Berakhot 37aברכות ל״ז א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Berakhot 37a"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
37aל״ז א

קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן — ״כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ״. וְאִי אַשְׁמְעִינַן ״כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ״ הָוֵה אָמֵינָא כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים — אִין, אֲבָל אוֹרֶז וְדוֹחַן — לָא, מִשּׁוּם דְּעַל יְדֵי תַּעֲרוֹבֶת. אֲבָל אִיתֵיהּ בְּעֵינֵיהּ — נֵימָא אֲפִילּוּ אוֹרֶז וְדוֹחַן נָמֵי מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״. קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן — כֹּל שֶׁהוּא מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים הוּא דִּמְבָרְכִין עָלָיו בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת, לְאַפּוֹקֵי אוֹרֶז וְדוֹחַן, דַּאֲפִילּוּ אִיתֵיהּ בְּעֵינֵיהּ לָא מְבָרְכִינַן ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״.

Therefore, he teaches us: Anything that has of the five species of grain in it, even if it is in the context of a mixture with other ingredients. And had he taught us only: Anything that has of the five species of grain in it, I would have said that specifically over anything that has of the five species of grain in it, yes, one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, even if it is in the context of a mixture with other ingredients. However, over anything that has rice and millet in it, no, one does not recite: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, because one is eating it in the context of a mixture. However, if the rice or millet is in its pure, unadulterated form, say that even over rice and millet one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, because they, too, are types of grain. Therefore, he teaches us specifically: Anything that is from the five species of grain, one recites over it: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, to the exclusion of rice and millet, over which, even in its pure, unadulterated form, one does not recite: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment.

וְאוֹרֶז וְדוֹחַן לָא מְבָרְכִינַן ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״? וְהָתַנְיָא: הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו פַּת אוֹרֶז וּפַת דּוֹחַן — מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו תְּחִלָּה וָסוֹף כְּמַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה. וְגַבֵּי מַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה תַּנְיָא: בַּתְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״, וּלְבַסּוֹף מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ.

With regard to the previous conclusion, the Gemara asks: And over rice and millet we do not recite: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment? But wasn’t it taught in a baraita: If they brought before him rice bread or millet bread, he recites the blessing over it both before and after, as he would recite the blessing over a cooked dish containing dough from the five species of the grain. And with regard to a cooked dish, it was taught in a baraita: At the start, one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, and at the end, one recites one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals [al hamiḥya]. Apparently, one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, over rice and millet.

כְּמַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה וְלָא כְּמַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה: כְּמַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה דִּמְבָרְכִין עָלָיו תְּחִלָּה וָסוֹף, וְלָא כְּמַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה דְּאִילּוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה — בַּתְּחִלָּה ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״ וּלְבַסּוֹף בְּרָכָה מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ, וְאִילּוּ הָכָא — בַּתְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו ״שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיֶה בִּדְבָרוֹ״, וּלְבַסּוֹף ״בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת וְחֶסְרוֹנָן עַל כָּל מַה שֶּׁבָּרָאתָ״.

The Gemara rejects this proof: Indeed, rice or millet is like a cooked dish, and is not like a cooked dish in every sense. The Gemara elaborates: It is considered like a cooked dish in that one recites a blessing over it both at the beginning and the end. And it is unlike a cooked dish in that over a cooked dish, at the start, one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, and at the end, one recites one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals; whereas here, over rice, at the start, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be, and at the end, one recites: Who creates the many forms of life and their needs for all that You have created.

וְאוֹרֶז לָאו מַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה הוּא? וְהָתַנְיָא, אֵלּוּ הֵן מַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה: חִילְקָא, טַרְגִּיס, סוֹלֶת, זָרִיז, וְעַרְסָן, וְאוֹרֶז.

The Gemara challenges: And rice is not a cooked dish? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that these are cooked dishes: Wheat kernels split into two parts, wheat kernels crushed into three parts [teraggis], flour, wheat kernels crushed into four parts [zariz], wheat kernels crushed into five parts [arsan] and rice? Apparently, rice is considered a cooked dish like crushed wheat.

הָא מַנִּי — רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי הִיא. דְּתַנְיָא: רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר: אוֹרֶז מִין דָּגָן הוּא, וְחַיָּיבִין עַל חִמּוּצוֹ כָּרֵת, וְאָדָם יוֹצֵא בּוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּפֶּסַח. אֲבָל רַבָּנַן לָא.

The Gemara responds: Whose opinion is reflected in this baraita? It is Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri’s opinion, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri says: Rice is a type of grain in every respect and, therefore, one is liable to death by karet if it leavens on Passover and he eats it intentionally. And a person who ate matza baked from rice flour fulfills his obligation on Passover; however, according to the Rabbis, no, rice is not in the category of a cooked dish.

וְרַבָּנַן לָא?! וְהָתַנְיָא: הַכּוֹסֵס אֶת הַחִטָּה מְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה״. טְחָנָהּ אֲפָאָהּ וּבִשְּׁלָהּ, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַפְּרוּסוֹת קַיָּימוֹת — בַּתְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ ״הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ״, וּלְבַסּוֹף מְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ שָׁלֹשׁ בְּרָכוֹת. אִם אֵין הַפְּרוּסוֹת קַיָּימוֹת — בַּתְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״, וּלְבַסּוֹף מְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ.

The Gemara challenges this: And the Rabbis hold that rice is not considered a cooked dish? Wasn’t it taught in a Tosefta: One who chews wheat recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. However, if he ground the wheat, baked it, and cooked the bread, there is a distinction between two situations: When the slices are intact and did not dissolve in the boiling process, at the start one recites: Who brings forth bread from the earth, and at the end one recites the three blessings of Grace after Meals, as he does after eating bread. When the slices dissolved in the course of the boiling process and are not intact, then at the start one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, and at the end one recites one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals.

