Berakhot 36aברכות ל״ו א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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36aל״ו א

דכולהו שלקי

in which all boiled vegetables were boiled. A certain amount of oil is added to anigeron.

אם כן הוה ליה אניגרון עיקר ושמן טפל ותנן זה הכלל כל שהוא עיקר ועמו טפלה מברך על העיקר ופוטר את הטפלה

However, if so, here too, anigeron is primary and oil is secondary, and we learned in a mishna: This is the principle: Any food that is primary, and it is eaten with food that is secondary, one recites a blessing over the primary food, and that blessing exempts the secondary from the requirement to recite a blessing before eating it. One need recite a blessing only over the anigeron.

הכא במאי עסקינן בחושש בגרונו דתניא החושש בגרונו לא יערענו בשמן תחלה בשבת אבל נותן שמן הרבה לתוך אניגרון ובולע

The Gemara reconciles: With what are we dealing here? With one who has a sore throat, which he is treating with oil. As it was taught in a baraita: One who has a sore throat should not, ab initio, gargle oil on Shabbat for medicinal purposes, as doing so would violate the decree prohibiting the use of medicine on Shabbat. However, he may, even ab initio, add a large amount of oil to the anigeron and swallow it. Since it is common practice to swallow oil either alone or with a secondary ingredient like anigeron for medicinal purposes, in this case one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree.

פשיטא מהו דתימא כיון דלרפואה קא מכוין לא לבריך עליה כלל קא משמע לן כיון דאית ליה הנאה מיניה בעי ברוכי:

The Gemara challenges: This is obvious that one must recite a blessing. The Gemara responds: Lest you say: Since he intends to use it for medicinal purposes, let him not recite a blessing over it at all, as one does not recite a blessing before taking medicine. Therefore, it teaches us that, since he derived pleasure from it, he must recite a blessing over it.

קמחא דחיטי רב יהודה אמר בורא פרי האדמה ורב נחמן אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו

The Gemara clarifies: If one was eating plain wheat flour, what blessing would he recite? Rav Yehuda said that one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground, and Rav Naḥman said that one recites: By Whose word all things came to be.

אמר ליה רבא לרב נחמן לא תפלוג עליה דרב יהודה דרבי יוחנן ושמואל קיימי כוותיה דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל וכן אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי יוחנן שמן זית מברכין עליו בורא פרי העץ אלמא אף על גב דאשתני במלתיה קאי הא נמי אף על גב דאשתני במלתיה קאי

Rava said to Rav Naḥman: Do not disagree with Rav Yehuda, as Rabbi Yoḥanan and Shmuel hold in accordance with his opinion, even though they addressed another topic. As Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oil. Consequently, even though the olive has changed into olive oil, the formula of the blessing remains as it was. This too, even though the wheat has changed into flour, its blessing remains as it was: Who creates fruit of the ground.

מי דמי התם לית ליה עלויא אחרינא הכא אית ליה עלויא אחרינא בפת

The Gemara responds: Is it comparable? There, the olive oil has no potential for additional enhancement, while here, the flour has the potential for additional enhancement as bread. Since oil is the olive’s finished product, one should recite the same blessing over it as over the tree itself. Wheat flour, on the other hand, is used to bake bread, so the flour is a raw material for which neither the blessing over wheat nor the blessing over bread is appropriate. Only the blessing: By Whose word all things came to be is appropriate.

וכי אית ליה עלויא אחרינא לא מברכינן עליה בורא פרי האדמה אלא שהכל והא אמר רבי זירא אמר רב מתנא אמר שמואל אקרא חייא וקמחא דשערי מברכינן עלייהו שהכל נהיה בדברו מאי לאו דחיטי בורא פרי האדמה

The Gemara asks: When it has a potential for additional enhancement, one does not recite: Who creates fruit of the ground; rather one recites: By Whose word all things came to be? Didn’t Rabbi Zeira say that Rav Mattana said that Shmuel said: Over a raw gourd and over barley flour, one recites the blessing: By Whose word all things came to be. What, is that not to say that over wheat flour one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground? Over barley flour, which people do not typically eat, it is appropriate to recite: By Whose word all things came to be. Over wheat flour, it is appropriate to recite: Who creates fruit of the ground.

לא דחיטי נמי שהכל נהיה בדברו

This argument is rejected: No, one also recites: By Whose word all things came to be, over wheat flour.

ולשמעינן דחיטי וכל שכן דשערי

The Gemara asks: Then let the Sages teach us that this halakha applies with regard to wheat flour, and all the more so regarding barley flour as well.

אי אשמעינן דחיטי הוה אמינא הני מילי דחיטי אבל דשערי לא לבריך עליה כלל קא משמע לן

The Gemara responds: It was necessary to teach us that one must recite a blessing even before eating barley flour. Had the Sages taught us this halakha with regard to wheat, I would have said: This applies only with regard to wheat flour, but over barley flour, let one not recite a blessing at all. Therefore, it teaches us that one recites a blessing over barley flour.

