בְּמִידֵּי דְּלָא מִמְּאִיס נָמֵי, לְסַלְּקִינְהוּ לְצַד אֶחָד וְלִיבָרֵךְ? תַּרְגְּמַהּ רַב יִצְחָק קַסְקְסָאָה קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר אָבִין מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ״יִמָּלֵא פִי תְּהִלָּתֶךָ״.
The Gemara asks: With regard to a food item that does not become disgusting as well, let him shift it to the side and recite the blessing. Why need he spit it out? Rav Yitzḥak Kaskesa’a explained before Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: One spits it out because it is stated: “My mouth will be filled with Your praise” (Psalms 71:8), meaning that one should recite God’s praises with his entire mouth, not merely half.
בְּעוֹ מִינֵּיהּ מֵרַב חִסְדָּא: מִי שֶׁאָכַל וְשָׁתָה וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ, מַהוּ שֶׁיַּחֲזוֹר וִיבָרֵךְ? אֲמַר לְהוּ: מִי שֶׁאָכַל שׁוּם וְרֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף, יַחְזוֹר וְיֹאכַל שׁוּם אַחֵר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף?!
They raised a dilemma before Rav Ḥisda: One who ate and drank and did not recite a blessing, what is the ruling? Does he return and recite the blessing that he should have recited beforehand before he continues eating or not? In response, Rav Ḥisda said to them an analogy: Should one who ate garlic and the odor on his breath smells return and eat another garlic so that the odor on his breath will smell? That is to say, one must recite a blessing. Should one who committed a transgression and failed to recite a blessing before eating, remedy his situation by continuing to eat without reciting a blessing (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona)?
אָמַר רָבִינָא: הִלְכָּךְ אֲפִילּוּ גָּמַר סְעוּדָּתוֹ, יַחְזוֹר וִיבָרֵךְ. דְּתַנְיָא: טָבַל וְעָלָה, אוֹמֵר בַּעֲלִיָּיתוֹ ״בָּרוּךְ אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל הַטְּבִילָה״.
Ravina said: Therefore, even if one finished his meal, he must return and recite a blessing. He cites a proof, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of immersion: One who was ritually impure who immersed himself in a ritual bath and emerged, as he emerges he recites: Blessed…Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and has commanded us about ritual immersion. Evidently, in certain cases, one may recite the blessing after completing the act.
וְלָא הִיא, הָתָם — מֵעִיקָּרָא גַּבְרָא לָא חֲזֵי, הָכָא — מֵעִיקָּרָא גַּבְרָא חֲזֵי, וְהוֹאִיל וְאִידְּחִי — אִידְּחִי.
The Gemara rejects the parallel between the cases: That is not so, as there, in the case of immersion, initially, before he immersed himself, the man was unfit to recite the blessing because he was ritually impure; here, in the case where one did not recite a blessing before eating, initially he was fit to recite the blessing, and since he did not recite the blessing before he ate and he concluded his meal and is, therefore, excluded from reciting the blessing, he is completely excluded and has no way to remedy the situation.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: אִסְפָּרָגוֹס — יָפֶה לַלֵּב וְטוֹב לָעֵינַיִם, וְכׇל שֶׁכֵּן לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם. וְהָרָגִיל בּוֹ — יָפֶה לְכׇל גּוּפוֹ. וְהַמִּשְׁתַּכֵּר הֵימֶנּוּ — קָשֶׁה לְכׇל גּוּפוֹ.
Tangential to the laws concerning wine that the Gemara cited earlier, the Sages taught: Asparagus, wine or other alcoholic beverages that they were accustomed to drink early in the morning before eating, is agreeable for the heart and beneficial for the eyes, and all the more so for the intestines. And in extolling the virtues of this drink, the Gemara says: One who is accustomed to drink it, it is agreeable for his entire body. However, one must be careful, as one who drinks excessively and becomes drunk, it is harmful for his entire body.
