Chapter 36ל״ו
1 א

וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים מִן הַתֵּבָה (בראשית ט, יח), (איוב לד, כט): וְהוּא יַשְׁקִט וּמִי יַרְשִׁעַ וְיַסְתֵּר פָּנִים וּמִי יְשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְעַל גּוֹי וְעַל אָדָם יָחַד, דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי מֵאִיר וְהוּא יַשְׁקִט מֵעוֹלָמוֹ, יַסְתֵּר פָּנִים לְעוֹלָמוֹ, כַּדַּיָּין שֶׁמּוֹתְחִין כִּלָּה עַל פָּנָיו וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מַה נַּעֲשָׂה מִבַּחוּץ, כָּךְ אָמְרוּ דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל (איוב כב, יד): עָבִים סֵתֶר לוֹ וְלֹא יִרְאֶה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ דַּיֶּךָ מֵאִיר. אָמַר לְהוֹן וּמָה הוּא דִּכְתִיב: וְהוּא יַשְׁקִט וּמִי יַרְשִׁעַ וגו', אָמַר נָתַן שַׁלְוָה לְדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל וּמִי בָא וְחִיְּבָן, וּמַה שַּׁלְוָה נָתַן לָהֶם (איוב כא, ח): זַרְעָם נָכוֹן לִפְנֵיהֶם עִמָּם וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶם לְעֵינֵיהֶם, (איוב כא, יא): יְשַׁלְּחוּ כַצֹּאן עֲוִילֵיהֶם וגו', רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר לִשְׁלשָׁה יָמִים הָיְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ מְעֻבֶּרֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן נָכוֹן וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (שמות יט, טו): הֱיוּ נְכוֹנִים, מַה נָּכוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן לִשְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים, אַף נָכוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן לִשְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין לְיוֹם אֶחָד הָיְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ מְעֻבֶּרֶת וְיוֹלֶדֶת, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן נָכוֹן וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן נָכוֹן (שמות לד, ב): וֶהֱיֵה נָכוֹן לַבֹּקֶר, מַה נָּכוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן יוֹם אֶחָד, אַף כָּאן יוֹם אֶחָד. וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶם לְעֵינֵיהֶם, שֶׁהָיוּ רוֹאִים בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנֵי בְנֵיהֶם. יְשַׁלְּחוּ כַצֹּאן עֲוִילֵיהֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּעֲרָבְיָא צָוְחִין לְיָנוּקָא עֲוִילָה. (איוב כא, יא): וְיַלְדֵיהֶם יְרַקֵּדוּן, כְּאִלֵּין שֵׁדַּיָא, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יג, כא): וּשְׂעִירִים יְרַקְּדוּ שָׁם, כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה אַחַת מֵהֶן יוֹלֶדֶת בַּיּוֹם, הָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לִבְנָהּ צֵא וְהָבֵא לִי צֹר לַחְתֹּךְ טִבּוּרָא, בַּלַּיְלָה הָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לִבְנָהּ צֵא הַדְלֵק לִי נֵר לַחְתֹּךְ טִבּוּרָא דִילָךְ. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחָדָא אִתְּתָא דִּילֵדַת בַּלַּיְלָה, אָמְרָה לִבְרָא זִיל אַדְלֵיק בּוּצִינָא דְּנִקְטַע שׁוּרָךְ, נְפַק וּפְגַע בֵּיהּ שֵׁדָא שְׁמָדוֹן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ זִיל גְּלוֹג לְאִמָּךְ דִּקְרָא תַּרְנְגוֹלָא, וְאִלְמָלֵא דִּקְרָא תַּרְנְגוֹלָא הֲוֵינָא מָחְיֵיתָךְ וְקָטְלִיתָךְ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ זִיל אַתְּ גְּלוֹג לְאִמָּךְ דְּלָא קְטַעַתְ אִמָּא שׁוּרִי, דְּאִלְמָלֵא דִּקְטַעְתֵּיהּ הֲוֵינָא מָחֵי יָתָךְ וְקָטֵיל יָתָךְ. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כא, ט): בָּתֵּיהֶם שָׁלוֹם מִפָּחַד, מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין, (איוב כא, ט): וְלֹא שֵׁבֶט אֱלוֹהַּ עֲלֵיהֶם, מִן הַיִּסּוּרִים. וּכְשֶׁהִסְתִּיר פָּנָיו מֵהֶם מִי אָמְרוּ לוֹ שֶׁלֹא עָשִׂיתָ כַּשּׁוּרָה. וּמָה הִסְתִּיר פָּנָיו מֵהֶם, שֶׁהֵבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם הַמַּבּוּל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ז, כג): וַיִּמַח אֶת כָּל הַיְקוּם וגו'. וְעַל גּוֹי וְעַל אָדָם יָחַד, עַל גּוֹי, זֶה דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל. וְעַל אָדָם, זֶה נֹחַ. יָחַד, שֶׁמִּמֶּנּוּ הוּשְׁתַּת הָעוֹלָם, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַעֲמִיד עוֹלָמוֹ מֵאֻמָּה שְׁלֵמָה וּמֵאָדָם אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים.

"The sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth (Genesis 9:18)": "When He is silent, who will condemn? If He hides His face, who will see Him, Be it nation or man? (Job 34:29)". Rabbi Meir interpreted: ""He is silent" from his world, and "He hides his face" from his world, like a judge whom a curtain stretches in front of his face and he does not know what is being done beyond it. Likewise they said about the generation of the Flood: "The clouds screen Him so He cannot see as He moves about the circuit of heaven (Job 22:14)"". They said to him: "That is enough for you, Meir". He said to them: "But why is it written: "When He is silent, who will condemn?"? He said: "Did he not give contentment to the generation of the Flood? And who came to reproach them. What contentment did he give them? "Their children are with them always [nakhon], And they see their children’s children (Job 21:8)", "They let their infants run loose like sheep, And their children skip about (Job 28:11)". Rabbi Levi and the Rabbis: Rabbi Levi said: "For three days one's wife was pregnant, as it is said elsewhere using the word nakhon "Be ready [nakhon] for the third day: do not go near a woman (Exodus 19:15)". As nakhon is said here to mean for three days, so nakhon is there for three days". And the Rabbis said: "For one day one's wife was pregnant and gave birth, as nakhon is said there and here: "Be ready [nakhon] by morning (Exodus 34:2)". As nakhon is said here to mean for one day, so nakhon is there for one day". "And they see": they were looking at their children and their children's children. "They let their infants ['avileihem] run loose like sheep": Rabbi Levi said: "In Arabia they call a child an avilah". "And their children skip [yeraqqedun] about": like demons, which is why it says: "And there shall satyrs dance [yeraqqedu] (Isaiah 13:21)". One of these women gave birth during the day, and she said to her son: "Go and bring me a flint to detach your umbilical cord". And at night she said to her son: "Go and light a lamp for me to detach your umbilical cord". There was a time when one gave birth at night and said to her son: "Go and light a lamp for me to detach your umbilical cord" and her son went and met with the demon Asmodeus. Asmodeus said to him: "Go and tell you mother that the rooster has crowed, and if the rooster had not crowed I would have harmed you". The boy said to him: "Go and tell you mother that my mother has not detached my umbilical cord, and if she had I would have struck and killed you." See! It is written: "Their homes are secure, without fear (Job 21:9)": from destroyers/demons. "They do not feel the rod of God (Job 21:9)": because of a lack of chastisement. Why did he hide his face from them? Because he brought to them the Flood. See! It is written: "All existence on earth was blotted out (Genesis 7:23)". "Be it nation or man together". "Be it nation": this is the generation of the Flood". "Or man": this is Noah. "Together": because from him the world was established, and it is possible for him to set up the world from a nation alone and from one man, as it is said: "The sons of Noah who came out of the ark".

2 ב

יָרֹעַ כַּבִּירִים לֹא חֵקֶר וגו' (איוב לד, כד), הֵרֵעוּ אַנְשֵׁי דוֹר הַמַּבּוּל בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם הָרָעִים, וְאֵין חֵקֶר, אֵין חֵקֶר בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם הָרָעִים. (איוב לד, כד): וַיַּעֲמֵד אֲחֵרִים תַּחְתָּם, אֵלּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ, וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת. (ישעיה מג, יג): גַּם מִיּוֹם אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין מִיָדִי מַצִּיל, מֵאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם. (ישעיה מג, יג): אֶפְעַל וּמִי יְשִׁיבֶנָּה, כָּל פְּעֻלּוֹת וּמַחְשָׁבוֹת שֶׁפָּעַלְתִּי עִם דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל מִי אָמַר לִי לֹא עָשִׂיתָ כַּשּׁוּרָה, אֲבָל נֹחַ נִכְנַס בְּשָׁלוֹם וְיָצָא בְּשָׁלוֹם, וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים וגו'. וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָעַן, אֲבוּי דִפְחָתָא. (בראשית ט, יט): שְׁלשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי נֹחַ וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל הָאָרֶץ, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְדָגָה גְדוֹלָה דְּנָפְצָה עֻבָּרָה וּמָלְאָה אַרְעָא.

