מְפַנְּקִי דִּכְתִיב כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמוֹס חֲצֵרָי a delicate man, who cannot walk without shoes. As it is written: “When you come to appear before Me, who has required this at your hand, to trample My courts?” (Isaiah 1:12). Entering the Temple with shoes is described by the prophet as trampling, and therefore one who cannot enter barefoot is exempt from the mitzva of appearance.
תָּנָא הֶעָרֵל וְהַטָּמֵא פְּטוּרִין מִן הָרְאִיָּיה בִּשְׁלָמָא טָמֵא דִּכְתִיב וּבָאתָ שָּׁמָּה וַהֲבֵאתֶם שָׁמָּה כׇּל שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ בְּבִיאָה יֶשְׁנוֹ בַּהֲבָאָה וְכׇל שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּבִיאָה אֵינוֹ בַּהֲבָאָה It is taught: The uncircumcised and the ritually impure are exempt from the mitzva of appearance. The Gemara comments: Granted, a ritually impure person is exempt, as it is written: “And there you shall come” (Deuteronomy 12:5), followed by: “And there you shall bring” (Deuteronomy 12:6). The juxtaposition of these verses teaches: Anyone included in the mitzva of coming, i.e., anyone who may enter the Temple, is also included in the obligation of bringing offerings; and anyone not included in the mitzva of coming is not included in the obligation of bringing either. Since it is prohibited for a person who is ritually impure to enter the Temple, he is also exempt from the obligation to bring a burnt-offering of appearance.
אֶלָּא עָרֵל מְנָלַן הָא מַנִּי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא הִיא דִּמְרַבֵּי לְעָרֵל כְּטָמֵא דְּתַנְיָא רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר אִישׁ אִישׁ לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הֶעָרֵל However, with regard to the uncircumcised, from where do we derive that he is exempt? The Gemara answers: In accordance with whose opinion is this baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who amplifies the halakha so that the uncircumcised is included in the same category as the ritually impure. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva says, with regard to the verse: “Any man [ish ish] of the seed of Aaron that is a leper or has an issue; he shall not eat of the sacred things” (Leviticus 22:4), the double use of the term: “Ish,” comes to include the uncircumcised. Like the ritually impure, the uncircumcised may neither eat sacrificial meat nor bring offerings to the Temple.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן טָמֵא פָּטוּר מִן הָרְאִיָּיה דִּכְתִיב וּבָאתָ שָּׁמָּה וַהֲבֵאתֶם שָׁמָּה כׇּל שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ בְּבִיאָה יֶשְׁנוֹ בַּהֲבָאָה וְכׇל שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּבִיאָה אֵינוֹ בַּהֲבָאָה The Sages taught: A ritually impure person is exempt from the mitzva of appearance, as it is written: “And there shall you come,” “and there you shall bring.” Anyone included in coming is also included in the obligation of bringing offerings; and anyone not included in coming is not included in the obligation of bringing either.
רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן דַּהֲבַאי אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה סוֹמֵא בְּאַחַת מֵעֵינָיו פָּטוּר מִן הָרְאִיָּיה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר יִרְאֶה יֵרָאֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁבָּא לִרְאוֹת כָּךְ בָּא לֵירָאוֹת מַה בָּא לִרְאוֹת בִּשְׁתֵּי עֵינָיו אַף לֵירָאוֹת בִּשְׁתֵּי עֵינָיו: Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Dehavai says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: One who is blind in one of his eyes is exempt from the mitzva of appearance, as it is stated: “Three times a year all your males shall appear [yera’e] before the Lord God” (Exodus 23:17). Since there are no vowels in the text, this can be read as: All your males will see [yireh] the Lord God. This teaches that in the same manner that one comes to see, so he comes to be seen: Just as one comes to see with both his eyes, so too the obligation to be seen applies only to one who comes with both his eyes. Therefore, one who is blind in one eye is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple.
