Chullin 49aחולין מ״ט א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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49aמ״ט א

בעובי בית הכוסות מצד אחד כשרה משני צדדין טרפה ולא אמרינן ליחזי אי קופא לבר אי קופא לגיו

embedded in the thickness of the wall of the reticulum, where the halakha is as follows: If the needle protrudes from one side, i.e., the inner side of the stomach wall, the animal is kosher, but if it protrudes from both sides, it is a tereifa; and if it protrudes only on the inside we do not say: See if the eye of the needle is facing outward or if the eye of the needle is facing inward? Rather, the animal is deemed kosher even if the eye is facing outward, and that is not considered evidence that the needle perforated through the gullet into the chest cavity and then perforated the thickness of the reticulum.

אמרי התם כיון דאיכא אוכלים ומשקים אימא אוכלים ומשקים דחקוה

The Sages say in response: There, in the case of the reticulum, since there are food and liquid present, one may say that the food and liquid pushed the eye of the needle through the stomach wall. Therefore, even if the eye points outward, one may still presume that the needle came from the inside, and the animal is kosher.

ההוא מחטא דאישתכח בסמפונא רבה דכבדא הונא מר בריה דרב אידי טריף רב אדא בר מניומי מכשר אתו שיילוה לרבינא אמר להו שקילו גלימא דטרופאי

The Gemara relates that there was a certain needle that was found in the large duct of a liver. Huna Mar, son of Rav Idi, deemed the animal a tereifa, while Rav Adda bar Minyumi deemed it kosher. They came and asked Ravina about the issue, and he said to them: Take the robe of those who deemed it a tereifa. They must pay restitution to the owner of the animal, who was wrongfully forced to discard his kosher meat.

ההיא קשיתא דאישתכח במרה אמר רב אשי כי הוינן בי רב כהנא אמר הא ודאי סימפונא נקט ואתאי אע"ג דלא קא נפקא מירבל הוא דרביל ליה וה"מ דדיקלא אבל דזיתא מיבזע בזע

The Gemara relates that there was a certain date pit that was found in a gallbladder. Rav Ashi said: When we were in the house of Rav Kahana as students, he would say with regard to such a case: This date pit certainly took the route of the duct connecting the liver and gallbladder and came through it to the gallbladder, as it is not sharp enough to have perforated the gallbladder from without. Even though it is large enough that it does not exit the gallbladder if one tries to squeeze it into the duct, one may still assume that the movements of the animal’s body gradually cause it to slip through the duct. The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only to the pit of a palm, i.e., of a date, but the pit of an olive is pointed. Therefore, one must be concerned that it has pierced the wall of the gallbladder, rendering the animal a tereifa.

א"ר יוחנן למה נקרא שמה ריאה שמאירה את העינים איבעיא להו לאכילה או ע"י סמנין

§ The Gemara returns to its discussion of the lung: Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Why is the lung called rei’a in Hebrew? Because it lights up [me’ira] the eyes of one who eats it. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is Rabbi Yoḥanan referring to a lung eaten as is, or is he referring to a lung eaten only through its treatment with certain substances?

ת"ש דאמר רב הונא בר יהודה אווזא בזוזא וריאה דידה בארבעה ואי ס"ד לאכילה לינקט בזוזא וליכול אלא ע"י סמנין

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a resolution from that which Rav Huna bar Yehuda says: A goose may be purchased for a dinar, but its lung may be purchased for four dinars. And if it should enter your mind that Rabbi Yoḥanan is referring to eating the lung without treating it, one has no incentive to buy a lung separately for more money. Let him buy the whole goose for a dinar and eat the lung that comes included. Rather, it must be that the lung gains special properties only through treatment with certain substances, and this treatment is the reason for the higher price.

אינקבה ריאה היכא דממשמשא ידיה דטבחא תלינן או לא תלינן רב אדא בר נתן אמר תלינן מר זוטרא בריה דרב מרי אמר לא תלינן והלכתא תלינן

§ The Gemara asks: If the lung is perforated where the hand of the butcher handles it after slaughter, do we attribute the perforation to the butcher’s handling, or do we not attribute the perforation to the handling, in which case the animal is a tereifa? Rav Adda bar Natan says: We attribute it to the butcher’s handling, while Mar Zutra, son of Rav Mari, says: We do not attribute it to the handling. And the halakha is that we attribute it to the handling.

אמר רב שמואל בריה דרבי אבהו אבא מרישי כלי דרפרם הוה ואמר תלינן אמרוה קמיה להא דמר זוטרא בריה דרב מרי ולא קבלה

Rav Shmuel, son of Rabbi Abbahu, said: My father was one of the heads of the kalla lectures of Rafram, and he said: We attribute it to the handling. They said this halakha of Mar Zutra, son of Rav Mari, who held the opposite, before Rav Shmuel, and he did not accept it.

אמר רב משרשיא כוותיה דאבוה דאבא מסתברא דהא תלינן בזאב

Rav Mesharshiyya said: It stands to reason that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Grandfather, i.e., Rav Adda bar Natan, as we attribute perforations to a wolf. If slaughtered meat is recovered from a wolf and found to have a perforation that would have rendered the animal a tereifa, one may attribute the perforation to the wolf and presume that it did not exist beforehand.

מורנא פליגי בה רב יוסף בר דוסאי ורבנן חד אמר קודם שחיטה פריש וחד אמר לאחר שחיטה פריש והלכתא לאחר שחיטה פריש:

Furthermore, if a perforation was caused by a worm [murana], Rav Yosef bar Dosai and the Rabbis disagree. One says that the worm emerged from the lung and perforated it before the slaughter, and the animal is a tereifa, and one says that it emerged after the slaughter, and the animal is kosher. And the halakha is that one presumes that it emerged after the slaughter.