"He shatters [yaro'a] mighty men without number and sets others in their place (Job 34:24)". The men of the generation of the Flood did evil [here'u] in their evil deeds. "Without number": there was no number in their evil deeds. "And sets others in their place": these were the sons of Noah: "The sons of Noah...were Shem, Ham, and Japheth". "Ever since day was, I am He; None can deliver from My hand (Isaiah 43:13)": the nations of the world. "When I act, who can reverse it? (Isaiah 43:13)": all the deeds and thoughts which I did with the generation of the Flood, who said to me: "You did not act appropriately"? But Noah was brought in in peace and went out in peace: "The sons of Noah who came out of the ark were". "Ham being the father of Canaan": the source of the decline. "These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole world branched out [naftzah] (Genesis 9:19)": to what is this verse like? To a great fish who spawned [naftzah] eggs and filled the earth.

3 ג

וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה (בראשית ט, כ), נִתְחַלֵּל וְנַעֲשָׂה חֻלִּין, לָמָּה, וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם, לֹא הָיָה לוֹ לִטַּע דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁל תַּקָּנָה, לֹא יִחוּר אֶחָד וְלֹא גְּרוֹפִית אַחַת, אֶלָּא וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם, וּמֵהֵיכָן הָיָה לוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הִכְנִיס עִמּוֹ זְמוֹרוֹת וּנְטִיעוֹת וְיִחוּרִים שֶׁל תְּאֵנָה, וּגְרוֹפִיּוֹת לְזֵיתִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ו, כא): וְאָסַפְתָּ אֵלֶיךָ, אֵין אָדָם כּוֹנֵס דָּבָר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹ. אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה, שְׁלשָׁה הֵם. שֶׁהָיוּ לְהוּטִים אַחַר הָאֲדָמָה וְלֹא נִמְצָא בָהֶם תּוֹעֶלֶת, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: קַיִן, נֹחַ וְעֻזִיָּהוּ. קַיִן (בראשית ד, ב): הָיָה עוֹבֵד אֲדָמָה, נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה, עֻזִיָּהוּ (דברי הימים ב כו, י): אִכָּרִים וְכֹרְמִים בֶּהָרִים וּבַכַּרְמֶל כִּי אֹהֵב אֲדָמָה הָיָה. אִישׁ אֲדָמָה, שֶׁעָשָׂה פָּנִים לָאֲדָמָה, וְשֶׁבִּשְׁבִילוֹ נִתְלַחְלְחָה הָאֲדָמָה, וְשֶׁמִּלֵּא כָּל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה. אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה בּוֹרְגָּר לְשֵׁם בּוֹרְגָּרוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה, חָבִיב משֶׁה מִנֹּחַ, נֹחַ מִשֶּׁנִּקְרָא (בראשית ו, ט): אִישׁ צַדִּיק, נִקְרָא אִישׁ אֲדָמָה, אֲבָל משֶׁה מִשֶּׁנִּקְרָא (שמות ב, יט): אִישׁ מִצְרִי, נִקְרָא (דברים לג, א): אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים. וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה הוֹלֵךְ לִטַּע כֶּרֶם אַפְגַע בּוֹ שִׁדָּא שִׁמְדוֹן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ שֻׁתָּפִי עִמָּךְ, אֶלָּא אִזְדְּהַר בָּךְ דְּלָא תֵעוֹל לְחֶלְקִי, וְאִם עָלַת בְּחֶלְקִי אֲנָא חָבֵל בָּךְ.

