Berakhot 43b:3ברכות מ״ג ב:ג
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43bמ״ג ב

אָמַר רַב גִּידֵּל אָמַר רַב הַאי סִמְלָק מְבָרְכִין עִלָּוֵיהּ בּוֹרֵא עֲצֵי בְּשָׂמִים אָמַר רַב חֲנַנְאֵל אָמַר רַב הָנֵי חִלְפֵי דְיַמָּא מְבָרְכִין עֲלַיְיהוּ בּוֹרֵא עֲצֵי בְּשָׂמִים אָמַר מָר זוּטְרָא מַאי קְרָאָה וְהִיא הֶעֱלָתַם הַגָּגָה וַתִּטְמְנֵם בְּפִשְׁתֵּי הָעֵץ

Rav Giddel said that Rav said: Over this jasmine [simlak], one recites: Who creates fragrant trees. Rav Ḥananel said that Rav said: Over these spikenards, which grow next to the sea, one recites: Who creates fragrant trees. Mar Zutra said: What is the verse from which we derive that even a plant with soft stalks can be called a tree? From the verse: “She had taken them up to the roof and hidden them under the trees of flax” (Joshua 2:6); evidently, even stalks of flax are called “trees.”

רַב מְשַׁרְשְׁיָא אָמַר הַאי נַרְקוֹם דְּגִינוּנִיתָא מְבָרְכִין עִלָּוֵיהּ בּוֹרֵא עֲצֵי בְשָׂמִים דְּדַבְרָא בּוֹרֵא עִשְׂבֵי בְשָׂמִים אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת הָנֵי סִיגְלֵי מְבָרְכִין עֲלַיְיהוּ בּוֹרֵא עִשְׂבֵי בְשָׂמִים אָמַר מָר זוּטְרָא הַאי מַאן דְּמוֹרַח בְּאֶתְרוֹגָא אוֹ בְּחַבּוּשָׁא אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ שֶׁנָּתַן רֵיחַ טוֹב בַּפֵּירוֹת

Rav Mesharshiya said: Over this garden daffodil one recites: Who creates fragrant trees, while over a wild daffodil that grows in the field, one recites: Who creates fragrant plants. Rav Sheshet said: Over fragrant violets one recites: Who creates fragrant plants. Mar Zutra said: One who smells a citron [etrog] or a quince recites: Blessed…who gave pleasant fragrance in fruits.

אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה הַאי מַאן דְּנָפֵיק בְּיוֹמֵי נִיסָן וְחָזֵי אִילָנֵי דְּקָא מְלַבְלְבִי אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ שֶׁלֹּא חִיסֵּר בְּעוֹלָמוֹ כְּלוּם וּבָרָא בּוֹ בְּרִיּוֹת טוֹבוֹת וְאִילָנוֹת טוֹבוֹת לְהִתְנָאוֹת בָּהֶן בְּנֵי אָדָם אָמַר רַב זוּטְרָא בַּר טוֹבִיָּה אָמַר רַב מִנַּיִן שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל הָרֵיחַ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כֹּל הַנְּשָׁמָה תְּהַלֵּל יָהּ אֵיזֶהוּ דָּבָר שֶׁהַנְּשָׁמָה נֶהֱנֵית מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֵין הַגּוּף נֶהֱנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זֶה הָרֵיחַ

On a related topic, the Gemara cites that Rav Yehuda said: One who goes out during Nisan and sees trees that are blossoming recites: Blessed…who has withheld nothing from His world, and has created in it beautiful creatures and trees for human beings to enjoy. Rav Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said: From where is it derived that one recites a blessing over scent? As it is stated: “Let every soul praise the Lord” (Psalms 150:6). He explains the verse: What is it from which the soul derives benefit and the body does not derive benefit from it? You must say: That is scent. Even over items from which only the soul derives benefit, one must recite a blessing and praise God.