הַכּוֹסֵס אֶת הָאוֹרֶז מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה״. טְחָנוֹ אֲפָאוֹ וּבִשְּׁלוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפְּרוּסוֹת קַיָּימוֹת, בַּתְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״, וּלְבַסּוֹף מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ.

One who chews rice recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. If one ground it, baked it, and then cooked it, even though the pieces are intact, at the start one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, and at the end one recites one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals.

מַנִּי, אִילֵּימָא רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי הִיא דְּאָמַר אוֹרֶז מִין דָּגָן הוּא, ״הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ״ וְשָׁלֹשׁ בְּרָכוֹת בָּעֵי בָּרוֹכֵי!

The Gemara discusses this Tosefta: Whose opinion is reflected in this Tosefta? If you say that it is the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri who said that rice is a type of grain, it should have said that one must recite: Who brings forth bread from the earth, beforehand and the three blessings of Grace after Meals thereafter, as he does after eating bread.

אֶלָּא לָאו, רַבָּנַן הִיא, וּתְיוּבְתָּא דְּרַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל!

Rather, isn’t it the opinion of the Rabbis, who hold that rice is not a type of grain, but nevertheless hold that over rice one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment? If so, this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav and Shmuel.

תְּיוּבְתָּא.

The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is a conclusive refutation of their opinion.

אָמַר מָר: הַכּוֹסֵס אֶת הַחִטָּה מְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה״. וְהָתַנְיָא ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי זְרָעִים״! לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וְהָא רַבָּנַן. דִּתְנַן: וְעַל יְרָקוֹת אוֹמֵר ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה״, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי דְשָׁאִים״.

Above, it was taught in the Tosefta that the Master said: One who chews wheat recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. The Gemara challenges: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one who chews wheat recites: Who creates various kinds of seeds? The Gemara resolves the problem: This is not difficult, as it is the subject of a tannaitic dispute. This opinion, that one must recite: Who creates various kinds of seeds, is the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and this opinion, that one must recite: Who creates fruit of the ground, is the opinion of the Rabbis. As we learned in our mishna: Over herbs and leafy vegetables one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. Rabbi Yehuda says: Who creates various kinds of herbs. Rabbi Yehuda designates specific blessings for every type of plant, and he certainly distinguishes between vegetables in general and seeds.

אָמַר מָר, הַכּוֹסֵס אֶת הָאוֹרֶז מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה״. טְחָנוֹ אֲפָאוֹ וּבִשְּׁלוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפְּרוּסוֹת קַיָּימוֹת, בַּתְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״, וּלְבַסּוֹף בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ.

It was taught in the same Tosefta that the Master said: One who chews rice recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. If one ground it, baked it and then cooked it, even though the pieces are intact, at the start one recites: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, and at the end one recites one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals.

וְהָתַנְיָא לְבַסּוֹף וְלָא כְלוּם! אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת: לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְהָא רַבָּנַן. דְּתַנְיָא, זֶה הַכְּלָל: כֹּל שֶׁהוּא מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים, רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר שָׁלֹשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ.

The Gemara raises the challenge: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that in that case, at the end one need not recite any of the blessings recited over the fruits of Eretz Yisrael, but rather: Who creates the many forms of life. Rav Sheshet said: This is not difficult, as this is the subject of a tannaitic dispute. This, that one recites one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals, is the opinion of Rabban Gamliel. This, that one need only recite: Who creates the many forms of life, is the opinion of the Rabbis. As it was taught in a Tosefta that this is the principle: Anything that is from the seven species of grain and fruits for which Eretz Yisrael is praised, Rabban Gamliel says: Afterwards, one recites the three blessings of the Grace after Meals. And the Rabbis say: One blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals is sufficient.

וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְהַזְּקֵנִים שֶׁהָיוּ מְסוּבִּין בַּעֲלִיָּיה בִּירִיחוֹ, וְהֵבִיאוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם כּוֹתָבוֹת וְאָכְלוּ, וְנָתַן רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל רְשׁוּת לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא לְבָרֵךְ. קָפַץ וּבֵרַךְ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל: עֲקִיבָא, עַד מָתַי אַתָּה מַכְנִיס רֹאשְׁךָ בֵּין הַמַּחֲלוֹקֶת! אָמַר לוֹ: רַבֵּינוּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר כֵּן וַחֲבֵרֶיךָ אוֹמְרִים כֵּן, לִמַּדְתָּנוּ רַבֵּינוּ יָחִיד וְרַבִּים הֲלָכָה כָּרַבִּים.

The Gemara relates: And there was an incident involving Rabban Gamliel and the Sages who were sitting in an upper floor in Jericho and they brought dates before them and they ate. And afterwards, Rabban Gamliel gave Rabbi Akiva permission to recite the blessing. Rabbi Akiva hurried and recited one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals. Rabban Gamliel said: Akiva, until when will you continue to stick your head into the dispute among the Sages with regard to what you did? Rabbi Akiva said to him: Our teacher, even though you say this while your colleagues disagree and say that, you taught us, our teacher, the general principle that guides resolution of halakhic disputes: In a dispute between an individual and the many, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many. Although you are the Nasi, it is appropriate to act in accordance with the opinion of the many.

רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ: כֹּל שֶׁהוּא מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים

The Gemara records a variation on the dispute between Rabban Gamliel and the Rabbis: Rabbi Yehuda says in his name, the name of Rabbi Akiva. With regard to anything that is from the seven species