Berakhot 44bברכות מ״ד ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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44bמ״ד ב
1 א

אָמַר רַב יִצְחָק בַּר אַבְדִּימִי מִשּׁוּם רַבֵּינוּ: עַל הַבֵּיעָא וְעַל מִינֵי קוּפְרָא, בַּתְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ ״שֶׁהַכֹּל״, וּלְבַסּוֹף ״בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת וְכוּ׳״. אֲבָל יַרְקָא לָא. וְרַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ יַרְקָא, אֲבָל מַיָּא — לָא. וְרַב פָּפָּא אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ מַיָּא.

Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said in the name of Rabbeinu, Rav: Over the egg and types of meat [kupra], at the start, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be, and at the end: Who creates the many forms of life. However, after eating vegetables, no, one does not recite a blessing at all. Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Even after eating vegetables one recites a blessing; but after drinking water, no, one does not recite a blessing at all. And Rav Pappa said: Even after drinking water one must recite a blessing.

2 ב

מָר זוּטְרָא עָבֵיד כְּרַב יִצְחָק בַּר אַבְדִּימִי, וְרַב שִׁימִי בַּר אָשֵׁי עָבֵיד כְּרַבִּי יִצְחָק. וְסִימָנָךְ: חַד כִּתְרֵי, וּתְרֵי כְּחַד.

Mar Zutra acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi and did not recite a blessing after eating vegetables, while Rav Shimi bar Ashi acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak and recited a blessing after eating vegetables. And a mnemonic by which to remember which Sage acted in accordance with which: One like two, and two like one. In other words, Mar Zutra, who is known only by his name and not by his patronymic, acted in accordance with Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi who is known by both his name and his patronymic. Rav Shimi bar Ashi, who is known by both his names, followed the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak, who is known only by his first name.

3 ג

אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: אֲנָא, זִמְנָא דְּכִי מִדְּכַרְנָא, עָבֵידְנָא כְּכוּלְּהוּ.

On this topic, Rav Ashi said: At times when I remember, I act in accordance with the opinions of all of them and recite a blessing even after drinking water.

4 ד

תְּנַן: כׇּל שֶׁטָּעוּן בְּרָכָה לְאַחֲרָיו — טָעוּן בְּרָכָה לְפָנָיו, וְיֵשׁ שֶׁטָּעוּן בְּרָכָה לְפָנָיו, וְאֵין טָעוּן בְּרָכָה לְאַחֲרָיו. בִּשְׁלָמָא לְרַב יִצְחָק בַּר אַבְדִּימִי, לְאַפּוֹקֵי יַרְקָא. לְרַבִּי יִצְחָק, לְאַפּוֹקֵי מַיָּא, אֶלָּא לְרַב פָּפָּא, לְאַפּוֹקֵי מַאי?

We learned in a mishna: Anything that requires a blessing thereafter requires a blessing beforehand; and there are items that require a blessing beforehand and do not require a blessing thereafter. If so, granted, according to Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s opinion, it excludes vegetables from the requirement to recite a blessing thereafter. And, granted, according to Rabbi Yitzḥak’s opinion as well, it excludes water from the requirement to recite a blessing thereafter. However, according to Rav Pappa’s opinion, what does it exclude? What food requires a blessing before eating but does not require a blessing after eating?

5 ה

לְאַפּוֹקֵי מִצְוֹת.

The Gemara answers: It comes to exclude mitzvot, as one recites a blessing before performing a mitzva, but not thereafter.

6 ו

וְלִבְנֵי מַעַרְבָא, דְּבָתַר דִּמְסַלְּקִי תְּפִילַּיְיהוּ מְבָרְכִי ״אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לִשְׁמוֹר חֻקָּיו״, לְאַפּוֹקֵי מַאי?

The Gemara challenges: And for the residents of the West, Eretz Yisrael, who, after they remove their phylacteries, recite: Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and commanded us to keep His laws, what does the halakha in the mishna come to exclude?

7 ז

לְאַפּוֹקֵי רֵיחָנֵי.

The Gemara responds: It serves to exclude types of fragrances. Everyone agrees that no blessing is recited after smelling them.