וְאָמַר רַב זוּטְרָא בַּר טוֹבִיָּה אָמַר רַב עֲתִידִים בַּחוּרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּתְּנוּ רֵיחַ טוֹב כַּלְּבָנוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר יֵלְכוּ יוֹנְקוֹתָיו וִיהִי כַזַּיִת הוֹדוֹ וְרֵיחַ לוֹ כַּלְּבָנוֹן:

And Rav Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said: The young men of Israel are destined to emit a sweet scent as the Lebanon, as it is stated: “His branches shall spread and his beauty will be as the olive tree, and his fragrance as Lebanon” (Hosea 14:7).

וְאָמַר רַב זוּטְרָא בַּר טוֹבִיָּה אָמַר רַב מַאי דִּכְתִיב אֶת הַכֹּל עָשָׂה יָפֶה בְעִתּוֹ מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד יִפָּה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוּמָּנוּתוֹ בְּפָנָיו

And Rav Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “He has made everything beautiful in its time, and he has placed the world in their heart, yet so man cannot find out the work that God has done from the beginning even to the end” (Ecclesiastes 3:11)? This teaches that each and every individual, God has made his work pleasant for him in his own eyes. In that way, each individual will be satisfied with his work, enabling the world to function properly.

אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא הַיְינוּ דְּאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי תְּלֵה לֵיהּ קוֹרָא לְדָבָר אַחֵר וְאִיהוּ דִּידֵיהּ עָבֵיד

Rav Pappa said: This is the proverb that people say: Hang a heart of palm on a pig, and he will continue to perform his standard activities. Although hearts of palm are a delicacy, a pig will roll it in the mud as is his wont. Every creature has its own particular tastes, and one cannot draw conclusions with regard to one based on the standards of another.

וְאָמַר רַב זוּטְרָא בַּר טוֹבִיָּה אָמַר רַב אֲבוּקָה כִּשְׁנַיִם וְיָרֵחַ כִּשְׁלֹשָׁה אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ אֲבוּקָה כִּשְׁנַיִם בַּהֲדֵי דִּידֵיהּ אוֹ דִילְמָא אֲבוּקָה כִּשְׁנַיִם לְבַר מִדִּידֵיהּ תָּא שְׁמַע וְיָרֵחַ כִּשְׁלֹשָׁה אִי אָמְרַתְּ בִּשְׁלָמָא בַּהֲדֵי דִּידֵיהּ שַׁפִּיר אֶלָּא אִי אָמְרַתְּ לְבַר מִדִּידֵיהּ אַרְבָּעָה לְמָה לִי וְהָאָמַר מָר לְאֶחָד נִרְאֶה וּמַזִּיק לִשְׁנַיִם נִרְאֶה וְאֵינוֹ מַזִּיק לִשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כׇּל עִיקָּר אֶלָּא לָאו שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ אֲבוּקָה כִּשְׁנַיִם בַּהֲדֵי דִּידֵיהּ שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ:

And Rav Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said: For one walking on a dark path, if he has a torch in his hand, it is like two were walking on that path and the light of the moon is like three. The Gemara raises a dilemma: Is a torch like two including the one carrying the torch or perhaps a torch is like two besides him for a total of three? Come and hear a proof from that which Rav said: And the moon is like three. Granted, if you say three including him, it works out well. However, if you say three besides him, why do I need four, what purpose do they serve? Didn’t the Master say: To one walking alone, a demon can be seen and cause him harm. To two people, a demon can be seen and does not cause them harm. To three people, it cannot be seen at all. Four people are no better than three. Rather, can’t we learn from this that a torch is like two, means two including him. The Gemara comments: Indeed, conclude from this.

