Berakhot 47aברכות מ״ז א
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47aמ״ז א

ולא בידים מזוהמות

nor with regard to dirty hands, i.e., with regard to washing hands at the end of a meal.

רבין ואביי הוו קא אזלי באורחא קדמיה חמריה דרבין לדאביי ולא אמר ליה ניזיל מר אמר מדסליק האי מרבנן ממערבא גס ליה דעתיה כי מטא לפתחא דבי כנישתא אמר ליה ניעל מר אמר ליה ועד השתא לאו מר אנא אמר ליה הכי אמר רבי יוחנן אין מכבדין אלא בפתח שיש בה מזוזה

The Gemara recounts: Ravin and Abaye were traveling along the road on donkeys. Ravin’s donkey preceded Abaye’s and Ravin did not say to Abaye: Let the Master go first. Abaye said to himself: Ever since this one of the Sages, Ravin, ascended from the West, Eretz Yisrael, he has become arrogant. When they reached the door of the synagogue, Ravin said to Abaye: Let the Master enter first. Abaye said to him: Until now was I not Master? Why do you only begin deferring to me now but did not do so while we were traveling? Ravin said to him: Rabbi Yoḥanan said the following: One only defers to those greater than he at a doorway that has a mezuza, as only there is it appropriate to allow him to go first.

דאית בה מזוזה אין דלית בה מזוזה לא אלא מעתה בית הכנסת ובית המדרש דלית בהו מזוזה הכי נמי דאין מכבדין אלא אימא בפתח הראוי למזוזה

The Gemara challenges: A doorway that has a mezuza, yes, one defers; a doorway that does not have a mezuza, no, one does not defer? If so, a synagogue or study hall that has no mezuza, there too, does one not defer at their doorways? Rather, say that this is the principle: One only shows deference at a doorway where it is worthy of affixing a mezuza, but not on a road or a bridge.

אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב אין המסבין רשאין לאכול כלום עד שיטעום הבוצע יתיב רב ספרא וקאמר לטעום איתמר

The Gemara continues with the subject of deferring to one’s superior during a meal: Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: Those reclining at a meal may not eat anything until the one breaking bread has tasted the bread. Rav Safra sat and said: May not taste, was stated by Rav, and not: May not eat.

למאי נפקא מינה שחייב אדם לומר בלשון רבו

The Gemara asks: What difference does it make whether Rav said taste or eat? The Gemara explains that there is no difference and that Rav Safra’s insistence teaches that one must say what he was taught in the precise language employed by his teacher without altering a single detail.

תנו רבנן שנים ממתינין זה לזה בקערה שלשה אין ממתינין הבוצע הוא פושט ידו תחלה ואם בא לחלוק כבוד לרבו או למי שגדול הימנו הרשות בידו

The Gemara continues to discuss the subject of honors during a meal. The Sages taught: Two people who are eating from a single dish must wait for each other, but if there are three, everyone eats when he wishes and they need not wait for each other. Generally, the one who breaks bread extends his hand to take food first, but if he wishes to defer to his teacher or to one who is greater than he, he has permission to do so.

רבה בר בר חנה הוה עסיק ליה לבריה בי רב שמואל בר רב קטינא קדים ויתיב וקמתני ליה לבריה אין הבוצע רשאי לבצוע עד שיכלה אמן מפי העונים רב חסדא אמר מפי רוב העונים

The Gemara relates: Rabba bar bar Ḥana engaged in preparations for his son’s wedding in the house of Rav Shmuel bar Rav Ketina. He arrived early and sat and taught his son the halakhot of meals: The one who breaks bread may not break the bread until amen has ended from the mouths of those responding. Rav Ḥisda said: One need only wait until amen has ended from the mouths of the majority of those responding.

אמר לו רמי בר חמא מאי שנא רובא דאכתי לא כליא ברכה מיעוטא נמי לא כליא ברכה

Rami bar Ḥama said to him: What is different regarding the majority that one must wait until their amen ends before proceeding? That until then, the blessing has not yet concluded. If so, when the amen of the minority has not yet ended as well, the blessing has not yet concluded. Why doesn’t the one breaking bread need to wait in that case?

אמר ליה שאני אומר כל העונה אמן יותר מדאי אינו אלא טועה:

Rav Ḥisda said to him: Because I say that anyone who answers an amen of excessive duration is merely mistaken.

תנו רבנן אין עונין לא אמן חטופה ולא אמן קטופה ולא אמן יתומה ולא יזרוק ברכה מפיו

With regard to answering amen, the Sages taught: One should not respond with an abbreviated [ḥatufa] amen, in which the first syllable is not properly enunciated, and a truncated [ketufa] amen, in which the second syllable is not properly enunciated, and an orphaned [yetoma] amen, in which the respondent is unaware of the blessing to which he is responding.Similarly, one should not quickly and indifferently discharge a blessing from his mouth.