8 ח

אָמַר רַבִּי יַנַּאי אָמַר רַבִּי: כֹּל שֶׁהוּא כְּבֵיצָה — בֵּיצָה טוֹבָה מִמֶּנּוּ. כִּי אֲתָא רָבִין אָמַר: טָבָא בֵּיעֲתָא מְגוּלְגַּלְתָּא מִשִּׁיתָּא קְיָיסֵי סוּלְתָּא. כִּי אֲתָא רַב דִּימִי אָמַר: טָבָא בֵּיעֲתָא מְגוּלְגַּלְתָּא — מִשִּׁיתָּא, מִטְּוִיתָא — מֵאַרְבַּע, מְבוּשַׁלְתָּא — כֹּל שֶׁהוּא כְּבֵיצָה, בֵּיצָה טוֹבָה הֵימֶנּוּ, לְבַר מִבִּשְׂרָא.

Since the blessing recited over an egg was mentioned, the Gemara cites what Rabbi Yannai said that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Anything that is an egg’s equivalent in volume, an egg is superior to it. Similarly, when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: A lightly cooked egg is better than six log of fine flour. Similarly, when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: A lightly cooked egg is better than six log of fine flour, a roasted egg is better than four, and with regard to a cooked egg, they said: Anything that is an egg’s equivalent, an egg is superior to it except for meat.

9 ט

רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר אֲפִילּוּ אָכַל שֶׁלֶק כּוּ׳: וּמִי אִיכָּא מִידֵּי דְּהָוֵה שֶׁלֶק מְזוֹנֵי? אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: בְּקֶלַח שֶׁל כְּרוּב שָׁנוּ.

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Akiva says: Even if one ate boiled vegetables, but it is his primary sustenance, he recites the three blessings of Grace after Meals, as he would after eating bread. The Gemara asks: And is there a vegetable where in its boiled state it is primary sustenance? Rav Ashi said: This was taught with regard to a cabbage stalk, which is nourishing.

10 י

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: טְחוֹל יָפֶה לַשִּׁינַּיִם וְקָשֶׁה לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם. כְּרֵישִׁין קָשִׁין לַשִּׁינַּיִם וְיָפִין לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם. כׇּל יָרָק חַי מוֹרִיק, וְכׇל קָטָן מַקְטִין, וְכׇל נֶפֶשׁ מֵשִׁיב אֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ, וְכׇל קָרוֹב לַנֶּפֶשׁ מֵשִׁיב אֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ. כְּרוּב לְמָזוֹן, וּתְרָדִין לִרְפוּאָה. אוֹי לוֹ לַבַּיִת שֶׁהַלֶּפֶת עוֹבֶרֶת בְּתוֹכוֹ.

Similarly, the Sages taught in a baraita dealing with types of sustenance: Meat of the spleen is beneficial for the teeth and harmful for the intestines. Leeks, however, are harmful for the teeth and beneficial for the intestines. They also said that all raw vegetables turn one’s face pale. Generally speaking, anything small that has not yet reached its full size is harmful and impedes growth, and any living creature eaten whole, e.g., a fully grown fish, restores the soul. And anything close to the soul restores the soul. Cabbage is for nourishment and beets for healing. Woe unto the house through which the turnip passes, for it is extremely harmful.

11 יא

אָמַר מָר: טְחוֹל יָפֶה לַשִּׁינַּיִם וְקָשֶׁה לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם. מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? נִלְעֲסֵיהּ וְנִשְׁדְּיֵיהּ.

The Master said in a baraita: The spleen is beneficial for the teeth and harmful for the intestines. The Gemara asks: What is its remedy? The Gemara responds: One should chew it, spit it out, and throw it away.

12 יב

כְּרֵישִׁין קָשִׁין לַשִּׁינַּיִם וְיָפִין לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם. מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? לִשְׁלְקִינְהוּ וְנִבְלְעִינְהוּ.

Leeks are harmful for the teeth and beneficial for the intestines. The Gemara asks: What is its remedy? The Gemara responds: One should boil them and swallow them without chewing.

13 יג

כׇּל יָרָק חַי מוֹרִיק, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: בִּסְעוּדָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל אַחַר הַקָּזָה.

All raw vegetables turn one’s face pale. Rabbi Yitzḥak said: It refers here to the first meal after bloodletting, when a person should eat more substantial food.

