Chullin 52aחולין נ״ב א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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52aנ״ב א

חול הדק לא חיישינן חול הגס חיישינן אבק דרכים חיישינן תיבנא ועביד בזגא חיישינן לא עביד בזגא לא חיישינן

If the bird fell on fine sand, we need not be concerned, because the sand slides on impact, cushioning the fall. If it fell on coarse sand, we must be concerned, because there are large stones mixed into it. If it fell on dust of the road, we must be concerned, because the dust is compact and hard. If the bird fell on bundled straw, we must be concerned, because it is compact and hard. If the straw was not bundled, we need not be concerned.

חיטי וכל דמינייהו חיישינן שערי וכל דמינייהו חיישינן כל מיני קטניות אין בהם משום ריסוקי אברים לבר מן רוביא חימצי אין בו משום ריסוק אברים חפצי יש בו משום ריסוק אברים כללא דמלתא כל מידי דמשריק אין בו משום ריסוק אברים לא משריק יש בו משום ריסוק אברים

If the bird fell on wheat and all similar types of grain, such as spelt or rye, whose kernels are hard, we must be concerned. If it fell on barley and all similar types of grain, such as oats, we must be concerned. With regard to all types of beans, there is no concern due to possible shattered limbs if a bird fell on them, since their round shape causes the bird to slide when it hits them, except for fenugreek. With regard to peas, there is no concern due to possible shattered limbs, but with regard to chickpeas, there is a concern due to possible shattered limbs. The principle of the matter is: With regard to anything that slips to the sides on impact, there is no concern due to possible shattered limbs. And with regard to anything that does not slip, there is a concern due to possible shattered limbs.

דבוק רב אשי שרי אמימר אסר בחד גפא דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דשרי כי פליגי בתרי גפי מאן דאסר אמר לך היכי ניקום ומאן דשרי אמר לך אפשר דניקום אעיקבי דגפי

If the bird’s wings became stuck to a davuk, a board covered with glue set as a trap, and in trying to escape it fell to the ground while stuck to the board, Rav Ashi deemed the bird permitted, while Ameimar deemed it prohibited. The Gemara explains: In a case where only one wing was stuck to the board, everyone agrees that it is permitted, because the bird flaps with the other wing, lessening the impact of the fall. They disagree when both wings are stuck to the board. The one who deemed it prohibited could have said to you: How will it stand itself up so that it might dampen the impact? And the one who deemed it permitted could have said to you: It is possible for it to stand itself up by using the tips of its wings.

ואיכא דאמרי בתרי גפי כ"ע לא פליגי דאסיר כי פליגי בחד גפא מאן דשרי אמר לך אפשר דפרח בחד גפא ומאן דאסר כיון דבהאי לא מצי פרח בהאי נמי לא מצי פרח והילכתא בתרי גפי אסיר בחד גפא שרי:

And there are those who say: In a case where two wings were stuck to the board, everyone agrees that it is prohibited, because it cannot dampen the impact. They disagree when only one wing is stuck to the board. The one who deemed it permitted could have said to you: It is possible for it to fly with one wing and dampen the fall. And the one who deemed it prohibited could say: Since it cannot fly with this wing that is stuck to the davuk, it also cannot fly with that untrapped wing. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is: In a case where two wings were stuck, it is prohibited. In a case where only one wing was stuck, it is permitted.

נשתברו רוב צלעותיה: תנו רבנן אלו הן רוב צלעות שש מכאן ושש מכאן או אחת עשרה מכאן ואחת מכאן

§ The mishna states that if most of an animal’s ribs were fractured, it is a tereifa. The Sages taught: These are most of the ribs: Six from here and six from there, i.e., six on each side, or eleven from here and one from there. Twenty-two ribs are significant for matters of tereifot, eleven on each side. Twelve fractured ribs constitutes a majority.