מִדְּקָתָנֵי יָפֶה לַלֵּב, מִכְּלָל דִּבְחַמְרָא עָסְקִינַן, וְקָתָנֵי: וְכׇל שֶׁכֵּן לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם. וְהָתַנְיָא: לְלַעַ״ט — יָפֶה, לְרָמַ״ת — קָשֶׁה!
The Gemara discusses this: From the fact that it was taught that asparagus is agreeable for the heart, it may be inferred that we are dealing with asparagus made from wine, which is known to be agreeable for the heart. And we learned: And all the more so, asparagus is beneficial for the intestines. Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: For L-E-T, which is an acronym for lev, heart; einayim, eyes; teḥol, spleen, it is beneficial, but for R-M-T, rosh, head; me’ayim, intestines; taḥtoniot, hemorrhoids, it is harmful. Apparently, asparagus is harmful for one’s intestines.
כִּי תַּנְיָא הַהִיא, בִּמְיוּשָּׁן. כְּדִתְנַן: קוֹנָם יַיִן שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם, שֶׁהַיַּיִן קָשֶׁה לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ: וַהֲלֹא מְיוּשָּׁן יָפֶה הוּא לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם! וְשָׁתַק — אָסוּר בְּחָדָשׁ, וּמוּתָּר בִּמְיוּשָּׁן. שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ.
The Gemara responds: That baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial to one’s intestines, refers to asparagus made with old wine. As we learned in the mishna concerning the laws of vows that one who vowed: Wine is konam for me to taste because it is harmful to the intestines, and those who heard him said to him: But isn’t old wine beneficial to the intestines? If he was silent and did not argue the point, he is forbidden to drink new wine because of his vow, but he is permitted to drink old wine. Conclude from this that old wine is beneficial for the intestines.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שִׁשָּׁה דְּבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בְּאִסְפָּרָגוֹס: אֵין שׁוֹתִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא חַי וּמָלֵא; מְקַבְּלוֹ בְּיָמִין וְשׁוֹתֵהוּ בִּשְׂמֹאל; וְאֵין מְשִׂיחִין אַחֲרָיו, וְאֵין מַפְסִיקִין בּוֹ; וְאֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ; וְרָק אַחֲרָיו; וְאֵין סוֹמְכִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בְּמִינוֹ.
The Sages taught: Six things were said with regard to asparagus: One only drinks it undiluted and from a full cup; he receives it from the attendant in his right hand and drinks it with his left hand; one should not converse after drinking it and one does not stop while drinking it, but should drink it all at once; one only returns it to the one who gave it to him; and he spits after drinking it; and one may only supplement it with its own kind, meaning that after drinking asparagus, one should only eat something that is used to make similar beverages, e.g., dates after date beer, etc.
וְהָתַנְיָא אֵין סוֹמְכִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בְּפַת! לָא קַשְׁיָא, הָא — בִּדְחַמְרָא, הָא — בִּדְשִׁכְרָא.
The Gemara challenges: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one may only supplement asparagus with bread? The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with bread, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with its own kind, refers to asparagus made of beer.
תָּנֵי חֲדָא לְלַעַ״ט יָפֶה, לְרָמַ״ת קָשֶׁה. וְתַנְיָא אִידַּךְ: לְרָמַ״ת יָפֶה, לְלַעַ״ט קָשֶׁה! לָא קַשְׁיָא, הָא — בִּדְחַמְרָא, הָא — בִּדְשִׁכְרָא.
It was taught in one baraita that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen, and harmful for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids. And it was taught in another baraita that asparagus is beneficial for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids, and harmful for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is harmful for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of beer.
תָּנֵי חֲדָא: רָק אַחֲרָיו — לוֹקֶה. וְתַנְיָא אִידַּךְ: לֹא רָק אַחֲרָיו — לוֹקֶה! לָא קַשְׁיָא, הָא — בִּדְחַמְרָא, הָא — בִּדְשִׁכְרָא.
The Gemara resolves a contradiction between two other baraitot in the same manner. It was taught in one baraita that if he spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. And it was taught in another baraita that if he did not spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that if he spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that if he did not spit he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of beer.
אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: הַשְׁתָּא דְּאָמְרַתְּ לֹא רָק אַחֲרָיו לוֹקֶה, מֵימָיו נִזְרָקִין אֲפִילּוּ בִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ.
Rav Ashi said: Now that you said that if he did not spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, its water, the saliva in his mouth after drinking asparagus, may be expelled even when standing before the king, as failure to do so will endanger him.
אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן אֱלִישָׁע: שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים סָח לִי סוּרִיאֵל שַׂר הַפָּנִים: אַל תִּטּוֹל חֲלוּקְךָ בְּשַׁחֲרִית מִיַּד הַשַּׁמָּשׁ וְתִלְבַּשׁ. וְאַל תִּטּוֹל יָדֶיךָ מִמִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָטַל יָדָיו. וְאַל תַּחֲזִיר כּוֹס אִסְפָּרָגוֹס אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ לְךָ — מִפְּנֵי שֶׁתַּכְסְפִית, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ, אִסְתַּלְגָּנִית שֶׁל מַלְאֲכֵי חַבָּלָה מְצַפִּין לוֹ לָאָדָם, וְאוֹמְרִים: אֵימָתַי יָבֹא אָדָם לִידֵי אֶחָד מִדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ וְיִלָּכֵד.
Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: Suriel, the heavenly ministering angel of the Divine Presence, told me three things from on high: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and only return a cup of asparagus to the one who gave it to you. Why is this? Because a band of demons and some say a band of angels of destruction lie in wait for a person and say: When will a person encounter one of these circumstances and be captured?
אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי, שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים סָח לִי מַלְאַךְ הַמָּוֶת: אַל תִּטּוֹל חֲלוּקְךָ שַׁחֲרִית מִיַּד הַשַּׁמָּשׁ וְתִלְבַּשׁ. וְאַל תִּטּוֹל יָדֶיךָ מִמִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָטַל יָדָיו. וְאַל תַּעֲמוֹד לִפְנֵי הַנָּשִׁים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁחוֹזְרוֹת מִן הַמֵּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֲנִי מְרַקֵּד וּבָא לִפְנֵיהֶן וְחַרְבִּי בְּיָדַי וְיֵשׁ לִי רְשׁוּת לְחַבֵּל.
Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The Angel of Death told me three things: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and do not stand before the women when they return from the burial of the deceased, because I dance and come before them and my sword is in hand, and I have license to destroy.
וְאִי פָּגַע, מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? לִינְשׁוֹף מִדּוּכְתֵּיהּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, אִי אִיכָּא נַהֲרָא — לֶיעְבְּרֵיהּ, וְאִי אִיכָּא דַּרְכָּא אַחֲרִינָא — לֵיזִיל בַּהּ, וְאִי אִיכָּא גּוּדָא — לֵיקוּ אֲחוֹרָא, וְאִי לָא — לַיהְדַּר אַפֵּיהּ וְלֵימָא: ״וַיֹּאמֶר ה׳ אֶל הַשָּׂטָן יִגְעַר ה׳ בְּךָ וְגוֹ׳״ עַד דְּחָלְפִי מִינֵּיהּ.
The Gemara asks: And if one encounters women returning from a funeral, what is his remedy? The Gemara answers: Let him jump four cubits from where he stands; if there is a river, let him cross it; if there is another path, let him go down it; if there is a wall, let him stand behind it; and if not, he should turn his face around and recite the verse: “And the Lord said to the Satan: The Lord rebukes you, Satan, the Lord that has chosen Jerusalem rebukes you; is not this man a brand plucked from the fire?” (Zechariah 3:2), until they pass him.
אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ בְּמַתְנִיתָא תָּנָא: עֲשָׂרָה דְּבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בְּכוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה: טָעוּן הַדָּחָה וּשְׁטִיפָה. חַי וּמָלֵא. עִיטּוּר וְעִיטּוּף. נוֹטְלוֹ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו, וְנוֹתְנוֹ בַּיָּמִין. וּמַגְבִּיהוֹ מִן הַקַּרְקַע טֶפַח, וְנוֹתֵן עֵינָיו בּוֹ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: אַף מְשַׁגְּרוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה לְאַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ.