14 יד

וְאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: כׇּל הָאוֹכֵל יָרָק קוֹדֶם אַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת אָסוּר לְסַפֵּר הֵימֶנּוּ. מַאי טַעְמָא? מִשּׁוּם רֵיחָא. וְאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: אָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיֹּאכַל יָרָק חַי קוֹדֶם אַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת.

And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who eats vegetables before four hours of the day, it is forbidden to speak with him. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? The Gemara explains: This is because the smell of vegetables from his mouth bothers others who have not yet eaten. And in general, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: It is forbidden to eat raw vegetables before four hours of the day.

15 טו

אַמֵּימָר וּמָר זוּטְרָא וְרַב אָשֵׁי הֲווֹ יָתְבִי, אַיְיתוֹ קַמַּיְיהוּ יָרָק חַי קוֹדֶם אַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת. אַמֵּימָר וְרַב אָשֵׁי אֲכוּל וּמָר זוּטְרָא לָא אֲכַל. אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: מַאי דַּעְתָּיךְ? דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק כׇּל הָאוֹכֵל יָרָק קוֹדֶם אַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת אָסוּר לְסַפֵּר הֵימֶנּוּ מִשּׁוּם רֵיחָא? וְהָא אֲנַן דְּקָא אָכְלִינַן וְקָא מִשְׁתָּעֵית בַּהֲדַן!

The Gemara relates that Ameimar, Mar Zutra, and Rav Ashi were sitting. They brought raw vegetables before them before four hours of the day. Ameimar and Rav Ashi ate and Mar Zutra did not eat. They said to him: What is your thinking that led you not to eat? Was it because Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who eats vegetables before four hours of the day, it is forbidden to speak with him because of the smell? Aren’t we eating and you are nevertheless speaking with us?

16 טז

אָמַר לְהוּ: אֲנָא כְּאִידַּךְ דְּרַבִּי יִצְחָק סְבִירָא לִי. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: אָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיֹּאכַל יָרָק חַי קוֹדֶם אַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת.

He said to them: I hold in accordance with the other halakha of Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said simply: It is forbidden to eat raw vegetables before four hours of the day.

17 יז

כׇּל קָטָן מַקְטִין, אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: אֲפִילּוּ גַּדְיָא בַּר זוּזָא. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלֵית בֵּיהּ רִבְעָא, אֲבָל אִית בֵּיהּ רִבְעָא — לֵית לַן בָּהּ.

Anything small impedes growth. Rav Ḥisda said: This applies even to a small goat, worth a zuz. Although the goat is worth a zuz, it is still small. And we only said this with regard to a goat that has not reached one fourth of its ultimate size. But if it has reached one fourth of its ultimate size, we need not be concerned.

18 יח

כׇּל נֶפֶשׁ מֵשִׁיב נֶפֶשׁ, אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: אֲפִילּוּ גִּילְדָּנֵי דְּבֵי גִילֵי.

And any living creature eaten whole restores the soul. Rav Pappa said: This includes even small fish that grow among the reeds, as even a small creature is beneficial if it reached its full size.

19 יט

כׇּל הַקָּרוֹב לַנֶּפֶשׁ מֵשִׁיב אֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ, אָמַר רַב אַחָא בַּר יַעֲקֹב: עוּנְקָא. אָמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא לְשַׁמָּעֵיהּ: כִּי מַיְיתֵית לִי אוּמְצָא דְּבִשְׂרָא, טְרַח וְאַיְיתִי לִי מֵהֵיכָא דִּמְקָרַב לְבֵי ״בָרוּךְ״.

Anything close to the soul restores the soul. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: This refers to the neck, which is close to the animal’s vital organs. The Gemara relates that Rava said to his servant: When you bring me a piece of meat, make an effort to bring me a piece from the place of the blessing, the neck, where the animal was slaughtered and the slaughterer recited a blessing over the ritual slaughter.

20 כ

כְּרוּב לְמָזוֹן וּתְרָדִין לִרְפוּאָה. כְּרוּב לְמָזוֹן אִין, וְלִרְפוּאָה לָא? וְהָא תַּנְיָא: שִׁשָּׁה דְּבָרִים מְרַפְּאִין אֶת הַחוֹלֶה מֵחׇלְיוֹ וּרְפוּאָתָן רְפוּאָה, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: כְּרוּב וּתְרָדִין וּמֵי סִיסִין דְּבַשׁ וְקֵיבָה וְהֶרֶת וְיוֹתֶרֶת הַכָּבֵד! אֶלָּא אֵימָא ״כְּרוּב אַף לְמָזוֹן״.

