מיעוטי כתיבי הכא כתיב (ויקרא ו, ג) ושמו התם כתיב (דברים כא, ו) הערופה
exclusions are written in these two cases, which indicate that this halakha applies to them alone. Here, with regard to the removal of ashes, it is written: “And he shall put it” (Leviticus 6:3), indicating that this halakha applies to “it,” and nothing else. There, with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken, it is written: “Whose neck was broken” (Deuteronomy 21:6). This superfluous description teaches that the halakha that the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property is in effect even after the performance of a mitzva applies solely to this case and should not be extended to others.
ותלתא קראי ל"ל בדם
The Gemara returns to the three phrases from Leviticus 17:11 cited above as teaching that the blood of offerings is not subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property: And why do I need all three verses stated with regard to blood?
חד למעוטי מנותר וחד למעוטי ממעילה וחד למעוטי מטומאה
The Gemara answers: One term serves to exclude blood from the prohibition of notar. If one consumed the blood of such an offering, he is not liable for consuming notar as one who consumed the flesh would be. Rather, he is liable for violating only the prohibition against consuming blood. And one term serves to exclude blood from the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, and one other term serves to exclude it from the prohibition of consumption of offerings in a state of ritual impurity. If one consumed this blood in a state of ritual impurity, he is liable only for consuming blood, but not for consuming consecrated food while ritually impure.
אבל מפגול לא צריך קרא דתנן כל שיש לו מתירין בין לאדם ובין למזבח חייבין עליו משום פגול ודם גופיה מתיר הוא:
But no verse is required to exclude this blood from the halakha of piggul, an offering sacrificed with intention to consume it beyond its designated time, consumption of which is punishable by karet, as this exception is already derived from another source. As we learned in a mishna (Zevaḥim 43a): Concerning any item that has permitting factors, either with regard to consumption by a person or with regard to burning on the altar, one is liable for eating it due to violation of the prohibition of piggul. But the permitting factor itself is not subject to piggul, and the blood of an offering is itself a permitting factor, as consumption of the offering by a person or by the altar is only permitted after the blood has been sprinkled on the altar. Therefore, the blood is not subject to the prohibition of piggul.
הדרן עלך כל הבשר
מתני׳ העור והרוטב והקיפה והאלל והעצמות והגידין והקרנים והטלפים
MISHNA: All foods that became ritually impure through contact with a source of impurity transmit impurity to other food and liquids only if the impure foods measure an egg-bulk. In that regard, the Sages ruled that even if a piece of meat itself is less than an egg-bulk, the attached hide, even if it is not fit for consumption, joins together with the meat to constitute an egg-bulk. And the same is true of the congealed gravy attached to the meat, although it is not eaten; and likewise the spices added to flavor the meat, although they are not eaten; and the meat residue attached to the hide after flaying; and the bones; and the tendons; and the lower section of the horns, which remains attached to the flesh when the rest of the horn is removed; and the upper section of the hooves, which remains attached to the flesh when the rest of the hoof is removed.
מצטרפין לטמא טומאת אוכלין אבל לא טומאת נבלות
All these items join together with the meat to constitute the requisite egg-bulk to impart the impurity of food. Although if any of them was an egg-bulk they would not impart impurity of food, when attached to the meat they complete the measure. But they do not join together to constitute the measure of an olive-bulk required to impart the impurity of animal carcasses.
כיוצא בו השוחט בהמה טמאה לעובד כוכבים ומפרכסת מטמאה טומאת אוכלין אבל לא טומאת נבלות עד שתמות או עד שיתיז את ראשה ריבה לטמא טומאת אוכלין ממה שריבה לטמא טומאת נבלות
Similarly, there is another item that imparts impurity of food but not impurity of animal carcasses: In the case of one who slaughters a non-kosher animal for a gentile and the animal is still twitching and comes into contact with a source of impurity, the animal becomes impure with impurity of food and imparts impurity of food to other food, but does not impart impurity of animal carcasses until it dies, or until one severs its head. The mishna summarizes: The Torah included certain items to impart impurity of food beyond those which it included to impart impurity of animal carcasses.
ר' יהודה אומר האלל המכונס אם יש בו כזית במקום אחד חייב עליו:
Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to the meat residue attached to the hide after flaying that was collected, if there is an olive-bulk of it in one place it imparts impurity of an animal carcass, and one who contracts impurity from it and then eats consecrated foods or enters the Temple is liable to receive karet. By collecting it in one place, the person indicates that he considers it as meat.
גמ׳ תנינא להא דת"ר שומרים לטומאה קלה ולא שומרים לטומאה חמורה
GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the attached hide joins together with the meat to constitute the requisite egg-bulk to impart the impurity of food even though it is not fit for consumption. This is because the hide acts as a protective cover for the meat. But it does not join to constitute the measure of an olive-bulk required to impart the impurity of animal carcasses. The Gemara notes: We learn in the mishna that which the Sages taught explicitly in a baraita: An appendage that serves as protection joins together with food with regard to a light level of impurity, such as the impurity of food, which can be transmitted only to food but not to people or vessels. But protection attached to food does not join together with food with regard to a severe level of impurity, such as the impurity of an animal carcass, which can be transmitted even to people and vessels.
שומרים לטומאה קלה מנלן דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל (ויקרא יא, לז) על כל זרע זרוע כדרך שבני אדם מוציאין לזריעה חטה בקליפתה ושעורה בקליפתה ועדשים בקליפתן
The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that protection joins together with food with regard to a light level of impurity? The Gemara answers that it is derived from a verse, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: With regard to the halakhot of imparting impurity of food, the verse states: “And if anything falls from their carcass upon any sowing seed that is sown, it is pure. But if water is put upon the seed, and any of the carcass falls on it, it is impure for you” (Leviticus 11:37–38). The phrase “upon any sowing seed” indicates that the entire seed is susceptible to impurity when it is in a state where it is typical for people to take it out to the field for sowing: This applies to wheat in its shell, and barley in its shell, and lentils in their shells. This demonstrates that shells and other components that protect the food are considered part of the food with regard to a light level of impurity.
ולא שומרים לטומאה חמורה מנלן דתנו רבנן (ויקרא יא, לט) בנבלתה ולא בעור שאין עליו כזית בשר
The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that protection does not join together with the food with regard to a severe level of impurity? The Gemara answers that it is as the Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to the impurity of a carcass, the verse states: “And if any animal of which you may eat dies, one who touches its carcass shall be impure until the evening” (Leviticus 11:39). This indicates that only one who touches the flesh of the carcass becomes impure, but one who touches the hide of the carcass upon which there is not an olive-bulk of flesh does not become impure.