"Noah, the tiller of the soil, was the first [vayyachel] to plant a vineyard (Genesis 9:20)": he was disgraced [nitchallel] and made debased [chullin]. Why? "To plant a vineyard". Should he not have planted something else to repair the world, a tree sapling or a tree cutting? Instead "To plant a vineyard"; from where did he acquire it? Rabbi Abba son of Kahana said: "He gathered to him planting vine shoots and saplings of figs, and cuttings of olives, and see! It is written: "For your part, take of everything that is eaten and store it away, to serve as food for you and for them (Genesis 6:21)": a man does not gather anything unless it is necessary for himself". "The tiller of the soil": there were three of them who were excited about the land to no benefit, and these are they: Cain, Noah, and Uzziah. Cain, "tiller of the soil (Genesis 4:2)", Noah "tiller of the soil", Uzziah: "and vine dressers in the mountains and on the fertile lands, for he loved the soil (2 Chronicles 26:10)". "The tiller of the soil": who made the face of the ground, and because of him the ground was preserved and by whom the entire face of the ground was filled. "The tiller of the soil": a stationed soldier, burgarius, is called by the name of his station, burg. Rabbi Berechya said: "Moses was favored for than Noah. Noah was called "a righteous man (Genesis 6:9)", he was called "the tiller of the soil", but Moses was called "an Egyptian (Exodus 2:19)", he was called "a man of God (Deuteronomy 33:1)". "To plant a vineyard": While he was walking "to plant a vineyard" the demon Asmodeus appeared to him and said to him: "Join with me! Though watch out that you not enter my side of the vineyard. If you enter into my side, I will hurt you".

4 ד

וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן הַיַּיִן (בראשית ט, כא), וַיֵּשְׁתְּ, שָׁתָה שֶׁלֹא בַמִּדָּה וְנִתְבַּזָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נָטַע, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שָׁתָה, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִתְבַּזָּה. וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַבִּי חָנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק וַיִּגַּל אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא וַיִּתְגַּל, גָּרַם גָּלוּת לוֹ וְלַדּוֹרוֹת. עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים לֹא גָּלוּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל יַיִן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עמוס ו, ו): הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן, וּכְתִיב (ישעיה ה, יא): הוֹי מַשְׁכִּימֵי בַבֹּקֶר שֵׁכָר יִרְדֹּפוּ וגו'. שֵׁבֶט יְהוּדָה וּבִנְיָמִין לֹא גָּלוּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַיַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כח, ז): וְגַם אֵלֶּה בַּיַּיִן שָׁגוּ וּבַשֵּׁכָר תָּעוּ. בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה, אָהֳלָה כְּתִיב, בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלָהּ שֶׁל אִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי נֹחַ כְּשֶׁיָּצָא מִן הַתֵּבָה הִכִּישׁוֹ אֲרִי וּשְׁבָרוֹ, וּבָא לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ וְנִתְפַּזֵּר זַרְעוֹ וְנִתְבַּזָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְעוֹלָם לֹא תְהֵי לָהוּט אַחַר הַיַּיִן, שֶׁכָּל פָּרָשַׁת הַיַּיִן כְּתִיב בָּהּ וָוִי"ן אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה פְּעָמִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ, וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם, וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן הַיַּיִן, וַיִּתְגַּל, וַיַּרְא חָם, וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי אֶחָיו, וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת, וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וגו' וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ, וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לוֹ, וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים וגו'.

"And he drank of the wine, and was drunken (Gen. 9:21)". He drank without measure and was shamed. Rabbi Hiyya bar Aba said: in the same day he planted, became drunk was humiliated. And he was uncovered (vait'gal) inside his tent. Rabbi Yehudah said that R. Chanin said, in the name of Rabbi Shmuel bar Rabbi Itzchak: Vaigal [he was uncovered] is not written but vait'gal: he brought exile [galut] for himself and the generations. The ten tribes were exiled only because of wine, as it is written 'Woe to them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink' (Isa. 5:2). The Tribes of Yehudah and Beniamin were exiled only because of wine, as it is written, 'But these also erred through wine (Isaiah 28:7). "Inside his tent ('aholoh)": this is written 'aholah (with a hey, "her tent"), inside his wife’s tent. Rabbi Huna said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, the son of Rabbi Yosi Hagelili: When Noah was leaving the Ark a lion struck and mutilated him, and when he went to use the bed, his semen was scattered and he was humiliated. Rabbi Yochanan said: Always beware of being excited for wine, because in the passage on wine [this one] is written with a vav fourteen times, as it is written: "And Noah the husbandman began (vayahel), and planted (vayita) a vineyard, And he drank (vayesht) of the wine, and was drunken (vayishkar); and he was uncovered (vayit'gal). And Ham saw (vayar)… and told (vayaged) his two brethren, and Shem and Japheth took (vayikach) a garment, and laid it (vayasimu) upon both their shoulders, and went (vayelechu) backward, and covered (vayechasu)…And Noah awoke (vayiketz)…and knew (vayeda) what his youngest son had done unto him. And he said (vayomer): Cursed be Canaan (Gen. 9:20-25)". [וָוִי"ן vavs, are a symbol for ווי, vey, in English woe].