בן עזאי אומר כל העונה אמן יתומה יהיו בניו יתומים חטופה יתחטפו ימיו קטופה יתקטפו ימיו וכל המאריך באמן מאריכין לו ימיו ושנותיו

Ben Azzai says: Anyone who recites an orphaned amen, his children will be orphaned; one who recites an abbreviated amen, his days will be abbreviated and incomplete; one who recites a truncated amen, his days will be truncated. One who extends his amen, they will extend his days and years for him. Nonetheless, one should not prolong it extensively.

רב ושמואל הוו יתבי בסעודתא אתא רב שימי בר חייא הוה קמסרהב ואכיל אמר ליה רב מה דעתך לאיצטרופי בהדן אנן אכילנא לן אמר ליה שמואל אלו מייתו לי ארדיליא וגוזליא לאבא מי לא אכלינן

Returning to matters of zimmun, the Gemara relates: Rav and Shmuel were sitting at a meal when, much later, Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya arrived and was hurrying and eating. Rav said to him: What is your thinking? Are you rushing in order to join together with us for a zimmun? We have already eaten and finished our meal before you arrived. Shmuel said to Rav: We have not really finished our meal, as if they brought me truffles or a young pigeon for Abba, Rav, wouldn’t we eat it? Since we would still eat, we have not yet finished our meal and Rabbi Shimi bar Ḥiyya can join us in the zimmun.

תלמידי דרב הוו יתבי בסעודתא על רב אחא אמרי אתא גברא רבא דמברך לן אמר להו מי סבריתו דגדול מברך עיקר שבסעודה מברך והלכתא גדול מברך אף על גב דאתא לבסוף:

Rav’s students were seated at a meal when Rav Aḥa entered. The students said: A great man has come who can recite the blessing on our behalf. Rav Aḥa said to them: Do you think that the greatest recites the blessing? That is not so. Rather, one of the main participants who was present from the beginning of the meal recites the blessing. The Gemara concludes: The halakha, however, is that the greatest person present recites the blessing, even if he arrived at the end of the meal.

אכל דמאי וכו׳: הא לא חזי ליה כיון דאי בעי מפקר להו לנכסיה והוי עני וחזי ליה דתנן מאכילין את העניים דמאי ואת האכסניא דמאי ואמר רב הונא תנא בית שמאי אומרים אין מאכילין את העניים ואת האכסניא דמאי:

In the mishna, we learned that if, among the diners, one ate doubtfully tithed produce [demai], he is included among the three to obligate those with whom he ate in a zimmun. The Gemara raises an objection: But demai is not fit for his consumption. He is forbidden to eat demai. The Gemara responds: He may recite Grace after Meals over it because, if he wants, he could declare all of his property ownerless [hefker] and he would be a pauper, in which case the demai would be fit for his consumption. As we learned in a mishna: One may feed the impoverished demai and one may feed soldiers [akhsania], whose support is imposed upon the residents of the city, demai. And Rav Huna said: It was taught in a baraita that Beit Shammai say: One may not feed the impoverished and soldiers demai.

מעשר ראשון שנטלה תרומתו: פשיטא לא צריכא אלא שהקדימו בשבלים והפריש ממנו תרומת מעשר ולא הפריש ממנו תרומה גדולה וכדרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו אמר ריש לקיש מעשר ראשון שהקדימו בשבלים פטור מתרומה גדולה שנאמר והרמתם ממנו תרומת ה׳ מעשר מן המעשר מעשר מן המעשר אמרתי לך ולא תרומה גדולה ותרומת מעשר מן המעשר

We learned in the mishna: If, among the diners, one ate first tithe from which its teruma was already taken, he may be included in a zimmun. The Gemara remarks: It is obvious that if the teruma was already taken there is no problem. Why was it necessary for the mishna to teach that one can join a zimmun? The Gemara explains: It was only necessary to teach this halakha in a case where the Levite preceded the priest while the grain was still on the stalks, and he separated the teruma of the tithes but did not separate the teruma gedola.Teruma gedola was not separated from the tithe that was eaten by the Levite. Although this should not be done ab initio, after the fact it is permitted, and one who eats first tithe produce under these circumstances may be included in a zimmun. And this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu said that Reish Lakish said: First tithe in which the Levite preceded the priest while the grain was still on the stalks is exempt from teruma gedola, as it is stated: “And you shall set apart from it a gift for the Lord, even a tenth part of the tithe” (Numbers 18:26). This verse teaches that the Levite is obligated to set apart a tenth part of the tithe, i.e., the teruma of the tithe and not teruma gedola and the teruma of the tithe.

אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי אי הכי אפילו הקדימו בכרי נמי אמר ליה עליך אמר קרא

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: If so, even if the Levite preceded the priest after the kernels of grain were removed from the stalks and placed in a pile, the Levite should not have to separate teruma gedola. Abaye said to him: With regard to your claim, the verse stated: