מתני׳ ראשית הגז נוהג בארץ ובחו"ל בפני הבית ושלא בפני הבית בחולין אבל לא במוקדשים
MISHNA: The mitzva of the first sheared wool that every Jew must give to the priest, as stated in the verse: “And the first sheared wool of your flock [tzonekha] shall you give him” (Deuteronomy 18:4), applies both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael, in the presence of the Temple and not in the presence of the Temple, and with regard to non-sacred animals. But it does not apply to sacrificial animals.
חומר בזרוע ולחיים ובקבה מראשית הגז שהזרוע והלחיים והקבה נוהגין בבקר ובצאן במרובה ובמועט וראשית הגז אינו נוהג אלא ברחלות ואינו נוהג אלא במרובה
There are more stringent elements in the mitzva of the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw (see 130a) than in the halakha of the first sheared wool in that the mitzva of the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw applies to cattle and to sheep, as it is written: “Whether it be ox or sheep, that he shall give unto the priest the foreleg, and the jaw, and the maw” (Deuteronomy 18:3); and it applies to numerous animals and to few animals. But by contrast, the mitzva of the first sheared wool applies only to sheep and not to goats and cattle, and applies only to numerous animals.
וכמה הוא מרובה ב"ש אומרים שתי רחלות שנאמר (ישעיהו ז, כא) יחיה איש עגלת בקר ושתי צאן וב"ה אומרים [חמש שנאמר (שמואל א כה, יח) חמש צאן עשויות
And how many are numerous? Beit Shammai say: It is at least two sheep, as it is stated: “That a man shall rear a young cow, and two sheep [tzon]” (Isaiah 7:21), indicating that two sheep are characterized as tzon; and the mitzva of the first sheared wool is written using the term “your flock [tzonekha].” And Beit Hillel say: It is at least five sheep, as it is stated: “And five sheep [tzon] made” (I Samuel 25:18).
רבי דוסא בן הרכינס אומר חמש רחלות גוזזות מנה מנה ופרס חייבות בראשית הגז וחכ"א חמש רחלות גוזזות כל שהן
Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas says: When shearing five sheep, the sheared wool of each sheep weighing one hundred dinars each and half [peras] of one hundred dinars each, i.e., one hundred and fifty dinars each, are subject to the obligation of the first sheared wool, i.e., they render the owner obligated to give the first sheared wool to the priests. And the Rabbis say: Any five sheep, each of whose sheared wool weighs any amount, render the owner obligated in the mitzva.
וכמה נותנין לו משקל חמש סלעים ביהודה שהן עשר סלעים בגליל מלובן ולא צואי כדי לעשות ממנו בגד קטן שנאמר (דברים יח, ד) תתן לו שיהא בו כדי מתנה
And how much of the sheared wool does one give to the priest? One gives him sheared wool of the weight of five sela in Judea, which are the equivalent of ten sela in the Galilee, as the weight of the Galilean sela is half that of the Judean sela. Furthermore, although one may give the wool to the priest without laundering it, this must be the weight of the wool once laundered and not when sullied, as is characteristic of wool when sheared. The measure that must be given to the priest is enough to fashion a small garment from it, as it is stated: “Shall you give him” (Deuteronomy 18:4), indicating that the sheared wool must contain enough for a proper gift.
לא הספיק ליתנו לו עד שצבעו פטור לבנו ולא צבעו חייב
If the owner of the shearing did not manage to give it to the priest until he dyed it, the owner is exempt from the mitzva of the first sheared wool, as this constitutes a change in the wool by which means he acquires ownership of it. If he laundered it but did not dye it, he is obligated to give the first sheared wool, as laundering does not constitute a change in the wool.
הלוקח גז צאנו של עובד כוכבים פטור מראשית הגז הלוקח גז צאנו של חבירו אם שייר המוכר חייב לא שייר הלוקח חייב היו לו שני מינים שחופות ולבנות מכר לו שחופות אבל לא לבנות זכרים אבל לא נקבות זה נותן לעצמו וזה נותן לעצמו:
One who purchases the fleece of the sheep of a gentile is exempt from the obligation of giving the first sheared wool to the priest. With regard to one who purchases the fleece of the sheep of another Jew, if the seller kept some of the wool, then the seller is obligated to give the first sheared wool to the priest. If the seller did not keep any of the wool, the buyer is obligated to give it. If the seller had two types of sheep, gray and white, and he sold the buyer the gray fleece but not the white fleece, or if he sold the fleece of the male sheep but not of the female sheep, then this one, the seller, gives the first sheared wool for himself to the priest from the wool that he kept, and that one, the buyer, gives the first sheared wool for himself to the priest from the wool that he bought.
