ולימא ליה מדשמואל דאמר שמואל מליח הרי הוא כרותח וכבוש הרי הוא כמבושל
The Gemara objects: But let Rava say to him the same ruling by instead citing the seemingly more relevant statement of Shmuel, as Shmuel said: A salted food imparts its flavor like a boiling food, and a marinated food is as absorbent as a cooked food. Clearly, the kosher meat absorbed flavor from the meat of the tereifa as it would have had they been cooked together.
אי מדשמואל הוה אמינא הני מילי דמן אבל צירן ורוטבן לא קמשמע לן
The Gemara explains: Had Rava based his ruling only on Shmuel’s statement, I would say in response: This statement applies only to the absorption of the blood of the meat, but kosher meat is not prohibited if it absorbs only the juices and gravy of the meat of the tereifa. Since in this case the meat is salted in a perforated vessel, the blood from each piece runs out and is not absorbed by the other, and one might think that the kosher meat remains permitted. Rava’s interpretation of the verse in Leviticus teaches us that the juices and gravy of the meat of the tereifa must also be taken into account.
מיתיבי דג טהור שמלחו עם דג טמא מותר מאי לאו שהיו שניהן מלוחין לא כגון שהיה טהור מליח וטמא תפל
The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: A kosher fish that one salted together with a non-kosher fish is permitted. What, is it not referring to a case where they were both salted and expel juices? This indicates that the kosher fish is not prohibited by the juices of the non-kosher fish, contrary to Rava’s statement. The Gemara responds: No, this is referring to a case where the kosher fish was salted and the non-kosher fish was unsalted. Since an unsalted fish does not emit juices, the kosher fish does not absorb the flavor of the non-kosher fish.
והא מדקתני סיפא (אבל אם היה טהור מליח וטמא תפל) מכלל דרישא בששניהם מלוחין עסקינן פרושי קא מפרש טהור שמלחו עם דג טמא מותר כיצד שהיה טהור מליח וטמא תפל
The Gemara challenges: But from the fact that the latter clause teaches: But if the kosher fish was salted and the non-kosher fish was unsalted the kosher fish remains permitted, it may be inferred that in the first clause we are dealing with a case where they are both salted. The Gemara responds: The latter clause is explaining the halakha of the first clause. The baraita should be read as follows: A kosher fish that one salted together with a non-kosher fish is permitted. How so? This is the halakha if the kosher fish was salted and the non-kosher fish was unsalted.
ה"נ מסתברא דאי סלקא דעתך רישא שניהם מלוחים השתא שניהם מלוחים שרי טהור מליח וטמא תפל מיבעיא
The Gemara notes: So, too, it is reasonable that this is the meaning of the baraita, as if it enters your mind that the first clause is referring to a case where both of them are salted, one can claim: Now that the baraita has stated that even if both of them are salted the kosher fish is permitted, is it necessary to state that the same applies in the less problematic case where the kosher fish was salted and the non-kosher fish was unsalted?
אי משום הא לא איריא תנא סיפא לגלויי רישא דלא תימא רישא טהור מליח וטמא תפל אבל שניהם מלוחין אסור תנא סיפא טהור מליח וטמא תפל מכלל דרישא שניהן מלוחין ואפ"ה שרי
The Gemara rejects this: If it is due to that reason, there is no conclusive argument. It is possible that the first clause of the baraita is indeed referring to a case where both fish are salted, and the tanna of the baraita nevertheless taught the latter clause to shed light on the first clause, so that you should not say: The first clause is referring only to a case where the kosher fish was salted and the non-kosher fish was unsalted, but if they were both salted, then the kosher fish is prohibited. To rule this out, he taught the latter clause, which explicitly makes reference to a case where the kosher fish was salted and the non-kosher fish unsalted, which by inference indicates that the first clause is referring to a case where they are both salted, and teaches that even so the kosher fish is permitted.