5 ה

וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן (בראשית ט, כב), אֲמַר לְהוֹן וְאַגֵּד לְהוֹן, אֲמַר לְהוֹן אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שְׁנֵי בָנִים הָיוּ לוֹ, וְעָמַד אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְהָרַג אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְזֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁלשָׁה וְהוּא מְבַקֵּשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹתָן אַרְבָּעָה. אֲמַר לְהוֹן וְאַגֵּד לְהוֹן, אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר זַבְדִי מַה טַּעַם עֶבֶד יוֹצֵא בְּשֵׁן וְעַיִן, מֵהָכָא וַיַּרְא, וַיַּגֵּד.

"And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw and told his two brethren outside (Genesis 9:22)". He said to them and he told them: He said to his brethren: Adam had but two sons, yet one arose and slew his brother; and this man [Noah] has three sons and yet he wants four! He talked to them, and persuaded them. Rabbi Yaakov bar Zavdi said: Why does a slave go free for the loss of a tooth or an eye? It follows from this: "And … he saw, and told".

6 ו

וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת הַשִֹּׂמְלָה (בראשית ט, כג), אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שֵׁם הִתְחִיל בַּמִּצְוָה תְּחִלָּה וּבָא יֶפֶת וְנִשְׁמַע לוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ זָכָה שֵׁם לְטַלִּית, וְיֶפֶת לְפִיוָולָא. וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם, מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית, אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנָּתְנוּ יְדֵיהֶם עַל פְּנֵיהֶם וְהָיוּ מְהַלְּכִין לַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶם, וְנָהֲגוּ בוֹ כָּבוֹד כְּמוֹרָא הָאָב עַל הַבֵּן, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְשֵׁם אַתָּה כִסִּיתָ עֶרְוָתָא דַּאֲבוּךְ, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ לְךָ (דניאל ג, ג): בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ כְּפִתוּ בְּסַרְבָּלֵיהוֹן. רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי הוּנָא, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר בְּגֻלֵּיהוֹן, רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר בְּמוֹקְסֵיהוֹן. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיֶפֶת, אַתָּה כִסִּיתָ עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ לְךָ (יחזקאל לט, יא): בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶתֵּן לְגוֹג מְקוֹם שָׁם קֶבֶר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל גֵי הָעֹבְרִים קִדְמַת הַיָּם וְחֹסֶמֶת הִיא אֶת הָעֹבְרִים וְקָבְרוּ שָׁם אֶת גּוֹג וְאֶת כָּל הֲמוֹנֹה וְקָרְאוּ גֵּיא הֲמוֹן גּוֹג. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְחָם, אַתָּה בִּזִּיתָ עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ לְךָ (ישעיה כ, ד): כֵּן יִנְהַג מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר אֶת שְׁבִי מִצְרַיִם וְאֶת גָּלוּת כּוּשׁ נְעָרִים וּזְקֵנִים עָרוֹם וְיָחֵף וַחֲשׂוּפֵי שֵׁת עֶרְוַת מִצְרָיִם.