רַב הוּנָא כִּי מָטֵי לְהַאי קְרָא יִרְאֶה יֵרָאֶה בָּכֵי אָמַר עֶבֶד שֶׁרַבּוֹ מְצַפֶּה לוֹ לִרְאוֹתוֹ יִתְרַחֵק מִמֶּנּוּ דִּכְתִיב כִּי תָבוֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמוֹס חֲצֵרָי The Gemara relates that when Rav Huna reached this verse, which can be read as: “Will see” [yireh] and “shall appear” [yera’e], he cried. He said: Can it happen to a slave whose master expects to see him, that the master will eventually distance himself from him and not want him anymore? As it is written: “When you come to appear before Me, who has required this at your hand, to trample My courts?” (Isaiah 1:12).
רַב הוּנָא כִּי מָטֵי לְהַאי קְרָא בָּכֵי וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם עֶבֶד שֶׁרַבּוֹ מְצַפֶּה לֶאֱכוֹל עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ יִתְרַחֵק מִמֶּנּוּ דִּכְתִיב לָמָּה לִּי רוֹב זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר ה׳ Similarly, when Rav Huna reached this verse, he cried: “And you shall sacrifice peace-offerings, and you shall eat there” (Deuteronomy 27:7). Can it happen to a slave whose master expects him to eat at his table, that his master will eventually distance himself from him? As it is written: “To what purpose is the multitude of your offerings to Me? says the Lord” (Isaiah 1:11).
רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר כִּי מָטֵי לְהַאי קְרָא בָּכֵי וְלֹא יָכְלוּ אֶחָיו לַעֲנוֹת אֹתוֹ כִּי נִבְהֲלוּ מִפָּנָיו וּמָה תּוֹכֵחָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר וָדָם כָּךְ תּוֹכֵחָה שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר כִּי מָטֵי לְהַאי קְרָא בָּכֵי וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל שָׁאוּל לָמָּה הִרְגַּזְתַּנִי לְהַעֲלוֹת אוֹתִי וּמָה שְׁמוּאֵל הַצַּדִּיק הָיָה מִתְיָירֵא מִן הַדִּין אָנוּ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה The Gemara similarly relates: When Rabbi Elazar reached this verse, he cried: “And his brethren could not answer him, for they were affrighted at his presence” (Genesis 45:3). He said, in explanation of his emotional reaction: If the rebuke of a man of flesh and blood was such that the brothers were unable to respond, when it comes to the rebuke of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so. When Rabbi Elazar reached this verse, he cried: “And Samuel said to Saul: Why have you disquieted me, to bring me up” (I Samuel 28:15). He said: If Samuel the righteous was afraid of judgment when he was raised by necromancy, as he thought he was being summoned for a Divine judgment, all the more so that we should be afraid.
שְׁמוּאֵל מַאי הִיא דִּכְתִיב וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל שָׁאוּל אֱלֹהִים רָאִיתִי עוֹלִים עוֹלִים תְּרֵי מַשְׁמַע חַד שְׁמוּאֵל וְאִידָּךְ דַּאֲזַל שְׁמוּאֵל וְאַתְיֵיהּ לְמֹשֶׁה בַּהֲדֵיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ דִּלְמָא חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לְדִינָא מִתְבְּעֵינָא קוּם בַּהֲדַאי דְּלֵיכָּא מִילְּתָא דִּכְתַבְתְּ בְּאוֹרָיְיתָא דְּלָא קַיֵּימְתַּיהּ The Gemara asks: In the case of Samuel, what is it that he feared? As it is written: “And the woman said to Saul, I see a godlike being coming up [olim] out of the earth” (I Samuel 28:13). “Olim,” in the plural form, indicates that there were two of them. One of them was Samuel, but the other, who was he? The Gemara explains that Samuel went and brought Moses with him. He said to Moses: Perhaps, Heaven forbid, I was summoned for judgment by God; stand with me and testify on my behalf that there is nothing that you wrote in the Torah that I did not fulfill.