וְאָמַר רַב זוּטְרָא בַּר טוֹבִיָּה אָמַר רַב וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אָמַר רַב חָנָא בַּר בִּיזְנָא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן חֲסִידָא וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי נוֹחַ לוֹ לְאָדָם שֶׁיַּפִּיל עַצְמוֹ לְתוֹךְ כִּבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ וְאַל יַלְבִּין פְּנֵי חֲבֵרוֹ בָּרַבִּים מְנָלַן מִתָּמָר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הִיא מוּצֵאת וְגוֹ':

And Rav Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said; and some say Rav Ḥana bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said; and some say Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: It is preferable, from an ethical perspective, for one to throw himself into a fiery furnace rather than humiliate another in public. From where do we derive this? From Tamar, the daughter-in-law of Judah, when she was taken out to be burned, as it is stated: “As she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying I am pregnant by the man to whom these belong, and she said examine these, to whom does this seal, cord and staff belong?” (Genesis 38:25). Despite her dire situation, she did not reveal that she was pregnant with Judah’s child; rather, she left the decision to him, to avoid humiliating him in public.

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו שֶׁמֶן וַהֲדַס בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשֶּׁמֶן וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַהֲדַס וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַהֲדַס וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשֶּׁמֶן אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אֲנִי אַכְרִיעַ שֶׁמֶן זָכִינוּ לְרֵיחוֹ וְזָכִינוּ לְסִיכָתוֹ הֲדַס לְרֵיחוֹ זָכִינוּ לְסִיכָתוֹ לָא זָכִינוּ אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲלָכָה כְּדִבְרֵי הַמַּכְרִיעַ

The Sages taught: If they brought before him both scented oil and a myrtle branch, Beit Shammai say: One recites a blessing over the oil first and over the myrtle branch thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the myrtle branch first and over the oil thereafter. Rabban Gamliel said: I will decide this dispute in favor of the opinion of Beit Shammai, that one should recite a blessing over the oil first, as it is more significant. With regard to oil; we are privileged to enjoy its fragrance and we are privileged to enjoy it by anointing ourselves with it. With regard to the myrtle branch; we are privileged to enjoy its fragrance, we are not privileged to enjoy it by anointing ourselves with it. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the decisor, Rabban Gamliel.

רַב פָּפָּא אִיקְּלַע לְבֵי רַב הוּנָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב אִיקָא אַיְיתוֹ לְקַמַּיְיהוּ שֶׁמֶן וַהֲדַס שְׁקַל רַב פָּפָּא בָּרֵיךְ אַהֲדַס בְּרֵישָׁא וַהֲדַר בָּרֵיךְ אַשֶּׁמֶן אָמַר לֵיהּ לָא סָבַר לַהּ מָר הֲלָכָה כְּדִבְרֵי הַמַּכְרִיעַ אָמַר לֵיהּ הָכִי אָמַר רָבָא הֲלָכָה כְּבֵית הִלֵּל וְלָא הִיא לְאִשְׁתְּמוֹטֵי נַפְשֵׁיהּ הוּא דַּעֲבַד

The Gemara relates: Rav Pappa happened to come to the house of Rav Huna, son of Rav Ika. They brought before him both scented oil and a myrtle branch. Rav Pappa took and recited a blessing over the myrtle branch first and then recited a blessing over the oil. Rav Huna said to him: And does the Master not hold that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the decisor? If so, you should have recited a blessing over the oil first. Rav Pappa said: Rava said the following: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. The Gemara comments: That is not so, as Rava did not issue that ruling. Rather, Rav Pappa did this in order to extricate himself from an unpleasant situation and justify his conduct.

