Chagigah 2bחגיגה ב׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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2bב׳ ב

תקנתם את רבו ואת עצמו לא תקנתם לישא שפחה אינו יכול בת חורין אינו יכול

You have remedied the situation of his master, who benefits fully from all his rights to the slave, but his own situation you have not remedied. How so? He is unable to marry a maidservant, as half of him is already free, and a free Jew may not marry a Canaanite maidservant. He is likewise unable to marry a free woman, as half of him is still a slave.

ליבטיל והלא לא נברא העולם אלא לפריה ורביה שנאמר (ישעיהו מה, יח) לא תהו בראה לשבת יצרה אלא מפני תיקון העולם כופין את רבו ועושה אותו בן חורין וכותב לו שטר על חצי דמיו וחזרו בית הלל להורות כדברי בית שמאי:

And if you say he should be idle and not marry, but isn’t it true that the world was created only for procreation, as it is stated: “He did not create it to be a waste; He formed it to be inhabited” (Isaiah 45:18)? Rather, for the betterment of the world we force his master to make him a freeman, and the slave writes a bill to his master accepting his responsibility to pay half his value to him. And Beit Hillel ultimately retracted their opinion, to rule in accordance with the statement of Beit Shammai that a half-slave must be set free.

חוץ מחרש שוטה וקטן כו': קתני חרש דומיא דשוטה וקטן מה שוטה וקטן דלאו בני דעה אף חרש דלאו בר דעה הוא וקא משמע לן כדתנן חרש שדיברו חכמים בכל מקום שאינו שומע ואינו מדבר הא מדבר ואינו שומע שומע ואינו מדבר חייב

§ The mishna taught: Except for a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor. The Gemara notes: By listing these three cases together the mishna is teaching that a deaf-mute is similar to an imbecile and a minor: Just as an imbecile and a minor are among those who are not of sound mind, so too the deaf-mute [ḥeresh] mentioned here is one who is not of sound mind. And this teaches us as we learned in a mishna (Terumot 1:2): The ḥeresh, whom the Sages discussed everywhere, is one who does not hear and does not speak, and therefore his mind is not lucid. It can be inferred from this that one who speaks but does not hear and one who hears but does not speak are obligated in mitzvot like any other person.

תנינא להא דתנו רבנן המדבר ואינו שומע זהו חרש שומע ואינו מדבר זהו אלם זה וזה הרי הן כפקחין לכל דבריהם

The Gemara notes: We already learned this, as the Sages taught in the Tosefta (Terumot 1:2): One who speaks but does not hear, this is a deaf person. One who hears but does not speak, this is a mute. Both this one and that one are in the same legal category as those who can see and hear with regard to all matters. This shows that the ḥeresh exempted by the Sages is one who neither hears nor speaks.

וממאי דמדבר ואינו שומע זהו חרש שומע ואינו מדבר זהו אלם דכתיב (תהלים לח, יד) ואני כחרש לא אשמע וכאלם לא יפתח פיו ואיבעית אימא כדאמרי אינשי אישתקיל מילוליה:

The Gemara asks: And from where is it derived that one who speaks but does not hear is a deaf person, and one who hears but does not speak is a mute? As it is written: “But I am as a deaf man, I hear not; and I am as a dumb man [illem] who does not open his mouth” (Psalms 38:14). If you wish, say instead that this is as people say: His speech has been taken [Ishtakeil Milulei]; the term illem is an acronym for this phrase.

מדבר ואינו שומע שומע ואינו מדבר חייב: והתניא מדבר ואינו שומע שומע ואינו מדבר פטור

The Tosefta taught that one who speaks but does not hear and one who hears but does not speak are obligated in mitzvot. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it taught in a baraita that one who speaks but does not hear and one who hears but does not speak are exempt?

אמר רבינא ואיתימא רבא חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני הכל חייבין בראייה ובשמחה חוץ מחרש המדבר ואינו שומע שומע ואינו מדבר שפטור מן הראייה ואע"פ שפטור מן הראייה חייב בשמחה ואת שאינו לא שומע ולא מדבר ושוטה וקטן פטור אף מן השמחה הואיל ופטורים מכל מצות האמורות בתורה

Ravina said, and some say it was Rava who said: The mishna is incomplete and is teaching the following: All are obligated in the mitzvot of appearance in the Temple and rejoicing during the pilgrim Festival by eating the sacrificial meat, except for a deaf person who speaks but does not hear and mute person who hears but does not speak, each of whom is exempt from the mitzva of appearance. And even though he is exempt from the mitzva of appearance, he is obligated in the mitzva of rejoicing. But one who does not hear and does not speak, and an imbecile and a minor, each of these is exempt even from rejoicing, since they are exempt from all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah, as they are not of sound mind.

תניא נמי הכי הכל חייבין בראייה ובשמחה חוץ מחרש המדבר ואינו שומע שומע ואינו מדבר שפטורין מן הראייה ואף על פי שפטור מן הראייה

That opinion is also taught in a baraita: All are obligated in the mitzva of appearance and in rejoicing, except for a deaf person who speaks but does not hear and one who hears but does not speak, as they are exempt from the mitzva of appearance. And even though they are exempt from the mitzva of appearance,