אמר זעירי ומחציין כלפי שדרה אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ובצלעות גדולות שיש בהן מוח

Ze’eiri says: And this applies only when the ribs were fractured from the half of the rib toward the spine, but not if they were fractured on the other half. Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: And this applies only to fractures occurring in large ribs that contain marrow; fractures in small ribs do not render the animal a tereifa.

אמר עולא בן זכאי אמר נעקרו ברוב צד אחד נשתברו ברוב שני צדדין רבי יוחנן אמר בין נעקרו בין נשתברו ברוב שני צדדין

§ Ulla said that ben Zakkai says: If the ribs were dislocated from the spine, even a majority of one side, i.e., six dislocated ribs, is enough to render the animal a tereifa. Only if the ribs were broken is a majority of both sides necessary. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Whether they were dislocated or broken, the animal is a tereifa only with a majority of both sides.

אמר רב נעקרה צלע וחוליא עמה טרפה אמרי ליה רב כהנא ורב אסי לרב נעקרה צלע מכאן וצלע מכאן וחוליא קיימת מהו אמר להו גיסטרא קאמריתו

Rav says: If a rib was dislocated and the attached vertebra was torn out with it, the animal is a tereifa, even if the spinal cord remains intact. Rav Kahana and Rav Asi said to Rav: If a rib was dislocated from here and another rib from there, i.e., both ribs connected to a single vertebra were dislocated, but the vertebra itself remains intact, what is the halakha? Rav said to them: Are you saying that an animal that was sliced in half is a tereifa? This animal is considered to have been sliced and already has the status of a carcass, as it is already considered dead (see 21a).

והא רב נמי גיסטרא קאמר כי קאמר רב צלע בלא חוליא

The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rav also say that a sliced animal is a tereifa, since he said that if a rib was dislocated along with the attached vertebra, the animal is a tereifa? In such a case, the opposite rib is inevitably detached. If so, the animal should be considered a carcass. The Gemara responds: When Rav said that such an animal is a tereifa, he was referring to a case where the rib was dislocated without the vertebra.

והא צלע וחוליא קאמר צלע וחצי חוליא

The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rav explicitly say his statement with regard to a rib and vertebra that were dislocated? The Gemara responds: Rav meant that if a rib and half its attached vertebra were dislocated, the animal is a tereifa. The opposite rib, however, is intact and connected to the remainder of the vertebra.

מכלל דרב כהנא ורב אסי צלע בלא חוליא אמרי ואמר להו גיסטרא קאמריתו והאמר עולא בן זכאי אמר נעקרו ברוב צד אחד נשתברו ברוב שני צדדין

The Gemara challenges: By inference, one may conclude that Rav Kahana and Rav Asi stated their question with regard to a less serious case, i.e., where a rib from each side was torn out without the vertebra being damaged at all. And yet, Rav said to them: Are you saying that an animal that was sliced in half is a tereifa? Rather, this animal is a carcass and is certainly prohibited. And how could Rav say this? But didn’t Ulla say that ben Zakkai says: If the ribs were dislocated, even a majority of one side is enough to render the animal a tereifa, while if the ribs were broken, a majority of both sides is necessary? If so, any animal with fewer than six dislocated ribs should be kosher, as long as the spine is undamaged.

אמר לך התם זה שלא כנגד זה הכא זה כנגד זה

The Gemara responds: Rav could have said to you: There, where ben Zakkai says that six dislocated ribs on one side render the animal a tereifa, this is referring only to ribs not dislocated one opposite the other. Here, where Rav says that two dislocated ribs render the animal a carcass, this is referring to ribs dislocated one opposite the other.

והאמר רבי יוחנן ברוב שני צדדין וברוב שני צדדין אי אפשר דלא קיימא חד מינייהו זה כנגד זה

The Gemara asks: But doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say that the animal is a tereifa only if a majority of both sides was dislocated, and in a majority of both sides, it is impossible that one of them is not situated opposite another? Still, Rabbi Yoḥanan says that the animal is a tereifa and not a carcass.

