Berakhot 48a:5ברכות מ״ח א:ה
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48aמ״ח א

לאתויי קטן פורח

to include a mature minor? Explain the baraita as follows: A minor who grew two hairs is included in a zimmun, and we are not exacting with regard to a minor to ascertain whether or not he has reached the age of majority.

ולית הלכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאמר רב נחמן קטן היודע למי מברכין מזמנין עליו

The Gemara concludes: The halakha is not in accordance with all of these statements. Rather, the halakha is in accordance with this statement that Rav Naḥman said: A minor who knows to Whom one recites a blessing is included in a zimmun.

אביי ורבא הוו יתבי קמיה דרבה אמר להו רבה למי מברכין אמרי ליה לרחמנא ורחמנא היכא יתיב רבא אחוי לשמי טללא אביי נפק לברא אחוי כלפי שמיא אמר להו רבה תרוייכו רבנן הויתו היינו דאמרי אינשי בוצין בוצין מקטפיה ידיע:

The Gemara relates that Abaye and Rava, when they were children, were seated before Rabba. Rabba said to them: To whom does one recite blessings? They said to him: To God, the All-Merciful. Rabba asked them: And where does the All-Merciful reside? Rava pointed to the ceiling. Abaye went outside and pointed toward the heaven. Rabba said to them: You will both become Sages. It is as the popular saying goes: A cucumber can be recognized from its blossoming stage. Similarly, a great person can be recognized even from a young age.

אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב תשעה אכלו דגן ואחד אכל ירק מצטרפין אמר רבי זירא בעאי מיניה מרב יהודה שמנה מהו שבעה מהו אמר ליה לא שנא ששה ודאי לא מבעיא לי אמר ליה רבי ירמיה שפיר עבדת דלא איבעיא לך התם טעמא מאי משום דאיכא רובא הכא נמי איכא רובא ואיהו סבר רובא דמינכר בעינן

Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: If nine ate grain and one ate vegetables, they join and form a zimmun of ten. Rabbi Zeira said: I raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the ruling if eight ate grain and two ate vegetables? May they join together? What is the ruling if seven ate grain? He said to him: There is no difference. I certainly had no dilemma with regard to six, as it was clear to me that six are insufficient to warrant a zimmun. Rabbi Yirmeya said to him: You did well that you had no dilemma with regard to six, but for the opposite reason. There, in the case of seven or eight, what is the reason that they form a zimmun of ten? Because there is a majority of those dining who ate grain. Here, too, there is a majority. Rabbi Zeira, however, held: We require an obvious majority. Therefore, contrary to the opinion of Rabbi Yirmeya, it was clear to him that six who ate grain are insufficient to form a zimmun.

ינאי מלכא ומלכתא כריכו ריפתא בהדי הדדי ומדקטל להו לרבנן לא הוה ליה איניש לברוכי להו אמר לה לדביתהו מאן יהיב לן גברא דמברך לן אמרה ליה אשתבע לי דאי מייתינא לך גברא דלא מצערת ליה אשתבע לה אייתיתיה לשמעון בן שטח אחוה אותביה בין דידיה לדידה אמר ליה חזית כמה יקרא עבדינא לך אמר ליה לאו את קא מוקרת לי אלא אורייתא היא דמוקרא לי דכתיב סלסלה ותרוממך תכבדך כי תחבקנה אמר לה קא חזית דלא מקבל מרות

The Gemara relates: King Yannai and the queen ate bread together. And since Yannai executed the Sages, there was no one to recite the Grace after Meals blessing on their behalf. He said to his wife: Who will provide us with a man to recite the blessing on our behalf? She said to him: Swear to me that if I bring you such a man, you will not harass him. He swore, and she brought her brother, Shimon ben Shataḥ. She sat him between the King’s throne and hers. The King said to him: Do you see how much honor I am according you? He responded: It is not you who honors me; rather, the Torah honors me, as it is written: “Extol her and she will exalt you; she will bring you to honor when you embrace her” (Proverbs 4:8). Yannai said to his wife: You see that he does not accept authority.

יהבו ליה כסא לברוכי אמר היכי אבריך ברוך שאכל ינאי וחביריו משלו שתייה לההוא כסא יהבו ליה כסא אחרינא ובריך

They gave Shimon ben Shataḥ a cup of wine over which to recite Grace after Meals. He said: How shall I recite the blessing? Shall I say: Blessed is He from Whom Yannai and his companions have eaten? I have not eaten anything. He drank that cup of wine. They gave him another cup, and he recited the Grace after Meals blessing. By drinking the first cup he joined the other diners and was therefore eligible to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.

אמר רבי אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא (אמר רבי יוחנן) שמעון בן שטח דעבד לגרמיה הוא דעבד דהכי אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן לעולם אינו מוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן עד שיאכל כזית דגן

With regard to this story, Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said (that Rabbi Yoḥanan said): That which Shimon ben Shataḥ did, reciting Grace after Meals on their behalf, he did on his own, and not in accordance with the accepted halakha, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: One who recites Grace after Meals cannot fulfill the obligation of others to recite it until he eats an olive-bulk of grain.

מיתיבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עלה והסיב עמהם אפילו לא טבל עמהם אלא בציר ולא אכל עמהם אלא גרוגרת אחת מצטרף

The Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One who entered and reclined together with those who were dining, even if he only dipped with them a small bit of food in spicy brine that was before them and ate with them only a single dry fig, he joins them. This baraita demonstrates that one need not necessarily eat grain to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.

איצטרופי מצטרף אבל להוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן עד שיאכל כזית דגן

The Gemara responds: Indeed, he joins them, but he cannot satisfy the obligation of the many unless he has eaten an olive-bulk of grain.

איתמר נמי אמר רב חנא בר יהודה משמיה דרבא אפילו לא

Similarly, this halakha was also stated: Rav Ḥana bar Yehuda said in the name of Rava: Even if he only