ת"ש מסיפא דסיפא אבל אם היה טמא מליח וטהור תפל אסור טמא מליח וטהור תפל הוא דאסור הא שניהן מלוחין שרי
The Gemara further suggests: Come and hear proof against Rava’s ruling from the latter clause of the latter clause, i.e., the third clause of that baraita: But if the non-kosher fish was salted and the kosher fish was unsalted, the kosher fish is prohibited. One can infer from here that it is only if the non-kosher fish is salted and the kosher fish is unsalted that the kosher fish is prohibited. But if they were both salted, then the kosher fish is permitted, contrary to Rava’s ruling.
איידי דתנא רישא טהור מליח וטמא תפל תנא נמי סיפא טמא מליח וטהור תפל
The Gemara rejects this: Perhaps the last section of the baraita uses this language only since it teaches in the former clause, i.e., the second clause: If the kosher fish was salted and the non-kosher fish unsalted, etc. The baraita therefore taught the last clause as well using parallel language: If the non-kosher fish was salted and the kosher fish unsalted, etc. But nothing can be derived from here with regard to a case where both fish were salted.
(סימן בישרא דמנח נפקותא)
§ The Gemara provides a mnemonic for remembering the three halakhot stated by Shmuel below: The manner in which blood is expelled from meat; salted meat that is placed on a vessel; an animal whose neck is broken before its soul departs.
אמר שמואל אין הבשר יוצא מידי דמו אלא א"כ מולחו יפה יפה ומדיחו יפה יפה אתמר רב הונא אמר מולח ומדיח במתניתא תנא מדיח ומולח ומדיח ולא פליגי הא דחלליה בי טבחא הא דלא חלליה בי טבחא רב דימי מנהרדעא מלח ליה במילחא גללניתא ומנפיץ ליה
Shmuel says: Meat cannot be rid of its blood unless one salts it thoroughly and rinses it thoroughly in water. It was stated: Rav Huna says: One must salt and rinse the meat in water. And it was taught in a baraita: One must rinse the meat, and salt it, and then rinse it again. The Gemara adds: And these two rulings do not disagree. This ruling of Rav Huna is referring to a case where one already washed the meat in the slaughterhouse before salting, whereas that baraita is referring to a case where one did not wash the meat in the slaughterhouse. The Gemara relates: Rav Dimi of Neharde’a would salt meat with coarse salt and then shake the salt off the meat.
אמר רב משרשיא אין מחזיקין דם בבני מעיים תרגמא אכרכשא ומעייא והדרא דכנתא
Rav Mesharshiyya says: One does not presume that there is blood in the intestines, and therefore they are not prohibited if they have not been salted. The Gemara comments: The Sages interpreted this statement as referring to the rectum, the intestines, and the spiral colon.
אמר שמואל אין מניחין בשר מליח אלא ע"ג כלי מנוקב
Shmuel says: One may place salted meat only on a perforated vessel, so that the expelled blood can run out. But if the vessel is not perforated then the blood will pool and be reabsorbed by the meat.
רב ששת מלח ליה גרמא גרמא תרי מאי טעמא לא משום דפריש מהאי ובלע האי חד נמי פריש מהאי גיסא ובלע האי גיסא אלא לא שנא
The Gemara relates: Rav Sheshet would salt meat one bone, i.e., one piece, at a time. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that he would not salt two together? Could it be because the blood leaves this piece and that piece absorbs it? If so, with regard to one piece as well, one could claim that the blood leaves this side of the piece and that side absorbs it. Rather, there is no difference between one piece and two pieces, and one may salt even several pieces together.
אמר שמואל משום ר' חייא השובר מפרקתה של בהמה קודם שתצא נפשה הרי זה מכביד את הבשר וגוזל את הבריות ומבליע דם באברים
Shmuel says in the name of Rabbi Ḥiyya: One who breaks the neck of an animal after it is slaughtered but before its soul departs thereby makes the meat heavy. The meat expels blood at the time of slaughter, but if one breaks the animal’s neck, excess blood is trapped inside and weighs down the meat. And by this action he robs people, as he causes blood to be absorbed in the animal’s limbs, and since he sells the meat by weight, people will pay extra to acquire the same amount of edible meat.
