Chullin 130a:1-17חולין ק״ל א:א׳-י״ז
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130aק״ל א

מתני׳ הזרוע והלחיים והקבה נוהגין בארץ ובחוצה לארץ בפני הבית ושלא בפני הבית בחולין אבל לא במוקדשין

MISHNA: The mitzva to give the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw of slaughtered animals to the priests, known as the gifts of the priesthood, applies both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael, in the presence of the Temple and not in the presence of the Temple, and it applies to non-sacred animals, but not to sacrificial animals.

שהיה בדין ומה אם החולין שאינן חייבים בחזה ושוק חייבים במתנות קדשים שחייבים בחזה ושוק אינו דין שחייבים במתנות

It is necessary to emphasize that it does not apply to sacrificial animals, as by right it should be inferred a fortiori: If non-sacred animals, which are not obligated to have the breast and thigh taken from them and given to the priest, are obligated to have gifts of the priesthood given from them, then with regard to sacrificial animals, which are obligated to have the breast and thigh given from them, is it not right that they should be obligated to have gifts of the priesthood given from them?

ת"ל (ויקרא ז, לד) ואתן אותם לאהרן הכהן ולבניו לחק עולם אין לו אלא מה שאמור בענין

Therefore, the verse states: “For the breast of waving and the thigh of giving I have taken of the children of Israel from the sacrifice of the peace offerings, and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons as a due forever from the children of Israel” (Leviticus 7:34), from which it is derived that the priest has only that which is stated with regard to that matter, i.e., the breast and the thigh, and not the foreleg, the jaw and the maw.

כל הקדשים שקדם מום קבוע להקדשן ונפדו חייבין בבכורה ובמתנות ויוצאין לחולין להגזז ולהעבד וולדן וחלבן מותר לאחר פדיונן

All sacrificial animals in which a permanent blemish preceded their consecration do not assume inherent sanctity, and only their value is consecrated. And once they were redeemed, they are obligated in the mitzva of a firstborn, i.e., their offspring are subject to being counted a firstborn, and in the gifts of the priesthood, and they can emerge from their sacred status and assume non-sacred status with regard to being shorn and with regard to being utilized for labor, as it is prohibited to shear animals with sacred status or utilize them for labor. And their offspring and their milk are permitted after their redemption.

והשוחטן בחוץ פטור ואין עושין תמורה ואם מתו יפדו חוץ מן הבכור ומן המעשר

And one who slaughters these animals outside the Temple courtyard is exempt from karet, and those animals do not render an animal that was a substitute for them consecrated. And if these animals died before they were redeemed, they may be redeemed and fed to dogs. Although typically sacrificial animals that were redeemed may not be fed to the dogs, in this case it is permitted. This is the halakha with regard to all animals except for the firstborn animal and the animal tithe, whose sanctity is inherent, even when a permanent blemish preceded their consecration.

כל שקדם הקדשן את מומן או מום עובר קודם להקדשן ולאחר מכאן נולד להם מום קבוע ונפדו פטורין מן הבכורה ומן המתנות ואינן יוצאין לחולין להגזז ולהעבד

With regard to all sacrificial animals whose consecration preceded their blemish, or who had a temporary blemish prior to their consecration and afterward developed a permanent blemish and they were redeemed, they are exempt from the mitzva of a firstborn, and from the gifts of the priestood, and they do not emerge from their sacred status and assume non-sacred status with regard to being shorn and with regard to being utilized for labor.

וולדן וחלבן אסור לאחר פדיונן והשוחטן בחוץ חייב ועושין תמורה ואם מתו יקברו:

And their offspring, which were conceived prior to redemption, and their milk, are prohibited after their redemption. And one who slaughters them outside the Temple courtyard is liable to receive karet, and those animals render an animal that was a substitute for them consecrated. And if these animals died before they were redeemed, they may not be redeemed and fed to dogs; rather, they must be buried.

גמ׳ טעמא דכתב רחמנא אותם הא לאו הכי הוה אמינא קדשים חייבין במתנות

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the verse: “And have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons” (Leviticus 7:34), indicates that only the breast and thigh, which are the subject of that verse, are given from sacrificial animals to the priest, but gifts of the priesthood are not given from sacrificial animals. The Gemara infers: The reason sacrificial animals are not included in the mitzva of gifts of the priesthood is due to the fact that the Merciful One writes: “Them,” in reference to the breast and the thigh of sacrificial animals. But were it not for this, I would say by a fortiori inference that sacrificial animals are obligated to have gifts of the priesthood given from them.