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן הֵבִיאוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם שֶׁמֶן וְיַיִן בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים אוֹחֵז הַשֶּׁמֶן בִּימִינוֹ וְאֶת הַיַּיִן בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשֶּׁמֶן וְחוֹזֵר וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים אוֹחֵז אֶת הַיַּיִן בִּימִינוֹ וְאֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן וְחוֹזֵר וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשֶּׁמֶן וְטָחוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשַּׁמָּשׁ וְאִם שַׁמָּשׁ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם הוּא טָחוֹ בַּכּוֹתֶל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגְּנַאי לְתַלְמִיד חָכָם לָצֵאת לַשּׁוּק כְּשֶׁהוּא מְבוּשָּׂם

Our Sages taught in a baraita: If they brought before them both scented oil and wine, Beit Shammai say: He grasps the oil in his right hand, since he recites a blessing over the oil first, and the wine in his left hand. He recites a blessing over the oil and then he recites a blessing over the wine. Beit Hillel say the opposite: He grasps the wine in his right hand and the oil in his left hand. He recites a blessing over the wine and then he recites a blessing over the oil. And after he has recited a blessing over the oil and anointed his hands with it, he smears it on the head of the servant so that his hands will not remain perfumed. And if the servant is a Torah scholar, he smears the oil on the wall, as it is unbecoming for a Torah scholar to go out perfumed into the marketplace.

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן שִׁשָּׁה דְּבָרִים גְּנַאי לוֹ לְתַלְמִיד חָכָם אַל יֵצֵא כְּשֶׁהוּא מְבוּשָּׂם לַשּׁוּק וְאַל יֵצֵא יְחִידִי בַּלַּיְלָה וְאַל יֵצֵא בְּמִנְעָלִים הַמְטוּלָּאִים וְאַל יְסַפֵּר עִם אִשָּׁה בַּשּׁוּק וְאַל יָסֵב בַּחֲבוּרָה שֶׁל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְאַל יִכָּנֵס בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַף לֹא יַפְסִיעַ פְּסִיעָה גַּסָּה וְאַל יְהַלֵּךְ בְּקוֹמָה זְקוּפָה

Tangential to the mention of conduct unbecoming a Torah scholar, the Sages taught in a baraita: Six things are disgraceful for a Torah scholar: He may not go out perfumed into the marketplace; he may not go out of his house alone at night; he may not go out wearing patched shoes; he may not converse with a woman in the marketplace; he may not recline and participate in a meal in the company of ignoramuses; and he may not be the last to enter the study hall. And some say that he may not take long strides and he may not walk with an upright posture.

אַל יֵצֵא כְּשֶׁהוּא מְבוּשָּׂם לַשּׁוּק אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁחֲשׁוּדִים עַל מִשְׁכַּב זָכוּר אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בְּבִגְדוֹ אֲבָל בְּגוּפוֹ זֵיעָה מְעַבְּרָא לֵיהּ אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא וּשְׂעָרוֹ כְּבִגְדוֹ דָּמֵי וְאָמְרִי לַהּ כְּגוּפוֹ דָּמֵי

The Gemara elaborates on the statements of the baraita. He may not go out perfumed into the marketplace; Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This prohibition only applies in a place where they are suspected of homosexuality. One who goes out into the marketplace perfumed, will arouse suspicion. Rav Sheshet said: We only said this with regard to his clothing that was perfumed, but with regard to his body, it is permitted, as his sweat causes the fragrance to dissipate. Rav Pappa said: In this regard, his hair is considered like his clothing. And some say: His hair is considered like his body.

וְאַל יֵצֵא יְחִידִי בַּלַּיְלָה מִשּׁוּם חֲשָׁדָא וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא קְבִיעַ לֵיהּ עִידָּנָא אֲבָל קְבִיעַ לֵיהּ עִידָּנָא מִידָּע יְדִיעַ דִּלְעִידָּנֵיהּ קָא אָזֵיל

He may not go out of his house alone at night because of suspicion of promiscuity. And therefore this was only prohibited if he does not have a set time during the night to study with his teacher, but if he has a set time, everyone knows that he is going to study with his teacher at his set time, and they will not be suspicious of him.

