Chullin 62aחולין ס״ב א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Chullin 62a"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
62aס״ב א

היה בקי בהן ובשמותיהן עוף הבא בסימן אחד טהור לא היה בקי בהן ובשמותיהן בסימן אחד טמא בשני סימנין טהור והוא שיכיר עורב

If one is familiar with the non-kosher birds and their names, any bird that comes before him with only one sign is kosher, since he can be sure that it is not the peres or ozniyya, which have only one sign. If he is not familiar with them and their names, any bird that he finds with one sign is non-kosher, since it may be the peres or ozniyya. But if he finds a bird with exactly two signs, it is kosher, provided that he can recognize a crow, since the crow is the only non-kosher bird with exactly two signs.

עורב ותו לא והתניא עורב זה עורב למינו ר' אליעזר אומר להביא את הזרזיר אמרו לו לר' אליעזר והלא אנשי כפר תמרתא שביהודה היו אוכלים אותן מפני שיש להן זפק אמר להם אף הן עתידין ליתן את הדין

The Gemara asks: Must he recognize only the crow and nothing more? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: The verse states: “Every orev after its kinds” (Leviticus 11:15). With regard to the orev, this is the well-known crow; as for the phrase “after its kinds,” Rabbi Eliezer says: It is written to include the zarzir, another type of crow, to teach that it is non-kosher. The Sages said to Rabbi Eliezer: But wouldn’t the people of Kefar Temarta in Judea eat the zarzir, because it has a crop? Rabbi Eliezer said to them: They too will be judged in the future for their transgression.

דבר אחר למינהו להביא סנונית לבנה דברי ר"א אמרו לו והלא אנשי גליל העליון אוכלים אותו מפני שקרקבנו נקלף אמר להם אף הן עתידין ליתן את הדין אלא עורב וכל מין עורב

Alternatively, the phrase “after its kinds” is written to include the white senunit and teach that it is non-kosher; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. The Rabbis said to him: But don’t the people of the upper Galilee eat it, because its gizzard can be peeled? Rabbi Eliezer said to them: They too will be judged in the future for their transgression. In any event, the baraita indicates that other non-kosher birds exist that have two signs, like the crow. The Gemara responds: Rather, Rav Naḥman must have meant that one must be able to recognize the well-known crow and all other species of crow.

אמר אמימר הלכתא עוף הבא בסימן אחד טהור והוא דלא דריס א"ל רב אשי לאמימר הא דרב נחמן מאי א"ל לא שמיע לי כלומר לא סבירא לי מאי איכא משום פרס ועזניה ליתנהו בישוב

Ameimar said: The halakha is: Any bird that comes before a person with one sign is kosher, provided that it does not claw its food. Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: What about that which Rav Naḥman said, that if one finds a bird with exactly one sign, he may eat it only if he can identify all the non-kosher birds in the Torah, to be sure that it is not one of them? Ameimar said to him: I did not hear this statement; that is to say: I do not hold accordingly. What concern is there? Is one concerned because of the peres and ozniyya, which have only one sign? They are not found in settled areas, and one need not be concerned about them.

אמר רב יהודה עוף המסרט כשר לטהרת מצורע וזו היא סנונית לבנה שנחלקו בה ר' אליעזר וחכמים

§ Rav Yehuda says: The bird known as the scratching bird is fit for use in the purification of a leper, i.e., it is kosher. Only kosher birds are fit for this rite, as the verse states: “Then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be purified two living pure birds” (Leviticus 14:4). And this is the white senunit about which Rabbi Eliezer and the Rabbis disagreed in the baraita.

אמר אמימר בחיורא כרסה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דשריא כי פליגי בדירוקא כרסה ר"א אסר ורבנן שרו והלכתא כר"א

Ameimar said: There are two kinds of white senunit. With regard to the senunit with a white belly, everyone agrees that it is permitted for consumption. They disagree when discussing the kind with a yellow belly. Rabbi Eliezer prohibits it, and the Rabbis permit it. And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer.

מר זוטרא מתני הכי בדירוקא כרסה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דאסיר כי פליגי בדחיורא כרסה ר"א אסר ורבנן שרו והלכתא כרבנן דשרו

Mar Zutra teaches the statement of Ameimar in this manner: With regard to the senunit with a yellow belly, everyone agrees that it is prohibited. They disagree when discussing the kind with a white belly. Rabbi Eliezer deems it prohibited, and the Rabbis deem it permitted. And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who deem it permitted.

בשלמא למ"ד בחיורא כרסה פליגי היינו דקתני זו היא סנונית לבנה אלא למ"ד בדירוקא פליגי מאי זו היא סנונית לבנה לאפוקי דבתי דאוכמתי

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that they disagree with regard to the kind with a white belly, this explanation is consistent with that which Rav Yehuda teaches: This is the white senunit about which Rabbi Eliezer and the Rabbis disagreed. But according to the one who says that they disagree with regard to the kind with a yellow belly, what is the meaning of the phrase: This is the white senunit? The Gemara responds: The phrase: White senunit, is used only to exclude the house senunit, which is black.

אמר רחבה אמר רבי יהודה תסיל פסול משום תורין וכשר משום בני יונה דאציפי ותורין של רחבה כשרין משום תורין ופסולין משום בני יונה מתיב רב דניאל בר רב קטינא כל העופות

§ Raḥava says that Rabbi Yehuda says: A young tasil, which is similar to a dove, is unfit for sacrifice as a dove, which is fit only when mature, but it is fit for sacrifice as a pigeon, which is fit only when immature. In other words, the tasil is considered a type of pigeon, not a dove. A mature datzifi bird, and mature doves of Reḥava, are fit as doves, but are unfit as pigeons, since they are types of doves. Rav Daniel bar Rav Ketina raises an objection from a mishna (Para 9:3): All birds