איכא למיפרך מה לחולין שכן חייבין בבכורה

The Gemara asks: Why is it necessary to derive this halakha from a verse? The a fortiori inference can be refuted as follows: What is unique about non-sacred animals? They are unique in that they are obligated in the mitzva of a firstborn, whereas sacrificial animals are exempt. Therefore, the a fortiori inference stated in the mishna should not apply.

תיתי מזכרים מה לזכרים שכן חייבין בראשית הגז

The Gemara responds: One could derive that the mitzva to give the gifts of the priesthood applies to sacrificial animals through an a fortiori inference from non-sacred male animals, which do not give birth to offspring and whose owners are therefore exempt from counting their offspring a firstborn, and nevertheless are subject to the giving of the gifts of the priesthood. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: What is unique about non-sacred male animals? They are unique in that they are obligated to have the first sheared wool given to the priest from them.

מתיישים מה לתיישים שכן נכנסין לדיר להתעשר

The Gemara persists: One can derive that the obligation applies to sacrificial animals by an a fortiori inference from male goats, whose owners are exempt from counting their offspring a firstborn as well as from the first sheared wool, and yet are subject to the obligation of gifts of the priesthood. The Gemara rejects this claim as well: What is unique about male goats? They are unique in that they enter the pen to be tithed for the animal tithe, whereas sacrificial animals are not subject to the animal tithe.

מזקנים מה לזקנים שכן נכנסו לדיר להתעשר

The Gemara further suggests that one can derive the obligation of sacrificial animals having the breast and thigh given from them by a fortiori inference from old male goats, which have already entered the pen in order to be tithed. Consequently, the obligation of the animal tithe, the obligation of counting the offspring a firstborn, and the first sheared wool do not apply. The Gemara rejects this suggestion as well: What is unique about old male goats? They are unique in that they have entered the pen to be tithed, which is not the case with regard to sacrificial animals.

מלקוח ויתום מה ללקוח ויתום שכן נכנסין במינן לדיר להתעשר

The Gemara again suggests that perhaps one can derive the obligation of giving gifts of the priesthood with regard to sacrificial animals by an a fortiori inference from a purchased animal, to which the obligation of the animal tithe never applies. Or perhaps it can be derived from an orphaned animal, born after the death of its mother, which is also not subject to the obligation of animal tithe. The Gemara rejects this claim: What is unique about a purchased animal or an orphaned animal? They are unique in that although they themselves do not enter the pen, animals of their type enter the pen to be tithed.

במינן קאמרת קדשים נמי במינן נכנסין לדיר להתעשר

The Gemara responds: You say that it is significant that animals of their type enter the pen? With regard to sacrificial animals as well, non-sacred animals of their type enter the pen to be tithed. Accordingly, one can claim a fortiori that the mitzva to give the gifts applies to sacrificial animals, and it is only due to the verse that they are exempt.

ויהיו חולין חייבין בחזה ושוק מקל וחומר ומה קדשים שאין חייבים במתנות חייבין בחזה ושוק חולין שחייבין במתנות אינו דין שחייבין בחזה ושוק

§ The Gemara challenges: And now that it has been established that the obligation of the gifts of the priesthood does not apply to sacrificial animals, non-sacred animals should be obligated to have the breast and thigh given from them by an a fortiori inference: If sacrificial animals, which are not obligated to have gifts of the priesthood given from them, are nevertheless obligated to have the breast and thigh given from them, then with regard to non-sacred animals, which are obligated to have gifts of the priesthood given from them, is it not right that they should be obligated to have the breast and thigh given from them?

אמר קרא (דברים יח, ג) וזה יהיה משפט הכהנים זה אין מידי אחרינא לא

The Gemara responds that the verse states: “And this shall be the priests’ due from the people, from them that perform a slaughter, whether it be an ox or sheep, that they shall give to the priest the foreleg, and the jaw, and the maw” (Deuteronomy 18:3). The verse indicates that “this,” the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw, yes, is given to the priests, but another item, i.e., the breast and thigh, is not given to the priests from non-sacred slaughtered animals.

אלא טעמא דכתב רחמנא זה הא לאו הכי הוה אמינא חולין חייבין בחזה ושוק והא בעי תנופה היכא לינופינהו אי אבראי (ויקרא ז, ל) לפני ה' כתיב

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But this derivation indicates that the reason the giving of the breast and thigh does not apply to non-sacred animals is that the Merciful One writes “this,” from which it may be inferred if not for this, I would say that one is obligated to give the breast and thigh from non-sacred animals. But the procedure for giving the breast and thigh requires waving, and where would one wave the breast and thigh of a non-sacred animal? If it is suggested that one wave them outside the Temple, that cannot be done, as it is written: “That the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lord” (Leviticus 7:30), indicating that they must be waved inside the Temple.