וְאַל יֵצֵא בְּמִנְעָלִים הַמְטוּלָּאִים מְסַיַּיע לֵיהּ לְרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא גְּנַאי הוּא לְתַלְמִיד חָכָם שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּמִנְעָלִים הַמְטוּלָּאִים אִינִי וְהָא רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא נָפֵיק אָמַר מָר זוּטְרָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב נַחְמָן בִּטְלַאי עַל גַּבֵּי טְלַאי וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בְּפַנְתָּא אֲבָל בְּגִילְדָּא לֵית לַן בַּהּ וּבְפַנְתָּא לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בְּאוֹרְחָא אֲבָל בְּבֵיתָא לֵית לַן בַּהּ וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה אֲבָל בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים לֵית לַן בַּהּ

He may not go out wearing patched shoes. This supports the statement of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: It is disgraceful for a Torah scholar to go out wearing patched shoes. The Gemara challenges: Is that so? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba himself go out wearing patched shoes? Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said: It is only prohibited when the shoe has a patch upon a patch. And we only said this with regard to patches on the upper part of the shoe but if the patch is on the sole, this does not apply. And with regard to patches on the upper part of the shoe, we only said this when he is out on the road, but in his house, we need not be concerned. And we only said this with regard to the summer when the patches would be visible to all, but during the rainy season, when the mud obscures the view of the patches, we need not be concerned.

וְאַל יְסַפֵּר עִם אִשָּׁה בַּשּׁוּק אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא וַאֲפִילּוּ הִיא אִשְׁתּוֹ תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי אֲפִילּוּ הִיא אִשְׁתּוֹ וַאֲפִילּוּ הִיא בִּתּוֹ וַאֲפִילּוּ הִיא אֲחוֹתוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּל בְּקִיאִין בִּקְרוֹבוֹתָיו

He may not converse with a woman in the marketplace. Rav Ḥisda said: Even if she is his wife. This was also taught in a baraita: One may not converse with a woman in the market, even if she is his wife, even if she is his daughter and even if she is his sister, for not everyone is well-versed in the identity of his female relatives and they will suspect that he is talking to women who are not his relatives.

וְאַל יָסֵב בַּחֲבוּרָה שֶׁל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ מַאי טַעְמָא דִּילְמָא אָתֵי לְאִמְּשׁוֹכֵי בָּתְרַיְיהוּ

He may not recline and participate in a meal in the company of ignoramuses. The Gemara explains: What is the reason? Perhaps he will be drawn after them and emulate them.

וְאַל יִכָּנֵס בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ מִשּׁוּם דְּקָרוּ לֵיהּ פּוֹשֵׁעַ

He may not be the last to enter the study hall. The Gemara explains: Because they will call him negligent, in other words, careless and lazy.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַף לֹא יַפְסִיעַ פְּסִיעָה גַּסָּה דְּאָמַר מָר פְּסִיעָה גַּסָּה נוֹטֶלֶת אֶחָד מֵחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת מִמְּאוֹר עֵינָיו שֶׁל אָדָם מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ לַהְדְּרֵיהּ בְּקִדּוּשָׁא דְּבֵי שִׁמְשֵׁי

And some say he may not take long strides, as the Master said: A long stride takes away one five-hundredth of a person’s eyesight. The Gemara asks: What is his remedy if he took long strides? The Gemara responds: He can restore it by drinking the wine of kiddush on Shabbat eve.

וְאַל יְהַלֵּךְ בְּקוֹמָה זְקוּפָה דְּאָמַר מָר הַמְהַלֵּךְ בְּקוֹמָה זְקוּפָה אֲפִילּוּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּאִילּוּ דּוֹחֵק רַגְלֵי שְׁכִינָה דִּכְתִיב מְלֹא כׇל הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ:

And he may not walk with an upright posture, but slightly bowed, as the Master said: One who walks with an upright posture and in an arrogant manner, even four cubits, it is as if he is pushing away the feet of the Divine Presence, as it is written: “The entire world is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3). One who walks in an arrogant way shows a lack of regard for the glory and honor of God that is surrounding him, and thereby chases God from that place.