גמ׳ במוקדשין מאי טעמא לא אמר קרא (דברים יח, ד) צאנך ולא צאן הקדש
GEMARA: The mishna states that the mitzva of the first sheared wool does not apply to sacrificial animals. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that it does not apply? The Gemara answers that the verse states: “Your flock” (Deuteronomy 18:4), indicating that the mitzva applies to non-sacred animals, which belong to a private individual, and not to a flock that is consecrated property.
טעמא דכתב רחמנא צאנך הא לאו הכי הוה אמינא קדשים חייבים בראשית הגז הא לאו בני גיזה נינהו דכתיב (דברים טו, יט) ולא תגוז בכור צאנך
The Gemara challenges: The reason for the exemption of sacrificial animals is that the Merciful One writes “your flock,” from which it may be inferred that were that not the case I would say that even with regard to sacrificial animals one is obligated in the mitzva of the first sheared wool. But this suggestion is impossible, since they are not fit for shearing, as it is written with regard to firstborn animals, which are consecrated: “And you shall not shear the firstborn of your flock” (Deuteronomy 15:19).
אי בקדשי מזבח הכי נמי הכא במאי עסקינן בקדשי בדק הבית
The Gemara explains: If the mishna was referring to sheep consecrated for the altar, indeed there would be no need to derive their exemption from the verse. But here we are dealing with sheep consecrated to the treasury for Temple maintenance, which it is permitted to shear, and the verse teaches that even with regard to these one is exempt from the mitzva of the first sheared wool.
והאמר ר"א קדשי בדק הבית אסורים בגיזה ועבודה מדרבנן סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ומדאורייתא בני גיזה נינהו היכא דגזז ליה ליתיב ליה
The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rabbi Elazar say with regard to animals consecrated for Temple maintenance that it is prohibited to shear them or to work them? The Gemara answers: The prohibition with regard to animals consecrated for Temple maintenance applies by rabbinic law, not by Torah law. Therefore, it might enter your mind to say that since by Torah law they are fit for shearing, in a case where one transgressed the rabbinical prohibition and sheared the consecrated sheep, he should give the first sheared wool to the priest. Consequently, the verse teaches that he is exempt from the mitzva of the first sheared wool.
והא קדיש לה סד"א לפרוק וליתיב ליה
The Gemara objects: But since he consecrated the wool it is consecrated property, and therefore in practice it cannot be given to a priest. Consequently, there is no need to derive their exemption from the verse. The Gemara explains: It might enter your mind to say that the owner is required to redeem the wool by giving its value to the Temple treasury and then give it to the priest.
והא בעי העמדה והערכה הניחא למאן דאמר קדשי בדק הבית לא היו בכלל העמדה והערכה אלא למ"ד היו מאי איכא למימר
The Gemara objects: But when an animal is redeemed it requires standing and valuation, as it is written: “And he shall stand the animal before the priest, and the priest shall value it, whether it be good or bad; as the priest evaluates it, so shall it be” (Leviticus 27:11–12). Once the wool has been sheared this process cannot be performed, which means that the wool cannot be redeemed. The Gemara comments: This works out well according to the one who said that animals consecrated for Temple maintenance were not included in the requirement of standing and valuation. But according to the one who said that they were included in this requirement, what can be said?
אמר ר' מני בר פטיש משום ר' ינאי הכא במקדיש בהמתו לבדק הבית חוץ מגיזותיה סד"א ליגזוז וליתיב ליה אמר קרא צאנך ולא צאן של הקדש
Rabbi Mani bar Pattish said in the name of Rabbi Yannai: The statement here in the mishna is referring to a case where one consecrated the rest of his animal for Temple maintenance except for its fleece, which he reserved for himself. Because the owner did not consecrate the wool, it might enter your mind to say: Let him shear the sheep and be obligated to give the wool to the priest. Therefore, the verse states: “Your flock,” indicating that the mitzva applies to non-sacred animals, which belong to an individual, and not to sheep that are consecrated property.
אי הכי קדשי מזבח נמי כחשי
The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, that the mishna is discussing a case where one consecrated an animal except for its fleece, one could say that it is also referring to animals consecrated for the altar. The Gemara answers: The mishna cannot be discussing animals consecrated for the altar, as it is prohibited to shear them even if their fleece was not consecrated. The reason is that this causes the animal to become weakened, which entails a loss of consecrated property.
קדשי בדק הבית נמי כחשי דאמר חוץ מגיזה וכחישה
The Gemara objects: But animals consecrated for Temple maintenance are also weakened by shearing, and therefore it should be prohibited to shear them as well. The Gemara explains: The mishna is referring to a case where one said that he consecrates his animal for Temple maintenance except for both its fleece and its weakening, i.e., the loss of strength caused by shearing.
קדשי מזבח נמי דאמר חוץ מגיזה וכחישה אפ"ה פשטה קדושה בכולה
The Gemara further objects: The mishna could also be referring to animals consecrated for the altar in a case where one said that he consecrates the animal except for both its fleece and the weakening, i.e., the loss in strength caused by shearing. The Gemara explains: With regard to animals consecrated for the altar this stipulation is ineffective, as even so, i.e., despite his declaration, the sanctity extends to the entire animal, and therefore it is prohibited to shear it.
