Berakhot 51aברכות נ״א א
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51aנ״א א

במידי דלא ממאיס נמי לסלקינהו לצד אחד וליברך תרגמא רב יצחק קסקסאה קמיה דרבי יוסי בר אבין משמיה דרבי יוחנן משום שנאמר ימלא פי תהלתך

The Gemara asks: With regard to a food item that does not become disgusting as well, let him shift it to the side and recite the blessing. Why need he spit it out? Rav Yitzḥak Kaskesa’a explained before Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: One spits it out because it is stated: “My mouth will be filled with Your praise” (Psalms 71:8), meaning that one should recite God’s praises with his entire mouth, not merely half.

בעו מיניה מרב חסדא מי שאכל ושתה ולא ברך מהו שיחזור ויברך אמר להו מי שאכל שום וריחו נודף יחזור ויאכל שום אחר כדי שיהא ריחו נודף

They raised a dilemma before Rav Ḥisda: One who ate and drank and did not recite a blessing, what is the ruling? Does he return and recite the blessing that he should have recited beforehand before he continues eating or not? In response, Rav Ḥisda said to them an analogy: Should one who ate garlic and the odor on his breath smells return and eat another garlic so that the odor on his breath will smell? That is to say, one must recite a blessing. Should one who committed a transgression and failed to recite a blessing before eating, remedy his situation by continuing to eat without reciting a blessing (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona)?

אמר רבינא הלכך אפילו גמר סעודתו יחזור ויברך דתניא טבל ועלה אומר בעלייתו ברוך אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על הטבילה

Ravina said: Therefore, even if one finished his meal, he must return and recite a blessing. He cites a proof, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of immersion: One who was ritually impure who immersed himself in a ritual bath and emerged, as he emerges he recites: Blessed…Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and has commanded us about ritual immersion. Evidently, in certain cases, one may recite the blessing after completing the act.

ולא היא התם מעיקרא גברא לא חזי הכא מעיקרא גברא חזי והואיל ואידחי אידחי:

The Gemara rejects the parallel between the cases: That is not so, as there, in the case of immersion, initially, before he immersed himself, the man was unfit to recite the blessing because he was ritually impure; here, in the case where one did not recite a blessing before eating, initially he was fit to recite the blessing, and since he did not recite the blessing before he ate and he concluded his meal and is, therefore, excluded from reciting the blessing, he is completely excluded and has no way to remedy the situation.

תנו רבנן אספרגוס יפה ללב וטוב לעינים וכל שכן לבני מעים והרגיל בו יפה לכל גופו והמשתכר הימנו קשה לכל גופו

Tangential to the laws concerning wine that the Gemara cited earlier, the Sages taught: Asparagus, wine or other alcoholic beverages that they were accustomed to drink early in the morning before eating, is agreeable for the heart and beneficial for the eyes, and all the more so for the intestines. And in extolling the virtues of this drink, the Gemara says: One who is accustomed to drink it, it is agreeable for his entire body. However, one must be careful, as one who drinks excessively and becomes drunk, it is harmful for his entire body.

מדקתני יפה ללב מכלל דבחמרא עסקינן וקתני וכל שכן לבני מעים והתניא ללעט יפה לרמת קשה

The Gemara discusses this: From the fact that it was taught that asparagus is agreeable for the heart, it may be inferred that we are dealing with asparagus made from wine, which is known to be agreeable for the heart. And we learned: And all the more so, asparagus is beneficial for the intestines. Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: For L-E-T, which is an acronym for lev, heart; einayim, eyes; teḥol, spleen, it is beneficial, but for R-M-T, rosh, head; me’ayim, intestines; taḥtoniot, hemorrhoids, it is harmful. Apparently, asparagus is harmful for one’s intestines.

כי תניא ההיא במיושן כדתנן קונם יין שאני טועם שהיין קשה לבני מעים אמרו לו והלא מיושן יפה הוא לבני מעים ושתק אסור בחדש ומותר במיושן שמע מינה:

The Gemara responds: That baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial to one’s intestines, refers to asparagus made with old wine. As we learned in the mishna concerning the laws of vows that one who vowed: Wine is konam for me to taste because it is harmful to the intestines, and those who heard him said to him: But isn’t old wine beneficial to the intestines? If he was silent and did not argue the point, he is forbidden to drink new wine because of his vow, but he is permitted to drink old wine. Conclude from this that old wine is beneficial for the intestines.

תנו רבנן ששה דברים נאמרו באספרגוס אין שותין אותו אלא כשהוא חי ומלא מקבלו בימין ושותהו בשמאל ואין משיחין אחריו ואין מפסיקין בו ואין מחזירין אותו אלא למי שנתנו לו ורק אחריו ואין סומכין אותו אלא במינו

The Sages taught: Six things were said with regard to asparagus: One only drinks it undiluted and from a full cup; he receives it from the attendant in his right hand and drinks it with his left hand; one should not converse after drinking it and one does not stop while drinking it, but should drink it all at once; one only returns it to the one who gave it to him; and he spits after drinking it; and one may only supplement it with its own kind, meaning that after drinking asparagus, one should only eat something that is used to make similar beverages, e.g., dates after date beer, etc.

והתניא אין סומכין אותו אלא בפת לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

The Gemara challenges: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one may only supplement asparagus with bread? The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with bread, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it, refers to asparagus made of beer.

תני חדא ללעט יפה לרמת קשה ותניא אידך לרמת יפה ללעט קשה לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

It was taught in one baraita that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen, and harmful for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids. And it was taught in another baraita that asparagus is beneficial for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids, and harmful for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is harmful for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of beer.

תני חדא רק אחריו לוקה ותניא אידך לא רק אחריו לוקה לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

The Gemara resolves a contradiction between two other baraitot in the same manner. It was taught in one baraita that if he spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. And it was taught in another baraita that if he did not spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that if he spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that if he did not spit he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of beer.

