אבל יד חבירו לא ור' יוחנן אמר אחד ידו ואחד יד חבירו באותה היד לפסול אבל לא לטמא
but an impure hand does not render impure the hand of another. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: An impure hand renders another hand impure whether it is his own hand or the hand of another, provided the second hand is touched by the same hand that came into contact with the impurity. Moreover, the impure hand affects the food it touches only to disqualify it, but not to render it impure.
ממאי מדקתני סיפא שהיד מטמאה חבירתה לקדש אבל לא לתרומה הא תו למה לי הא תנא ליה רישא אלא לאו שמע מינה לאתויי יד חבירו
The Gemara elaborates on Rabbi Yoḥanan’s opinion. From where did he learn this? From the fact that it teaches in a latter clause in the mishna: For one renders its counterpart, i.e., the other hand, impure with regard to sacrificial food but not with regard to teruma. Why do I need this phrase as well? It was already taught in the first clause that one hand renders the other hand impure with regard to sacrificial food. Rather, must one not conclude from this added phrase that it comes to include the rendering impure of the hand of another as well as his own other hand?
ואף ר"ל הדר ביה דא"ר יונה א"ר אמי אמר ר"ל אחד ידו ואחד יד חבירו באותה היד לפסול אבל לא לטמא
The Gemara observes: And Reish Lakish, too, retracted his own opinion in favor of Rabbi Yoḥanan’s opinion. For Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Ami said that Reish Lakish said: The decree that one hand renders another impure applies whether it is his own hand or the hand of another, provided the second hand is touched by the same hand that came into contact with the impurity. Moreover, the impure hand affects the food it touches only to disqualify render it, but not to render it impure.
ולפסול אבל לא לטמא תנאי היא דתנן כל הפוסל בתרומה מטמא ידים להיות שניות ויד מטמא חבירתה דברי ר' יהושע וחכ"א ידים שניות הן ואין שני עושה שני (בחולין)
The Gemara comments: And this opinion, that an impure hand affects the sacrificial food only to disqualify it but not to render it impure, is a dispute between tanna’im. As we learned in a mishna (Yadayim 3:2): Anything that disqualifies teruma by contact with it, i.e., anything that is impure at least to the second degree, renders the hands impure to the second degree. And furthermore, a hand that is impure to the second degree renders its counterpart, the other hand, impure; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua. But the Rabbis say: Hands themselves are impure to the second degree, and that which is impure to the second degree cannot impart second-degree impurity to something else with regard to non-sacred food.
מאי לאו שני הוא דלא עביד הא שלישי עביד
From the Rabbis’ response to Rabbi Yehoshua it is clear that the latter’s opinion is that the second hand is indeed rendered impure to the second degree, imparting third-degree impurity to sacrificial food that it touches. Moreover: What, is it not correct to infer from the Rabbis’ words that it is impurity to the second degree that the first hand does not impart to for the second hand by touching it, but impurity to the third degree it does impart to the second hand? The second hand would thus only disqualify the sacrificial food that it touches by imparting to it a fourth-degree impurity. Therefore, the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehoshua are arguing about this very point: Does the second hand only disqualify sacrificial food by imparting to it fourth-degree impurity, or does it render the food impure with third-degree impurity?
דלמא לא שני עביד ולא שלישי
The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps the Rabbis meant that the first hand does not impart impurity to the second hand to either the second or the third degree, for in their opinion one impure hand does not defile the other hand at all, in contradiction to the mishna, whereas the opinion expressed in the mishna would be following Rabbi Yehoshua.
אלא כי הני תנאי דתניא יד נגובה מטמא את חבירתה לטמא בקדש אבל לא לתרומה דברי רבי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר אותה יד לפסול אבל לא לטמא:
Rather, the issue of which degree of impurity is imparted to the second hand is like the following dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in the baraita cited earlier: Even a dry hand that is impure renders its counterpart, i.e., the other hand, impure to the extent that the second hand will now render impure food that it touches. This is true with regard to sacrificial food but not with regard to teruma. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: The second hand is not rendered impure to such a severe extent. It can merely disqualify sacrificial food that it touches, by making it impure to the fourth degree, but not render it impure to the third degree.
