תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הָרוֹאֶה חַמָּה בִּתְקוּפָתָהּ, לְבָנָה בִּגְבוּרָתָהּ, וְכוֹכָבִים בִּמְסִילּוֹתָם, וּמַזָּלוֹת כְּסִדְרָן, אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … עוֹשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית״. וְאֵימַת הָוֵי? אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: כׇּל עֶשְׂרִין וּתְמָנְיָא שְׁנִין, וְהָדַר מַחְזוֹר וְנָפְלָה תְּקוּפַת נִיסָן, בְּשַׁבְּתַאי בְּאוּרְתָּא דִּתְלָת נַגְהֵי אַרְבַּע.
The Sages taught: One who sees the sun in the beginning of its cycle, the moon in its might, the planets in their orbit, or the signs of the zodiac aligned in their order recites: Blessed…Author of creation. The Gemara asks: And when is it that the sun is at the beginning of its cycle? Abaye said: Every twenty-eight years when the cycle is complete and returns to its genesis, and the Nisan, vernal, equinox, when the spring days and nights are of equal length, falls within the constellation of Saturn on the night of the third and eve of the fourth day of the week, as then their arrangement returns to be as it was when the constellations were first placed in the heavens.
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר הָרוֹאֶה הַיָּם וְכוּ׳ לִפְרָקִים. עַד כַּמָּה? אָמַר רָמֵי בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב יִצְחָק: עַד שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם.
We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda said: One who sees the great sea intermittently recites: Blessed…Who has made the great sea. The Gemara asks: How much is intermittently? Rami bar Abba said that Rav Yitzḥak said: Thirty days.
וְאָמַר רָמֵי בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב יִצְחָק: הָרוֹאֶה פְּרָת אַגִּשְׁרָא דְבָבֶל, אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … עוֹשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית״. וְהָאִידָּנָא דְּשַׁנְיוּהּ פָּרְסָאֵי — מִבֵּי שַׁבּוּר וּלְעֵיל. רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר: מֵאִיהִי דְקִירָא וּלְעֵיל. וְאָמַר רָמֵי בַּר אַבָּא: הָרוֹאֶה דִּגְלַת אַגִּשְׁרָא דְּשָׁבִיסְתְּנָא, אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … עוֹשֵׂה בְּרֵאשִׁית״.
And Rami bar Abba said that Rav Yitzḥak said: One who sees the Euphrates River near the bridge of Babylonia recites: Blessed…Author of creation. The Gemara adds: And now that the Persians have rerouted the course of the river, one only recites the blessing from Beit Shavor upriver. Downriver, it no longer flows as it did at creation, so there one does not recite the blessing: Author of creation. Rav Yosef said: One only recites the blessing from Ihi Dekira upriver. And Rami bar Abba said: One who sees the Tigris on the bridge of Shabistana recites: Blessed…Author of creation.
מַאי ״חִדֶּקֶל״ — אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: שֶׁמֵּימָיו חַדִּין וְקַלִּין. מַאי ״פְּרָת״? — שֶׁמֵּימָיו פָּרִין וְרָבִין.
The Gemara proceeds to explain the names of these rivers. What is the source of the name Ḥidekel [Tigris]? Rav Ashi said: Its name is an acronym derived from the fact that its waters are sharp [ḥadin] and light [kalin] and therefore good for drinking. What is the source of the name Perat [Euphrates]? It is so named because its waters are fruitful [parin] and multiply [ravin]; there are many fish in it.
וְאָמַר רָבָא: הַאי דַּחֲרִיפֵי בְּנֵי מָחוֹזָא — מִשּׁוּם דְּשָׁתוּ מַיָּא דְּדִגְלַת. הַאי דְּגִיחוֹרֵי — מִשּׁוּם דִּמְשַׁמְּשִׁי בִּימָמָא. וְהַאי דְּנָיְידִי עֵינַיְיהוּ — מִשּׁוּם דְּדָיְירוּ בְּבַיִת אָפֵל.
As for the Tigris River, Rava said: The inhabitants of the city Meḥoza are sharp because they drink the water of the Tigris; they are red because they engage in conjugal relations in the daytime; and their eyes move constantly because they live in dark houses.
עַל הַגְּשָׁמִים כּוּ׳. וְעַל הַגְּשָׁמִים ״הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״ מְבָרֵךְ? וְהָאָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ בְּמַתְנִיתָא תָּנָא: מֵאֵימָתַי מְבָרְכִין עַל הַגְּשָׁמִים — מִשֶּׁיֵּצֵא חָתָן לִקְרַאת כַּלָּה.