Rabbi Zeira said that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say that this halakha was taught in a baraita: Ten things were said with regard to a cup of blessing, e.g., the cup of wine over which Grace after Meals is recited: It requires rinsing and washing; it must be undiluted wine, and full; it requires adorning and wrapping; he takes it in his two hands and places it in his right hand, and he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground, and when reciting the blessing he fixes his eyes upon it. And some say: He also sends it as a gift to members of his household.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: אָנוּ אֵין לָנוּ אֶלָּא אַרְבָּעָה בִּלְבַד: הֲדָחָה, שְׁטִיפָה, חַי, וּמָלֵא. תָּנָא: הֲדָחָה — מִבִּפְנִים, וּשְׁטִיפָה — מִבַּחוּץ.
Rabbi Yoḥanan said: We only have four of those ten things: Rinsing, washing, the wine must be undiluted, and the cup must be full. In explanation, it was taught: Rinsing is from the inside of the cup, and washing is from the outside of the cup.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: כׇּל הַמְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס מָלֵא — נוֹתְנִין לוֹ נַחֲלָה בְּלִי מְצָרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וּמָלֵא בִּרְכַּת ה׳ יָם וְדָרוֹם יְרָשָׁה״. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא אוֹמֵר: זוֹכֶה וְנוֹחֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא.
Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anyone who recites a blessing over a full cup, they give him a boundless inheritance, as it is stated: “And full of the blessing of the Lord, possess the sea and the south” (Deuteronomy 33:23), indicating that one whose cup is full will receive God’s blessing and will inherit from all sides. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: He merits and inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.
עִיטּוּר. רַב יְהוּדָה מְעַטְּרֵהוּ בְּתַלְמִידִים, רַב חִסְדָּא מְעַטַּר לֵיהּ בְּנַטְלֵי. אָמַר רַבִּי חָנָן: וּבְחַי. אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת: וּבְבִרְכַּת הָאָרֶץ.
The Gemara continues explaining the ten things said with regard to the cup of blessing: The Sages would adorn the cup of blessing in different ways. Rav Yehuda would adorn it with students, as when he recited the blessing he would surround himself with students to accord honor to the blessing. Rav Ḥisda, however, would adorn it with other cups; he would surround the cup of blessing with other cups. Rabbi Ḥanan said: And specifically with undiluted wine. Rav Sheshet said: And in the blessing of the land.
עִיטּוּף. רַב פָּפָּא מִעַטַּף וְיָתֵיב. רַב אַסִּי פָּרֵיס סוּדָרָא עַל רֵישֵׁיהּ.
The Sages also had different customs with regard to wrapping. Rav Pappa would wrap himself in his prayer shawl and sit and recite Grace after Meals. Rav Asi spread a cloth on his head as an sign of respect.
נוֹטְלוֹ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי חִינָּנָא בַּר פָּפָּא: מַאי קְרָאָה? — ״שְׂאוּ יְדֵיכֶם קֹדֶשׁ וּבָרְכוּ אֶת ה׳״.
With regard to what was said that he takes it in his two hands, Rabbi Ḥinnana bar Pappa said: What is the verse that proves this? As it is stated: “Lift your hands in holiness and bless the Lord” (Psalms 134:2).
וְנוֹתְנוֹ לַיָּמִין. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: רִאשׁוֹנִים שָׁאֲלוּ: שְׂמֹאל מַהוּ שֶׁתְּסַיֵּיעַ לַיָּמִין? אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: הוֹאִיל וְרִאשׁוֹנִים אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ וְלֹא אִיפְּשִׁט לְהוּ,
As for what was said after he takes it in his two hands: And he places it in his right hand, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The early Sages asked: What is the ruling, may the left hand assist the right when taking the cup? Rav Ashi said: Since the early Sages raised this dilemma and it was not resolved for them,