ומנא תימרא דאמר ר' יוסי והלא במוקדשין האומר רגלה של זו עולה כולה עולה ואפי' לר"מ דאמר אין כולה עולה הני מילי דאקדיש דבר שאין הנשמה תלויה בו אבל הקדיש דבר שהנשמה תלויה בו קדשה
The Gemara explains: And from where do you say that if one consecrates an animal for the altar the sanctity extends to the entire animal? This is as Rabbi Yosei said: Isn’t it the halakha with regard to sacrificial animals that if one says: The leg of this animal is consecrated as a burnt offering, then the entire animal is a burnt offering, as the sanctity of the leg spreads throughout the animal’s body? And even according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir that it is not entirely a burnt offering, that statement of Rabbi Meir applies only where he consecrated its leg, which is not a matter, i.e., a limb, upon which the animal’s life depends. It is possible for an animal to survive the removal of a leg. But if one consecrated a matter upon which the animal’s life depends, everyone agrees that all of it is consecrated.
רבא אמר במקדיש גיזה עצמה סד"א ליגזוז וליפרוק וליתיב ליה
§ Rava said that there is no need to interpret the mishna as discussing a case where one consecrated a whole animal apart from its fleece and the loss caused by shearing. Rather, the mishna is referring to one who consecrates the fleece itself to the treasury for Temple maintenance, but not the sheep. It might enter your mind to say: Let him shear the sheep and redeem the wool by giving its value to the Temple treasury, and then be required to give the wool to the priest.
אמר קרא (דברים יח, ד) גז צאנך תתן לו מי שאין מחוסר אלא גזיזה ונתינה יצא זה שמחוסר גזיזה פדייה ונתינה
Therefore, the verse states: “The first sheared wool of your flock, shall you give him” (Deuteronomy 18:4), which indicates that there should be no additional action between shearing and giving the first sheared wool to the priest. In other words, the mitzva of first sheared wool applies to a sheep that is lacking only shearing and giving, which excludes this sheep that is lacking shearing, redeeming, and giving.
אלא צאנך למאי אתא לכדתניא בהמת השותפים חייב בראשית הגז ור' אלעאי פוטר מ"ט דר' אלעאי אמר קרא צאנך ולא של שותפות
The Gemara asks: But if this verse is the source of the exemption of consecrated animals, then for what purpose does the term “your flock” come? That term also indicates that certain sheep are excluded from the mitzva. The Gemara answers that it is necessary for that which is taught in a baraita: An animal owned by two partners is obligated, i.e., renders its owners obligated, in the mitzva of the first sheared wool, but Rabbi Ilai exempts them. What is the reason for the ruling of Rabbi Ilai? The reason is that the verse states “your flock,” using the singular pronoun, indicating that the mitzva applies to animals belonging to an individual, but not to sheep that are owned in partnership.
ורבנן למעוטי שותפות עובד כוכבים ור' אלעאי שותפות עובד כוכבים מנא ליה
The Gemara asks: But according to the Rabbis, who hold that joint owners of sheep are obligated in the mitzva of the first sheared wool, what is excluded by the term “your flock”? The Gemara answers that this serves to exclude an animal owned in partnership with a gentile. The Gemara asks: And from where does Rabbi Ilai derive that an animal owned in partnership with a gentile renders its Jewish owner exempt from the mitzva?
נפקא ליה מרישא דקרא (דברים יח, ד) ראשית דגנך ולא שותפות עובד כוכבים
The Gemara answers: He derives it from the beginning of this verse, which states with regard to teruma: “The first fruits of your grain, of your wine, and of your oil” (Deuteronomy 18:4), using the singular pronoun. This indicates that only in the case of produce owned by a Jew is one obligated to separate teruma, but not with regard to that which is owned in partnership with a gentile.
ורבנן ראשית (הגז) הפסיק הענין
The Gemara asks: And why do the Rabbis, who derive the exemption of sheep owned in partnership with a gentile from the term “your flock,” not derive this from the term “your grain”? The Gemara answers that the repetition of the term “the first” with regard to the first sheared wool: “The first fruits of your grain, of your wine, and of your oil, and the first sheared wool of your flock, shall you give him” (Deuteronomy 18:4), is an indication that the verse concluded discussion of the previous matter. The superfluous mention of “first” signals that the two issues discussed in this verse, which are the first fruits, i.e., teruma, and the first sheared wool, are two separate matters. Therefore, one cannot derive the halakhot of one from the other.
ור' אלעאי וי"ו הדר ערביה
The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Ilai respond to the Rabbis’ claim? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ilai holds that when the verse states: “And the first sheared wool,” the conjunction “and” goes back and combines the two matters together.