אוכלין אוכלים נגובין בידים מסואבות כו': תניא א"ר חנינא בן אנטיגנוס וכי יש נגובה לקדש והלא חיבת הקדש מכשרתן
§ It was taught in the mishna: One may eat dry foods, i.e., foods that have never been wetted and are thus not susceptible to impurity, with impure hands in the case of teruma, but not in the case of sacrificial food. It is taught in a baraita that there is a difficulty with this statement of the mishna: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus said: Now, is there such a possibility as dry food, i.e., food that is not susceptible to impurity, with regard to sacrificial food? Is it not so that the reverence accorded to sacrificial food itself renders it fit to contract impurity even if it has never been in contact with liquid at all? All sacrificial food is thus automatically susceptible to impurity, and whether it is dry, i.e., it has never been wetted, or not is irrelevant.
לא צריכא כגון שתחב לו חבירו לתוך פיו או שתחב הוא לעצמו בכוש ובכרכר וביקש לאכול צנון ובצל של חולין עמהן
The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for the mishna to state this. And the case is not one of dry sacrificial food, as was first assumed. Rather, the mishna is dealing with a case in which, for example, his friend inserted sacrificial food or teruma into his mouth, or, alternatively, a case in which he inserted it into his own mouth by means of a spindle or whorl, which are wooden vessels without receptacles that cannot contract impurity. In either event the food arrives in his mouth without being rendered impure by his impure hands. And then, while the sacrificial food or teruma is still in his mouth, he wishes to put into his mouth and eat a non-sacred radish or onion along with them.
לקדש גזרו בהו רבנן לתרומה לא גזרו בהו רבנן:
Non-sacred food is not rendered impure by being touched with impure hands, so it should not be problematic to put a radish or onion into one’s mouth with his hands. However, regarding sacrificial food the Sages enacted a decree against doing so, lest the person inadvertently touch the sacrificial food in his mouth with his impure hand. This decree, the mishna teaches, applies only to sacrificial food, but in a case in which he had teruma in his mouth the Sages did not enact a decree against it.
האונן ומחוסר כפורים כו': מאי טעמא כיון דעד האידנא הוו אסירי אצרכינהו רבנן טבילה:
§ It was taught in the mishna: An acute mourner and one who is lacking atonement require immersion in order to eat sacrificial food, but this is not necessary for teruma. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this decree? Since until now it was prohibited for them to partake of sacrificial food and they therefore might not have guarded themselves properly from impurity, the Sages required them to undergo immersion before eating sacrificial food.
מתני׳ חומר בתרומה שביהודה נאמנין על טהרת יין ושמן כל ימות השנה ובשעת הגיתות והבדים אף על התרומה
MISHNA: The previous mishna listed stringencies that apply to sacrificial food but not to teruma. However, there are also stringencies that apply to teruma over sacrificial food: In Judea all people, even people who are not generally meticulous in their observance of the halakhot of ritual purity [amei ha’aretz], are trusted with regard to the purity of consecrated wine and oil throughout all the days of the year. And during the period of the winepress and olive press, when grapes and olives are pressed and made into wine and oil, respectively, they are trusted even with regard to the purity of teruma, as all people, including amei ha’aretz, purify their vessels for this season.
עברו הגיתות והבדים והביאו לו חבית של יין של תרומה לא יקבלנה ממנו אבל מניחה לגת הבאה ואם אמר לו הפרשתי לתוכה רביעית קדש נאמן
But once the periods of the winepress and olive press have passed, if amei ha’aretz brought to him, i.e., to a priest who is meticulous concerning the halakhot of ritual purity [ḥaver], a barrel of teruma wine, he may not accept it from them, as amei ha’aretz are not trusted with regard to matters of ritual purity during the rest of the year. But the giver may leave it over for the following winepress season, in the following year, at which point the ḥaver priest may accept it from him, although it was prohibited for him to accept the same barrel beforehand. And if the giver said to the priest: I separated and placed into this barrel of teruma a quarter-log of sacrificial wine or oil, he is trusted with regard to the entire contents of the barrel. Since an am ha’aretz is trusted with regard to the purity of sacrificial food, he is also believed with regard to teruma that is mingled with the sacrificial food.
כדי יין וכדי שמן
With regard to jugs of wine and jugs of oil