ר"ש אומר עד שתינקב: אמר רבה בר תחליפא א"ר ירמיה בר אבא עד שתינקב לסמפון גדול

§ The mishna states: Rabbi Shimon says: An animal with a perforated lung is not a tereifa until it is perforated through to the bronchi. With regard to this, Rabba bar Taḥlifa says that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba says: Rabbi Shimon meant specifically that it is not a tereifa unless it is perforated through to the large bronchus, from which the smaller bronchi branch out.

יתיב רב אחא בר אבא קמיה דרב הונא ויתיב וקאמר אמר רבי מלוך א"ר יהושע בן לוי הלכה כר"ש א"ל מלוך ערבאה קאמרת אין הלכה כר"ש קאמר

The Gemara relates that Rav Aḥa bar Abba sat before Rav Huna, and he was sitting and saying: Rabbi Malokh says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. Rav Huna said to him: Are you saying this in the name of Malokh the Arab? He says that the halakha is not in accordance with Rabbi Shimon.

כי סליק רבי זירא אשכחיה לרב ביבי דיתיב וקאמר א"ר מלוך א"ר יהושע בן לוי הלכה כר"ש א"ל חיי דמר דאנא ורבי חייא בר אבא ורב אסי איקלעינן לאתריה דרבי מלוך ואמרי ליה אי אמר מר הלכה כרבי שמעון ואמר לן אין הלכה כר"ש אמרי ואת מה בידך א"ל הכי א"ר יצחק בר אמי אריב"ל הלכה כר"ש

The Gemara continues: When Rabbi Zeira went up to Eretz Yisrael, he found Rav Beivai, who was sitting and saying: Rabbi Malokh says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Zeira said to him: On the Master’s life, I and Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and Rav Asi visited the place of residence of Rabbi Malokh, and we said to him: Did the Master say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? And he said to us: I said that the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. Rav Beivai asked Rabbi Zeira: And you, what more do you have in your possession on this matter? Rabbi Zeira said to him: This is what Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Ami says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.

ואין הלכה כרבי שמעון:

The Gemara rules: And the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. Any perforation of the membranes of the lung renders the animal a tereifa.

ניקבה הקבה: אמר רבי יצחק בר נחמני א"ר אושעיא חלב שע"ג קבה כהנים נהגו בו היתר כרבי ישמעאל שאמר משום אבותיו וסימניך ישמעאל כהנא מסייע כהני

§ The mishna states: If the abomasum was perforated, the animal is a tereifa. Concerning this, Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Oshaya says: With regard to fat that is on the abomasum, the priests accustomed themselves to consider it permitted, and they would eat it along with the rest of the abomasum, which was given to them from non-sacred animals as one of the gifts of the priesthood. This is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael that he says in the name of his forefathers. And since there is a disagreement between the Sages with regard to this issue, your mnemonic to remember the lenient opinion is the idiom: Yishmael the priest generally helps the priests.

מאי היא דתניא (במדבר ו, כג) כה תברכו את בני ישראל רבי ישמעאל אומר למדנו ברכה לישראל מפי כהנים לכהנים עצמן לא למדנו כשהוא אומר ואני אברכם הוי אומר כהנים מברכין לישראל והקדוש ברוך הוא מברך לכהנים

The Gemara clarifies: What is this, i.e., where does Rabbi Yishmael help the priests? As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the priestly benediction: “So you shall bless the children of Israel” (Numbers 6:23). Rabbi Yishmael says: We learn from this verse about a blessing for Israel from the mouth of the priests, but we have not learned about a blessing for the priests themselves. When it says afterward with regard to the priests: “And they shall put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them” (Numbers 6:27), you must say: The priests bless Israel, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, blesses the priests.

רבי עקיבא אומר למדנו ברכה לישראל מפי כהנים מפי גבורה לא למדנו כשהוא אומר ואני אברכם הוי אומר כהנים מברכין לישראל והקדוש ברוך הוא מסכים על ידם

Rabbi Akiva says a different interpretation: We learned from the verse about a blessing for Israel from the mouth of the priests, but we have not learned about a blessing for Israel from the mouth of the Almighty. When it says afterward: “And they shall put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them,” you must say: The priests bless Israel, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, affirms their blessing. The word “them” is referring to Israel.

אלא רבי עקיבא ברכה לכהנים מנא ליה אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק (בראשית יב, ג) מואברכה מברכיך

The Gemara asks: But then from where does Rabbi Akiva learn about a blessing for the priests? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: He learns it from God’s promise to Abraham: “And I will bless them that bless you” (Genesis 12:3). All who bless the Jewish people are blessed themselves.

ומאי מסייע כהני דמוקי לה לברכת כהנים במקום ברכה דישראל

The Gemara asks: And in what sense does only Rabbi Yishmael help the priests, given that Rabbi Akiva concedes that the priests are also blessed? The Gemara responds: He helps the priests in the sense that he establishes the blessing for the priests in the same place, the same verse, that one finds the blessing of Israel, indicating that they receive the same blessing.

רבי ישמעאל שאמר משום אבותיו מאי היא דתניא (ויקרא ג, ג) את כל החלב אשר על הקרב

It was stated that the priests accustomed themselves to permit the fat on the abomasum, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yishmael that he says in the name of his forefathers. The Gemara clarifies: What is this statement? As it is taught in a baraita that when the verse states with regard to forbidden fats mentioned in the Torah: “All the fat that is upon the innards” (Leviticus 3:3),