רַבִּי אַמֵּי כִּי מָטֵי לְהַאי קְרָא בָּכֵי יִתֵּן בֶּעָפָר פִּיהוּ אוּלַי יֵשׁ תִּקְוָה אָמַר כּוּלֵּי הַאי וְאוּלַי רַבִּי אַמֵּי כִּי מָטֵי לְהַאי קְרָא בָּכֵי בַּקְּשׁוּ צֶדֶק בַּקְּשׁוּ עֲנָוָה אוּלַי תִּסָּתְרוּ בְּיוֹם אַף ה׳ אָמַר כּוּלֵּי הַאי וְאוּלַי רַבִּי אַסִּי כִּי מָטֵי לְהַאי קְרָא בָּכֵי שִׂנְאוּ רָע וְאֶהֱבוּ טוֹב וְהַצִּיגוּ בַשַּׁעַר מִשְׁפָּט אוּלַי יֶחֱנַן ה׳ [אֱלֹהֵי] צְבָאוֹת כּוּלֵּי הַאי וְאוּלַי When Rabbi Ami reached this verse, he cried: “Let him put his mouth in the dust, perhaps there may be hope” (Lamentations 3:29). He said: A sinner suffers through all this punishment and only perhaps there may be hope? When Rabbi Ami reached this verse, he cried: “Seek righteousness, seek humility; perhaps you shall be hidden on the day of the Lord’s anger”(Zephaniah 2:3). He said: All of this is expected of each individual, and only perhaps God’s anger may be hidden? Likewise, when Rabbi Asi reached this verse, he cried: “Hate the evil, and love the good, and establish justice in the gate; perhaps the Lord, the God of hosts, will be gracious” (Amos 5:15). He said: All of this, and only perhaps?
רַב יוֹסֵף כִּי מָטֵי לְהַאי קְרָא בָּכֵי וְיֵשׁ נִסְפֶּה בְּלֹא מִשְׁפָּט אָמַר מִי אִיכָּא דְּאָזֵיל בְּלָא זִמְנֵיהּ אִין כִּי הָא דְּרַב בִּיבִי בַּר אַבָּיֵי הֲוָה שְׁכִיחַ גַּבֵּיהּ מַלְאַךְ הַמָּוֶת אֲמַר לֵיהּ לִשְׁלוּחֵיהּ זִיל אַיְיתִי לִי מִרְיָם מְגַדְּלָא שְׂיעַר נַשְׁיָיא אֲזַל אַיְיתִי לֵיהּ מִרְיָם מְגַדְּלָא דַּרְדְּקֵי When Rav Yosef reached this verse, he cried: “But there are those swept away without justice” (Proverbs 13:23). He said: Is there one who goes before his time and dies for no reason? The Gemara answers: Yes, like this incident of Rav Beivai bar Abaye, who would be frequented by the company of the Angel of Death and would see how people died at the hands of this angel. The Angel of Death said to his agent: Go and bring me, i.e., kill, Miriam the raiser, i.e., braider, of women’s hair. He went, but instead brought him Miriam, the raiser of babies.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא מִרְיָם מְגַדְּלָא שֵׂיעָר נְשַׁיָּיא אֲמַרִי לָךְ אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִי הָכִי אַהְדְּרַהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ הוֹאִיל וְאַיְיתִיתַהּ לֶיהֱוֵי לְמִנְיָינָא אֶלָּא הֵיכִי יְכֵלְתְּ לַהּ הֲוָת נְקִיטָא מְתָארָא בִּידַהּ וַהֲוָת קָא שָׁגְרָא The Angel of Death said to him: I told you to bring Miriam, the raiser of women’s hair. His agent said to him: If so, return her to life. He said to him: Since you have already brought her, let her be counted toward the number of deceased people. Apparently, this woman died unintentionally. Rav Beivai asked the agent: But as her time to die had not yet arrived, how were you able to kill her? The agent responded that he had the opportunity, as she was holding a shovel in her hand and with it she was lighting