Cabbage for nourishment and beets for healing. The Gemara asks: Is cabbage good for nourishment and not for healing? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Six things cure the ill person of his disease and their cure is an effective cure, and these are: Cabbage, beets, chamomile water, honey, stomach, heret, and liver. Evidently, cabbage is also good for healing. The Gemara responds: Rather, say: Cabbage is even for sustenance and all the more so for healing, which is not the case with beets.

21 כא

אוֹי לוֹ לַבַּיִת שֶׁהַלֶּפֶת עוֹבֶרֶת בְּתוֹכוֹ, אִינִי?! וְהָא אָמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא לְשַׁמָּעֵיהּ: כִּי חָזֵית לִיפְתָּא בְּשׁוּקָא לָא תֵּימָא לִי ״בְּמַאי כָּרְכַתְּ רִיפְתָּא״!

Woe unto the house through which the turnip passes, as it is extremely damaging. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rava say to his servant: When you see a turnip in the market, do not ask me with what will you eat your bread today? Buy the turnip and bring it for the meal. Apparently, the turnip is a significant and appropriate food.

22 כב

אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: מִבְּלִי בָּשָׂר. וְרָבָא אָמַר: מִבְּלִי יַיִן. אִיתְּמַר רַב אָמַר: מִבְּלִי בָּשָׂר. וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר: מִבְּלִי עֵצִים. וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר: מִבְּלִי יַיִן.

Abaye said: The turnip is harmful only when it is eaten without meat. And Rava said: Without wine. It was stated that Rav said: The turnip is harmful when it is eaten without meat. And Shmuel said: Without wood, meaning when it is not properly cooked. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Without wine.

23 כג

אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא לְרַב פָּפָּא: סוּדָנִי, אֲנַן תָּבְרִינַן לַהּ בְּבִשְׂרָא וְחַמְרָא, אַתּוּן דְּלָא נְפִישׁ לְכוּ חַמְרָא בְּמַאי תָּבְרִיתוּ לַהּ? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: בְּצִיבֵי, כִּי הָא דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּרַב פָּפָּא בָּתַר דִּמְבַשְּׁלָא לַהּ, תָּבְרָא לַהּ בִּתְמָנָן אוּפֵי פָּרְסְיָיתָא.

Along the same lines, Rava said to Rav Pappa: Farmer (ge’onim) we break the harmful aspects of the turnip with meat and wine. You, who do not have a lot of wine, with what do you break its harmful aspects? Rav Pappa said to him: With wood. As that is what Rav Pappa’s wife would do. After she cooked the turnip, she would break it with eighty pieces of wood from a palm tree.

24 כד

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: דָּג קָטָן מָלִיחַ פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא מֵמִית בְּשִׁבְעָה, בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר, וּבְעֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁבְעָה. וְאָמְרִי לַהּ: בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בְּמִטְּוֵי וְלָא מִטְּוֵי, אֲבָל מִטְּוֵי שַׁפִּיר — לֵית לַן בַּהּ. וּדְלָא מִטְּוֵי שַׁפִּיר, לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא שְׁתָה בָּתְרֵיהּ שִׁכְרָא, אֲבָל שְׁתָה בָּתְרֵיהּ שִׁכְרָא — לֵית לַן בַּהּ.

On the topic of foods, the Gemara cites what the Sages taught in a baraita: A small salted fish sometimes kills, specifically seven days, seventeen days, and twenty-seven days after it was salted. And some say: Twenty-three. And we only said this when it is roasted and not roasted well, but when it is roasted well, we need not be concerned. And when it is not roasted well, we only said this when one does not drink beer thereafter; however, when one drinks beer thereafter, we need not be concerned.

25 כה

וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מַיִם לִצְמָאוֹ וְכוּ׳: לְאַפּוֹקֵי מַאי? אֲמַר רַב אִידֵּי בַּר אָבִין: לְאַפּוֹקֵי לְמַאן

We learned in the mishna that the tanna’im disagreed with regard to one who drinks water to quench his thirst. The Gemara asks: What does this emphasis on his thirst come to exclude? Rav Idi bar Avin said: It comes to exclude one