Berakhot 48a:5ברכות מ״ח א:ה
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48aמ״ח א

לְאֵתוּיֵי קָטָן פּוֹרֵחַ?

to include a mature minor? Explain the baraita as follows: A minor who grew two hairs is included in a zimmun, and we are not exacting with regard to a minor to ascertain whether or not he has reached the age of majority.

וְלֵית הִלְכְתָא כְּכׇל הָנֵי שְׁמַעְתָּתָא, אֶלָּא כִּי הָא דְּאָמַר רַב נַחְמָן: קָטָן הַיּוֹדֵעַ לְמִי מְבָרְכִין — מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו.

The Gemara concludes: The halakha is not in accordance with all of these statements. Rather, the halakha is in accordance with this statement that Rav Naḥman said: A minor who knows to Whom one recites a blessing is included in a zimmun.

אַבָּיֵי וְרָבָא הֲווֹ יָתְבִי קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבָּה. אֲמַר לְהוּ רַבָּה: לְמִי מְבָרְכִין? אָמְרִי לֵיהּ: לְרַחֲמָנָא. וְרַחֲמָנָא הֵיכָא יָתֵיב? — רָבָא אַחְוִי לִשְׁמֵי טְלָלָא. אַבָּיֵי נְפַק לְבַרָּא, אַחְוִי כְּלַפֵּי שְׁמַיָּא. אֲמַר לְהוּ רַבָּה: תַּרְוַיְיכוּ רַבָּנַן הָוֵיתוּ. הַיְינוּ דְּאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי: בּוּצִין בּוּצִין מִקִּטְפֵיהּ יְדִיעַ.

The Gemara relates that Abaye and Rava, when they were children, were seated before Rabba. Rabba said to them: To whom does one recite blessings? They said to him: To God, the All-Merciful. Rabba asked them: And where does the All-Merciful reside? Rava pointed to the ceiling. Abaye went outside and pointed toward the heaven. Rabba said to them: You will both become Sages. It is as the popular saying goes: A cucumber can be recognized from its blossoming stage. Similarly, a great person can be recognized even from a young age.

אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב: תִּשְׁעָה אָכְלוּ דָּגָן וְאֶחָד אָכַל יָרָק — מִצְטָרְפִין. אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: בְּעַאי מִינֵּיהּ מֵרַב יְהוּדָה: שְׁמֹנָה מַהוּ? שִׁבְעָה מַהוּ? אָמַר לִי: לָא שְׁנָא. שִׁשָּׁה וַדַּאי לָא מִבַּעְיָא לִי. אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה: שַׁפִּיר עֲבַדְתְּ דְּלָא אִיבַּעְיָא לְךָ, הָתָם טַעְמָא מַאי — מִשּׁוּם דְּאִיכָּא רוּבָּא, הָכָא נָמֵי אִיכָּא רוּבָּא. וְאִיהוּ סָבַר רוּבָּא דְמִינְּכַר בָּעֵינַן.

Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: If nine ate grain and one ate vegetables, they join and form a zimmun of ten. Rabbi Zeira said: I raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the ruling if eight ate grain and two ate vegetables? May they join together? What is the ruling if seven ate grain? He said to me: There is no difference. I certainly had no dilemma with regard to six, as it was clear to me that six are insufficient to warrant a zimmun. Rabbi Yirmeya said to him: You did well that you had no dilemma with regard to six, but for the opposite reason. There, in the case of seven or eight, what is the reason that they form a zimmun of ten? Because there is a majority of those dining who ate grain. Here, too, there is a majority. Rabbi Zeira, however, held: We require an obvious majority. Therefore, contrary to the opinion of Rabbi Yirmeya, it was clear to him that six who ate grain are insufficient to form a zimmun.

יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא וּמַלְכְּתָא כְּרִיכוּ רִיפְתָּא בַּהֲדֵי הֲדָדֵי, וּמִדִּקְטַל לְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן לָא הֲוָה לֵיהּ אִינִישׁ לְבָרוֹכֵי לְהוּ. אֲמַר לַהּ לִדְבֵיתְהוּ: מַאן יָהֵיב לַן גַּבְרָא דִּמְבָרֵךְ לַן? אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ: אִשְׁתְּבַע לִי דְּאִי מַיְיתֵינָא לָךְ גַּבְרָא דְּלָא מְצַעֲרַתְּ לֵיהּ. אִשְׁתְּבַע לַהּ. אַיְיתִיתֵיהּ לְשִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח אֲחוּהָ. אוֹתְבֵיהּ בֵּין דִּידֵיהּ לְדִידַהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: חָזֵית כַּמָּה יְקָרָא עָבֵידְנָא לָךְ. אָמַר לֵיהּ: לָאו אַתְּ קָא מוֹקְרַתְּ לִי אֶלָּא אוֹרָיְיתָא הִיא דְּמוֹקְרָא לִי, דִּכְתִיב: ״סַלְסְלֶהָ וּתְרוֹמְמֶךָּ תְּכַבֵּדְךָ כִּי תְחַבְּקֶנָּה״. אֲמַר לַהּ: קָא חָזֵית דְּלָא מְקַבֵּל מָרוּת.

The Gemara relates: King Yannai and the queen ate bread together. And since Yannai executed the Sages, there was no one to recite the Grace after Meals blessing on their behalf. He said to his wife: Who will provide us with a man to recite the blessing on our behalf? She said to him: Swear to me that if I bring you such a man, you will not harass him. He swore, and she brought her brother, Shimon ben Shataḥ. She sat him between the King’s throne and hers. The King said to him: Do you see how much honor I am according you? He responded: It is not you who honors me; rather, the Torah honors me, as it is written: “Extol her and she will exalt you; she will bring you to honor when you embrace her” (Proverbs 4:8). Yannai said to his wife: You see that he does not accept authority.

יְהַבוּ לֵיהּ כָּסָא לְבָרוֹכֵי. אֲמַר: הֵיכִי אֲבָרֵיךְ — ״בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַל יַנַּאי וַחֲבֵירָיו מִשֶּׁלּוֹ״? שַׁתְיֵיהּ לְהָהוּא כָּסָא, יְהַבוּ לֵיהּ כָּסָא אַחֲרִינָא וּבָרֵיךְ.

They gave Shimon ben Shataḥ a cup of wine over which to recite Grace after Meals. He said: How shall I recite the blessing? Shall I say: Blessed is He from Whom Yannai and his companions have eaten? I have not eaten anything. He drank that cup of wine. They gave him another cup, and he recited the Grace after Meals blessing. By drinking the first cup he joined the other diners and was therefore eligible to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.

אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח דַּעֲבַד — לְגַרְמֵיהּ הוּא דַּעֲבַד, דְּהָכִי אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: לְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִת דָּגָן.

With regard to this story, Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said (that Rabbi Yoḥanan said): That which Shimon ben Shataḥ did, reciting Grace after Meals on their behalf, he did on his own, and not in accordance with the accepted halakha, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: One who recites Grace after Meals cannot fulfill the obligation of others to recite it until he eats an olive-bulk of grain.

מֵיתִיבִי, רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: עָלָה וְהֵסֵיב עִמָּהֶם אֲפִילּוּ לֹא טִבֵּל עִמָּהֶם אֶלָּא בְּצִיר, וְלֹא אָכַל עִמָּהֶם אֶלָּא גְּרוֹגֶרֶת אַחַת — מִצְטָרֵף.

The Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One who entered and reclined together with those who were dining, even if he only dipped with them a small bit of food in spicy brine that was before them and ate with them only a single dry fig, he joins them. This baraita demonstrates that one need not necessarily eat grain to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.

אִיצְטְרוֹפֵי מִצְטָרֵף אֲבָל לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן — עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִת דָּגָן.

The Gemara responds: Indeed, he joins them, but he cannot satisfy the obligation of the many unless he has eaten an olive-bulk of grain.

אִיתְּמַר נָמֵי, אָמַר רַב חָנָא בַּר יְהוּדָה מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרָבָא: אֲפִילּוּ לֹא

Similarly, this halakha was also stated: Rav Ḥana bar Yehuda said in the name of Rava: Even if he only