איבעיא להו היכי קאמר מכביד את הבשר וגוזל את הבריות משום דמבליע דם באברים הא לדידיה שפיר דמי או דלמא לדידיה נמי אסור תיקו:
A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to what case is he speaking? Does Shmuel mean that there is only one problem with this practice, namely, that it renders the meat heavy and robs people since he causes blood to be absorbed in the animal’s limbs? If so, it may be inferred that if one wishes to keep the meat for himself, one may well do so, since he is robbing no one. Or perhaps Shmuel is referring to two prohibitions, first, that the blood trapped in the meat renders it prohibited for consumption, and second, that of robbery. If so, then even if one wants to keep the meat for himself, it is also prohibited. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.
מתני׳ המעלה את העוף עם הגבינה על השלחן אינו עובר בלא תעשה:
MISHNA: One who places the meat of birds with cheese on the table upon which he eats does not thereby violate a Torah prohibition.
גמ׳ הא אוכלו עובר בלא תעשה שמע מינה בשר עוף בחלב דאורייתא אימא המעלה את העוף עם הגבינה על השולחן אינו בא לידי לא תעשה:
GEMARA: The Gemara suggests: Since the mishna mentions only that placing meat of birds and milk on one table does not violate a Torah prohibition, one may consequently infer that if one eats them together he does violate a Torah prohibition. If so, learn from the mishna that meat of birds in milk is prohibited by Torah law, contrary to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who maintains that it applies by rabbinic law. The Gemara responds: Say that the mishna should be understood as follows: One who places bird meat with cheese on the table will not thereby come to violate a Torah prohibition, since eating the two together is a rabbinic prohibition, as Rabbi Akiva maintains.
מתני׳ בשר בהמה טהורה בחלב בהמה טהורה אסור לבשל ואסור בהנאה בשר בהמה טהורה בחלב בהמה טמאה בשר בהמה טמאה בחלב בהמה טהורה מותר לבשל ומותר בהנאה ר"ע אומר חיה ועוף אינם מן התורה שנאמר (שמות כג, יט) לא תבשל גדי בחלב אמו ג' פעמים פרט לחיה ולעוף ובהמה טמאה
MISHNA: It is prohibited to cook the meat of a kosher animal in the milk of any kosher animal, not merely the milk of its mother, and deriving benefit from that mixture is prohibited. It is permitted to cook the meat of a kosher animal in the milk of a non-kosher animal, or the meat of a non-kosher animal in the milk of a kosher animal, and deriving benefit from that mixture is permitted. Rabbi Akiva says: Cooking the meat of an undomesticated animal or bird in milk is not prohibited by Torah law, as it is stated: “You shall not cook a kid in its mother’s milk” (Exodus 23:19, 34:26; Deuteronomy 14:21) three times. The repetition of the word “kid” three times excludes an undomesticated animal, a bird, and a non-kosher animal.
רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר נאמר (דברים יד, כא) לא תאכלו כל נבלה ונאמר לא תבשל גדי בחלב אמו את שאסור משום נבלה אסור לבשל בחלב עוף שאסור משום נבלה יכול יהא אסור לבשל בחלב ת"ל בחלב אמו יצא עוף שאין לו חלב אם:
Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says that it is stated: “You shall not eat of any animal carcass” (Deuteronomy 14:21), and in the same verse it is stated: “You shall not cook a kid in its mother’s milk.” This indicates that meat of an animal that is subject to be prohibited due to the prohibition of eating an unslaughtered carcass is prohibited for one to cook in milk. Consequently, with regard to meat of birds, which is subject to be prohibited due to the prohibition of eating an unslaughtered carcass, one might have thought that it would be prohibited to cook it in milk. Therefore, the verse states: “In its mother’s milk,” excluding a bird, which has no mother’s milk.
גמ׳ מנא הני מילי א"ר אלעזר אמר קרא (בראשית לח, כ) וישלח יהודה את גדי העזים
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Elazar said: The verse states: “And Judah sent the kid of the goats” (Genesis 38:20).