We learned in our mishna that over rain one recites the blessing: Blessed…Who is good and does good. The Gemara asks: And over rain does one really recite the blessing: Who is good and does good? Didn’t Rabbi Abbahu say, and some say it was taught in a baraita: From when does one recite the blessing on rain? From when the groom went out to meet the bride. In other words, there are puddles of water on the ground. The groom, meaning the raindrops from above, cause the bride, meaning the water below, to splash.
מַאי מְבָרְכִין? אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: ״מוֹדִים אֲנַחְנוּ לָךְ עַל כׇּל טִפָּה וְטִפָּה שֶׁהוֹרַדְתָּ לָנוּ״. וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מְסַיֵּים בַּהּ, הָכִי: ״אִילּוּ פִּינוּ מָלֵא שִׁירָה כַּיָּם וְכוּ׳ אֵין אֲנַחְנוּ מַסְפִּיקִין לְהוֹדוֹת לְךָ ה׳ אֱלֹהֵינוּ״, עַד ״תִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶה״. ״בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳ רוֹב הַהוֹדָאוֹת״.
The Gemara asks: What blessing does one recite? Rav Yehuda said: The formula of the blessing is: We thank You for each and every drop that You have made fall for us. And Rav Yoḥanan concludes the blessing as follows: If our mouths were as full of song as the sea…we could not sufficiently praise You O Lord our God, and he continues with the formula of nishmat that is recited on Shabbat morning, until: Shall bow before You. Blessed are You, O Lord, to Whom abundant thanksgivings are offered.
״רוֹב הַהוֹדָאוֹת״ וְלָא כׇּל הַהוֹדָאוֹת? אָמַר רָבָא: אֵימָא — ״הָאֵל הַהוֹדָאוֹת״. אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: הִלְכָּךְ נֵימְרִינְהוּ לְתַרְוַיְיהוּ, ״רוֹב הַהוֹדָאוֹת״ וְ״הָאֵל הַהוֹדָאוֹת״.
The Gemara asks: Does the blessing say: Abundant thanksgivings, and not: All thanksgivings? Certainly all thanksgivings are due to God. Rava said: Emend the formula of the blessing and say: The God of thanksgivings. Rav Pappa said: Therefore, we will recite them both: Abundant thanksgivings, and: The God of thanksgivings.
וְאֶלָּא קַשְׁיָא! — לָא קַשְׁיָא, הָא דִּשְׁמַע מִשְׁמָע, הָא דַּחֲזָא מִחְזֵי.
However, it is still difficult, as apparently the blessing for rain is not: Who is good and does good, as it appears in our mishna. The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. This, which we learned in our mishna, that one recites: Who is good and does good, refers to a case where one heard that rain fell. This, where we learned that one recites: We thank You, etc., refers to a case where one saw the rain fall.
דִּשְׁמַע מִשְׁמָע הַיְינוּ בְּשׂוֹרוֹת טוֹבוֹת, וּתְנַן עַל בְּשׂוֹרוֹת טוֹבוֹת אוֹמֵר ״בָּרוּךְ הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״!
The Gemara asks: One heard that the rain fell; that is a case of good tidings. And we learned in the mishna that upon hearing good tidings one recites: Who is good and does good. Therefore, there is no reason for the mishna to mention rain separately.
אֶלָּא: אִידֵּי וְאִידֵּי דַּחֲזָא מִחְזֵי, וְלָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא דַּאֲתָא פּוּרְתָּא, הָא דַּאֲתָא טוּבָא. וְאִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא: הָא וְהָא דַּאֲתָא טוּבָא, וְלָא קַשְׁיָא — הָא דְּאִית לֵיהּ אַרְעָא, הָא דְּלֵית לֵיהּ אַרְעָא.
Rather, the difficulty can be otherwise resolved: This, Rabbi Abbahu’s statement, and that, the mishna, both refer to a case where one saw the rain fall, and this is not difficult. This, Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites We thank You, etc., refers to a case where a little rain fell, while that, the mishna which says that one recites: Who is good and does good, refers to a case where a lot of rain fell. And if you wish, say instead that this and that refer to cases where a lot of rain fell, and this is not difficult. This, the mishna, refers to a case where one owns land, while that, Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites: We thank You, etc., refers to a case where one does not own land, so the rain does not benefit him directly.