"And Shem and Yafet took a garment (Gen. 9:23)". R. Yochanan said: Shem began the mitzvah, then Yafet came and listened to him. Therefore Shem was granted a tallit and Yafet a phallium [circumcision]. 'And laid it upon both their shoulders and went backwards and covered their father's nakedness' but since it is written 'went backwards' don't we [already] know that they did not see their father’s nakedness? This comes to teach that they covered their faces with their hands and walked backwards, giving him the respect due from a son to a father. Said the Holy One of Blessing to Shem: ‘You covered your father’s nakedness! By your life [I swear that] I will reward you 'When these men are bound in their cloaks (be-sarbelehon),’ etc. (Dan. 3:21). Rabbi Yudan and Rabbi Huna disagree [on what ‘be-sarbelehon’ means]: Rabbi Yudan said: It means in their prayer cloaks; Rabbi Huna said: It means in their robes of state. The Holy One of Blessing said to Yafet: ‘You covered your father’s nakedness! By your life [I swear that] I will reward you 'for it shall come to pass in that day, that I will give to Gog a place fit for burial in Israel’ (Ezek. 39:11) The Holy One of Blessing said to Ham: ‘You brought your father’s nakedness to disgrace: By your life [I swear that] I will punish you: 'So shall the king of Assyria lead away the captives of Egypt, and the exiles of Ethiopia, young and old, naked and barefoot, and with buttocks uncovered to the shame of Egypt’ (Isa. 22:4).

7 ז

וַיִּקֶּץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ (בראשית ט, כד), נִתְפָּרֵק יֵינוֹ מֵעָלָיו. וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן, בְּנוֹ הַפָּסוּל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (מלכים א ח, סד): כִּי מִזְבַּח הַנְּחשֶׁת קָטֹן מֵהָכִיל וגו'. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו, חָם חָטָא וּכְנַעַן נִתְקַלֵּל, אֶתְמָהָא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר לְפִי שֶׁכָּתוּב (בראשית ט, א): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ וְאֶת בָּנָיו, וְאֵין קְלָלָה הֲוָה בִּמְקוֹם בְּרָכָה, לְפִיכָךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר כְּנַעַן רָאָה וְהִגִּיד לְחָם, לְפִיכָךְ תּוֹלִין אֶת הַקְּלָלָה בַּמְקֻלָּל. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הַרְבֵּה צַעַר נִצְטַעֵר נֹחַ בַּתֵּבָה שֶׁלֹא הָיָה לוֹ בֵּן קָטָן שֶׁיְשַׁמְּשֶׁנּוּ, אָמַר לִכְשֶׁאֵצֵא אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד לִי בֵּן קָטָן שֶׁיְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָשָׂה לוֹ חָם אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר אַתָּה מָנַעְתָּ אוֹתִי מִלְּהַעֲמִיד לִי בֵּן קָטָן שֶׁיְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, לְפִיכָךְ יִהְיֶה אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ עֶבֶד לְאֶחָיו שֶׁהֵן עֲבָדִים לִי. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵף אָמַר אַתָּה מָנַעְתָּ אוֹתִי מִלַּעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא בַּאֲפֵלָה, לְפִיכָךְ יִהְיֶה אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ כָּעוּר וּמְפֻחָם. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵף אָמַר לוֹ אַתָּה מָנַעְתָּ אוֹתִי מִלְּהַעֲמִיד בֵּן רְבִיעִי, לְפִיכָךְ אֲנִי מְאָרֵר בֵּן רְבִיעִי שֶׁלְּךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא חָם וְכֶלֶב שִׁמְּשׁוּ בַּתֵּבָה, לְפִיכָךְ יָצָא חָם מְפֻחָם, וְכֶלֶב מְפֻרְסָם בְּתַשְׁמִישׁוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לְאֶחָד שֶׁקָּבַע מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ גּוֹזֵר אֲנִי שֶׁיִּתְפַּחֲמוּ פָנָיו וְיִפָּסֵל מַטְבֵּעוֹ, כָּךְ חָם וְכֶלֶב שִׁמְשׁוּ בַּתֵּבָה, לְפִיכָךְ יָצָא חָם מְפֻחָם וְכֶלֶב מְפֻרְסָם בְּתַשְׁמִישׁוֹ.