אמר רב אשי השתא דאמרת לא רק אחריו לוקה מימיו נזרקין אפילו בפני המלך:

Rav Ashi said: Now that you said that if he did not spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, its water, the saliva in his mouth after drinking asparagus, may be expelled even when standing before the king, as failure to do so will endanger him.

אמר רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע שלשה דברים סח לי סוריאל שר הפנים אל תטול חלוקך בשחרית מיד השמש ותלבש ואל תטול ידיך ממי שלא נטל ידיו ואל תחזיר כוס אספרגוס אלא למי שנתנו לך מפני שתכספית ואמרי לה אסתלגנית של מלאכי חבלה מצפין לו לאדם ואומרים אימתי יבא אדם לידי אחד מדברים הללו וילכד

Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: Suriel, the heavenly ministering angel of the Divine Presence, told me three things from on high: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and only return a cup of asparagus to the one who gave it to you. Why is this? Because a band of demons and some say a band of angels of destruction lie in wait for a person and say: When will a person encounter one of these circumstances and be captured?

אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים סח לי מלאך המות אל תטול חלוקך שחרית מיד השמש ותלבש ואל תטול ידיך ממי שלא נטל ידיו ואל תעמוד לפני הנשים בשעה שחוזרות מן המת מפני שאני מרקד ובא לפניהן וחרבי בידי ויש לי רשות לחבל

Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The Angel of Death told me three things: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and do not stand before the women when they return from the burial of the deceased, because I dance and come before them and my sword is in hand, and I have license to destroy.

ואי פגע מאי תקנתיה לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבע אמות אי איכא נהרא ליעבריה ואי איכא דרכא אחרינא ליזיל בה ואי איכא גודא ליקו אחורא ואי לא ליהדר אפיה ולימא ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן יגער ה׳ בך וגו׳ עד דחלפי מיניה:

The Gemara asks: And if one encounters women returning from a funeral, what is his remedy? The Gemara answers: Let him jump four cubits from where he stands; if there is a river, let him cross it; if there is another path, let him go down it; if there is a wall, let him stand behind it; and if not, he should turn his face around and recite the verse: “And the Lord said to the Satan: The Lord rebukes you, Satan, the Lord that has chosen Jerusalem rebukes you; is not this man a brand plucked from the fire?” (Zechariah 3:2), until they pass him.

אמר רבי זירא אמר רבי אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה דברים נאמרו בכוס של ברכה טעון הדחה ושטיפה חי ומלא עיטור ועיטוף נוטלו בשתי ידיו ונותנו בימין ומגביהו מן הקרקע טפח ונותן עיניו בו ויש אומרים אף משגרו במתנה לאנשי ביתו

Rabbi Zeira said that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say that this halakha was taught in a baraita: Ten things were said with regard to a cup of blessing, e.g., the cup of wine over which Grace after Meals is recited: It requires rinsing and washing; it must be undiluted wine, and full; it requires adorning and wrapping; he takes it in his two hands and places it in his right hand, and he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground, and when reciting the blessing he fixes his eyes upon it. And some say: He also sends it as a gift to members of his household.

אמר רבי יוחנן אנו אין לנו אלא ארבעה בלבד הדחה שטיפה חי ומלא תנא הדחה מבפנים ושטיפה מבחוץ

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: We only have four of those ten things: Rinsing, washing, the wine must be undiluted, and the cup must be full. In explanation, it was taught: Rinsing is from the inside of the cup, and washing is from the outside of the cup.

אמר רבי יוחנן כל המברך על כוס מלא נותנין לו נחלה בלי מצרים שנאמר ומלא ברכת ה׳ ים ודרום ירשה רבי יוסי בר חנינא אומר זוכה ונוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anyone who recites a blessing over a full cup, they give him a boundless inheritance, as it is stated: “And full of the blessing of the Lord, possess the sea and the south” (Deuteronomy 33:23), indicating that one whose cup is full will receive God’s blessing and will inherit from all sides. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: He merits and inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.

עיטור רב יהודה מעטרהו בתלמידים רב חסדא מעטר ליה בנטלי אמר רבי חנן ובחי אמר רב ששת ובברכת הארץ

The Gemara continues explaining the ten things said with regard to the cup of blessing: The Sages would adorn the cup of blessing in different ways. Rav Yehuda would adorn it with students, as when he recited the blessing he would surround himself with students to accord honor to the blessing. Rav Ḥisda, however, would adorn it with other cups; he would surround the cup of blessing with other cups. Rabbi Ḥanan said: And specifically with undiluted wine. Rav Sheshet said: And in the blessing of the land.

עיטוף רב פפא מעטף ויתיב רב אסי פריס סודרא על רישיה

The Sages also had different customs with regard to wrapping. Rav Pappa would wrap himself in his prayer shawl and sit and recite Grace after Meals. Rav Asi spread a cloth on his head as an sign of respect.

נוטלו בשתי ידיו אמר רבי חיננא בר פפא מאי קראה שאו ידיכם קדש וברכו את ה׳

With regard to what was said that he takes it in his two hands, Rabbi Ḥinnana bar Pappa said: What is the verse that proves this? As it is stated: “Lift your hands in holiness and bless the Lord” (Psalms 134:2).

ונותנו לימין אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן ראשונים שאלו שמאל מהו שתסייע לימין אמר רב אשי הואיל וראשונים איבעיא להו ולא איפשט להו

As for what was said after he takes it in his two hands: And he places it in his right hand, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The early Sages asked: What is the ruling, may the left hand assist the right when taking the cup? Rav Ashi said: Since the early Sages raised this dilemma and it was not resolved for them,