אִית לֵיהּ אַרְעָא ״הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״ מְבָרֵךְ?! וְהָא תְּנַן: בָּנָה בַּיִת חָדָשׁ, וְקָנָה כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים, אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … שֶׁהֶחֱיָינוּ וְהִגִּיעָנוּ לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה״. שֶׁלּוֹ וְשֶׁל אֲחֵרִים — אוֹמֵר: ״הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״?
The Gemara asks: One who owns land recites: Who is good and does good? Didn’t we learn in the mishna: One who built a new house or purchased new vessels recites: Blessed…Who has given us life…and brought us to this time. However, if the land belonged to him and others in partnership, he recites: Who is good and does good? For rain falling onto land that one owns exclusively, he recites: Who has given us life and not: Who is good and does good.
לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא דְּאִית לֵיהּ שׁוּתָּפוּת, הָא דְּלֵית לֵיהּ שׁוּתָּפוּת. וְהָתַנְיָא: קׇצְרוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר, עַל שֶׁלּוֹ הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … שֶׁהֶחֱיָינוּ וְקִיְּימָנוּ״, עַל שֶׁלּוֹ וְעַל שֶׁל חֲבֵירוֹ — אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״.
The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, the mishna where we learned that one recites: Who is good and does good, refers to a case where one owns his land in partnership with another; that, Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites: Who has given us life, refers to a case where one owns the land exclusively and does not have a partnership. And indeed, this halakha was taught in a baraita: The gist of the matter is, for that which is exclusively his, he recites: Blessed…Who has given us life and sustained us; for that which belongs to him and to another in partnership, he recites: Who is good and does good.
וְכׇל הֵיכָא דְּלֵית לְאַחֲרִינָא בַּהֲדֵיהּ לָא מְבָרֵךְ ״הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״? וְהָתַנְיָא: אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ יָלְדָה אִשְׁתּוֹ זָכָר, אוֹמֵר ״בָּרוּךְ … הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״! הָתָם נָמֵי, דְּאִיכָּא אִשְׁתּוֹ בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּנִיחָא לַהּ בְּזָכָר.
The Gemara challenges this principle: And in every case where others are not with him, one does not recite: Who is good and does good? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: If they told him that his wife gave birth to a male, he recites: Who is good and does good? The Gemara responds: There too, his wife is with him, as she is also happy that a male child was born.
תָּא שְׁמַע: מֵת אָבִיו וְהוּא יוֹרְשׁוֹ, בַּתְּחִלָּה אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … דַּיַּין הָאֱמֶת״, וּלְבַסּוֹף הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״. הָתָם נָמֵי דְּאִיכָּא אֲחֵי דְּקָא יָרְתִי בַּהֲדֵיהּ.
The Gemara challenges further: Come and hear a contradiction from what was taught in a baraita: One whose father died and he is his heir, initially recites: Blessed…the true Judge, upon hearing of his father’s death, and ultimately, upon receiving his inheritance, he recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good. Despite the fact that the son alone benefits, he nevertheless recites: Who is good and does good. The Gemara responds: There, too, it refers to a case where he has brothers who inherit along with him.
תָּא שְׁמַע: שִׁינּוּי יַיִן אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, שִׁינּוּי מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵף בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ שִׁינּוּי יַיִן אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, אֲבָל אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ … הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״! הָתָם נָמֵי, דְּאִיכָּא בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה דְּשָׁתוּ בַּהֲדֵיהּ.
The Gemara cites an additional challenge: Come and hear a contradiction based on what was taught in a baraita: In the case of a change in the type of wine during a meal, one need not recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the vine, a second time. However, in the case of a change in place, one must recite a second blessing over the wine. And Rabbi Yosef bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Although the Sages said that in the case of a change in the type of wine one need not recite a second blessing over the wine, he does recite: Blessed…Who is good and does good. The Gemara responds: There, too, it refers to a case where he is not alone, but where members of the group are drinking with him.
בָּנָה בַּיִת חָדָשׁ וְקָנָה כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים וְכוּ׳. אָמַר רַב: הוּנָא: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן, אֲבָל יֵשׁ לוֹ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן — אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ. וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן, צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ.
We learned in the mishna: One who built a new house or purchased new vessels recites: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us and brought us to this time. With regard to this blessing, Rav Huna said: They only taught that one recites: Who has given us life, upon purchasing a new vessel when he does not already have something similar, i.e., something he inherited. However, if he already has something similar he need not recite a blessing, as it is not new to him. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even if one already has something similar that he inherited, he must recite a blessing because he never before purchased a vessel of that kind.