאה וראה אחת היא דאי סלקא דעתך תרתי אינון

Rav Ḥisda said to him: This is what your mother’s father, Rav Ḥanan, son of Rava, said in the name of Rav: The phrases “after its kinds,” “after its kinds,” “after its kinds,” and “after its kinds,” that appear in each list indicate additional cases. Here, then, are four more. The Gemara objects: If so, there are twenty-six, not twenty-four. Abaye said: The da’a mentioned in Leviticus and the ra’a mentioned in Deuteronomy are one bird. As, if it enters your mind that they are two different birds,