"And Noah awoke from his wine (Gen 9:24)": he was sobered from his wine. 'And knew what his youngest [qatan] son had done to him.' Here [youngest] means, his worthless son, as you read, 'Because the brazen altar that was before Ad-nai was too small [qatan] to receive the bunt-offering, etc.' (I Kings 8:64). And He said: Cursed be Canaan (Genesis 9:25): Ham disagreed. Rabbi Yehudah said: Since it is written, 'And God blessed Noah and his sons' (Gen. 9:1), while there cannot be a curse where a blessing has been given, consequently. He said: Cursed be Canaan. Rabbi Nehemiah explained: It was Canaan who saw it [in the first place] and informed them, therefore the curse is attached to him who did wrong. Rabbi Berekiah said: Noah grieved very much in the Ark that he had no young son to wait on him, and declared, ‘When I go out I will beget a young son to do this for me.’ But when Ham acted thus to him, he exclaimed, ‘You have prevented me from begetting a young son to serve me, therefore that man [your son] will be a servant to his brethren!’ Rabbi Huna said in Rabbi Yosef’s name: [Noah declared], ‘You have prevented me from begetting a fourth son, therefore I curse your fourth son,’ Rabbi Huna also said in Rabbi Yosef’s name: You have prevented me from doing something that is done in the dark, therefore your seed will be ugly and dark-skinned. Rabbi Hiya said: Ham and the dog copulated in the ark, therefore Ham came forth black-skinned while the dog publicly exposes its copulation. Rabbi Levi said: This may be compared to one who minted his own coinage in the very palace of the king, whereupon the king ordered: I decree that his effigy be defaced and his coinage cancelled. Similarly, Ham and the dog copulated in the Ark and were punished.

8 ח

וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם (בראשית ט, כו), אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אַף מִיֶּפֶת עָמְדוּ בְּאָהֳלֵי שֵׁם. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן, יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת, זֶה כֹּרֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא גּוֹזֵר שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי שֵׁם, אֵין שְׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּאָהֳלֵי שֵׁם. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר יִהְיוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה נֶאֱמָרִים בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יֶפֶת בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֵי שֵׁם. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר מִכָּאן לְתַרְגּוּם מִן הַתּוֹרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (נחמיה ח, ח): וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים, זֶה הַמִּקְרָא. מְפֹרָשׁ, זֶה תַּרְגּוּם. וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל, אֵלּוּ הַטְּעָמִים. וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא, אֵלּוּ רָאשֵׁי הַפְּסוּקִים. רַבִּי הוּנָא בֶּן לוּלְיָאנִי אוֹמֵר אֵלּוּ הַהַכְרָעוֹת וְהָרְאָיוֹת. רַבָּנָן דְּקֵיסָרִין אָמְרֵי מִיכָּן לַמָּסֹרֶת. רַבִּי זְעִירָא וְרַבִּי חֲנַנְאֵל בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲפִלּוּ אָדָם רָגִיל בַּתּוֹרָה כְּעֶזְרָא, לֹא יְהֵא קוֹרֵא מִפִּיו וְכוֹתֵב, וְהָא תָּנֵי מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי מֵאִיר בְּאַסְיָא וְלֹא הָיָה שָׁם מְגִלַּת אֶסְתֵּר וְקָרָא לוֹ מִפִּיו וּכְתָבָהּ, תַּמָּן אָמְרִין שְׁתֵּי מְגִלּוֹת כָּתַב, גָּנַז אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְקִיֵּם אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה.

"And he said, “Blessed be Hashem, the God of Shem; let Canaan be a slave to them (Genesis 9:26)": Reish Lakish said: "Yet from Japheth they stood in the tents of Shem". "And he said, “Blessed be Hashem, the God of Shem; Let Canaan be ", "May God enlarge Japheth (Genesis 9:27)": this is Cyrus who decreed the rebuilding of the Temple. " And let him dwell [veyishkon] in the tents of Shem": the shekhinah does not rest except "in the tents of Shem". Bar Kappara said: "Let the words of the Torah be spoken in the [Greek] language of Japheth in the midst of the "tents of Shem". Rabbi Yudan said: "This applies to a translation of the Torah. See! It is written: "They read from the scroll of the Teaching of God" (Nehemiah 8:8)": this is the Torah reading. "Translating it": this is the translation. "And giving the sense": these are the accents. "So they understood the reading": these are the beginnings of the verses". Rabbi Huna son of Lollianus says: "These are the grammatical constructions and pieces of evidence". The Rabbis of Caesarea said: "A reference to the vocalic tradition". Rabbi Zeira and Rabbi Chananel in the name of Rabbi: "Even if a man is knowledgeable in the Torah like Ezra, if there was no scroll of Esther there, he does not read it or write it". There they say: "He wrote two scrolls: he hid the first and published the second".