התם בוכנא בלא אסיתא הכא בוכנא ואסיתא

The Gemara responds: There, Rabbi Yoḥanan is referring to a case where the pestle, i.e., the end of the rib, was torn out without the mortar, the socket of the vertebra in which it sits, leaving the spine completely intact. In such a case, the animal is a tereifa only if twelve ribs were dislocated, even though this necessarily includes one rib opposite another. Here, where Rav says that two dislocated ribs opposite one another render the animal a carcass, that is referring to a case where the pestle and mortar were torn out together, damaging the spine.

אי הכי היינו דרב לא שמיע להו דרב

The Gemara asks: If so, why did Rav Kahana and Rav Asi ask anything of Rav? Their case in question is identical to the statement of Rav. If Rav says that the animal is a tereifa if a rib and part of its vertebra were dislocated, that should be the halakha all the more so if ribs opposite one another were dislocated in addition to part of the attached vertebra. The Gemara responds: Rav Kahana and Rav Asi did not hear that statement of Rav.

וליבעו מיניה כדרב סברי ליבעי מיניה חדא דפריש לן תרתי דאי בעינן מיניה חדא הניחא אי אמר לן טרפה כל שכן תרתי אי אמר לן כשרה אכתי תרתי קא מיבעיא לן

The Gemara persists: But if so, let them ask about the simpler case of one dislocated rib, like that which Rav himself discussed. Why ask specifically about two ribs opposite one another? The Gemara responds: They reasoned: Let us ask him one question through which he will explain to us two different cases. As, if we ask him about only one dislocated rib, this works out well if he says to us that the animal is a tereifa, because we can infer that all the more so if two ribs opposite one another are dislocated, the animal is a tereifa. But if he says to us that it is kosher, we must still ask with regard to a case of two dislocated ribs.

אי הכי השתא נמי דקא בעי מיניה תרתי הניחא אי אמר להו כשרה כל שכן חדא ואי אמר להו טרפה אכתי חדא מיבעיא להו

The Gemara objects: If that is so, then now, too, when they ask him about two ribs, they may not receive an answer with regard to both cases. Granted, this works out well if he says to them that an animal with two dislocated ribs opposite one another is kosher, since they can infer that all the more so it is kosher if only one rib is dislocated. But if he says to them that it is a tereifa, they must still ask with regard to a case of only one dislocated rib.

סברי אם כן מירתח קא רתח חדא טרפה תרתי מיבעיא

The Gemara responds: They reasoned that it is better to ask about a case where two ribs opposite one another were dislocated, because if it is so that Rav holds that the animal is a tereifa if even one rib is dislocated, then he would become angry and respond: If an animal with even one dislocated rib is a tereifa, is it necessary to ask about an animal with two dislocated ribs?

והא קא אמרי ליה ולא רתח כיון דקאמר להו גיסטרא קאמריתו היינו ריתחיה

The Gemara objects: But they did say this question to him and he did not become angry, despite the fact that he holds that even one dislocated rib renders the animal a tereifa. The Gemara responds: When he said to them: Are you saying that an animal that was sliced in half is a tereifa, this is his anger. Rav Kahana and Rav Asi understood from this response that an animal with two dislocated ribs opposite one another is a carcass, but an animal with one dislocated rib is a tereifa.

אמר רבה בר רב שילא אמר רב מתנא אמר שמואל נעקרה צלע מעיקרה וגולגולת שנחבסה ברובה ובשר החופה את רוב הכרס ברובו טרפה

§ Rabba bar Rav Sheila says that Rav Mattana says that Shmuel says: If a rib was ripped from its root, or if the skull was crushed in its majority, or if the flesh that envelops the majority of the rumen was damaged in its majority, the animal is a tereifa.

נעקרה צלע מעיקרה טרפה ורמינהו

The Gemara asks: Did Shmuel really say that if a rib was ripped from its root, the animal is a tereifa? But raise a contradiction from a mishna (Oholot 2:3):