ומי גרע ממלח וזמית דתנן על המלח ועל הזמית אומר שהכל נהיה בדברו אצטריך סלקא דעתך אמינא מלח וזמית עביד אינש דשדי לפומיה אבל קמחא דשערי הואיל וקשה לקוקיאני לא לבריך עליה כלל קא משמע לן כיון דאית ליה הנאה מיניה בעי ברוכי:

The Gemara challenges this explanation. How could one have considered that possibility? Is it inferior to salt and salt water [zamit]? As we learned in a mishna that over salt and salt water one recites: By Whose word all things came to be, and all the more so it should be recited over barley flour. This question is rejected: Nevertheless, it was necessary to teach the halakha regarding barley flour, as it might enter your mind to say: Although one occasionally places salt or salt water into his mouth, barley flour, which is damaging to one who eats it and causes intestinal worms, let one recite no blessing over it at all. Therefore, it teaches us, since one derives pleasure from it, he must recite a blessing.

קורא רב יהודה אמר בורא פרי האדמה ושמואל אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו

Another dispute over the appropriate blessing is with regard to the heart of palm [kura], which is a thin membrane covering young palm branches that was often eaten. Rav Yehuda said that one should recite: Who creates fruit of the ground. And Shmuel, Rav Yehuda’s teacher, said that one should recite: By Whose word all things came to be.

רב יהודה אמר בורא פרי האדמה פירא הוא ושמואל אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו הואיל וסופו להקשות

Rav Yehuda said: Who creates fruit of the ground; it is a fruit. And Shmuel said: By Whose word all things came to be, since it will ultimately harden and it is considered part of the tree, not a fruit.

אמר ליה שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא כוותך מסתברא דהא צנון סופו להקשות ומברכינן עליה בורא פרי האדמה ולא היא צנון נטעי אינשי אדעתא דפוגלא דקלא לא נטעי אינשי אדעתא דקורא

Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: Shinnana. It is reasonable to rule in accordance with your opinion, as a radish ultimately hardens if left in the ground; nevertheless, one who eats it while it is soft recites over it: Who creates fruit of the ground. In any case, despite this praise, the Gemara states: That is not so; people plant a radish with the soft radish in mind. However, people do not plant palm trees with the heart of palm in mind and therefore it cannot be considered a fruit.

וכל היכא דלא נטעי אינשי אדעתא דהכי לא מברכינן עליה והרי צלף דנטעי אינשי אדעתא דפרחא ותנן על מיני נצפה על העלין ועל התמרות אומר בורא פרי האדמה ועל האביונות ועל הקפריסין אומר בורא פרי העץ

In response to this, the Gemara asks: And whenever people do not plant with that result in mind, one does not recite a blessing over it? What of the caper-bush that people plant with their fruit in mind, and we learned in a mishna that with regard to the parts of the caper-bush [nitzpa], over the leaves and young fronds, one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground, and over the berries and buds he recites: Who creates fruit of the tree. This indicates that even over leaves and various other parts of the tree that are secondary to the fruit, the blessing is: Who creates fruit of the ground, and not: By Whose word all things came to be.

אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק צלף נטעי אינשי אדעתא דשותא דקלא לא נטעי אינשי אדעתא דקורא ואף על גב דקלסיה שמואל לרב יהודה הלכתא כוותיה דשמואל:

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that there is still a difference: Caper-bushes, people plant them with their leaves in mind; palm trees, people do not plant them with the heart of palm in mind. Therefore, no proof may be brought from the halakha in the case of the caper-bush to the halakha in the case of the of the palm. The Gemara concludes: Although Shmuel praised Rav Yehuda, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב צלף של ערלה בחוצה לארץ זורק את האביונות ואוכל את הקפריסין למימרא דאביונות פירי וקפריסין לאו פירי ורמינהו על מיני נצפה על העלים ועל התמרות אומר בורא פרי האדמה ועל האביונות ועל הקפריסין אומר בורא פרי העץ

Incidental to this discussion, the Gemara cites an additional halakha concerning the caper-bush. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A caper-bush during the first three years of its growth [orla] outside of Eretz Yisrael, when its fruits are prohibited by rabbinic and not Torah law, one throws out the berries, the primary fruit, but eats the buds. The Gemara raises the question: Is that to say that the berries are fruit of the caper, and the bud is not fruit? The Gemara raises a contradiction from what we learned in the mishna cited above: With regard to the parts of the caper-bush [nitzpa], over the leaves and young fronds, one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground, and over the berries, and buds he recites: Who creates fruit of the tree. Obviously, the buds are also considered the fruit of the caper-bush.

הוא דאמר כרבי עקיבא דתנן רבי אליעזר אומר צלף מתעשר תמרות ואביונות וקפריסין רבי עקיבא אומר אין מתעשר אלא אביונות בלבד מפני שהוא פרי

The Gemara responds: Rav’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, as we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: A caper-bush is tithed from its component parts, its young fronds, berries and buds, as all these are considered its fruit. And Rabbi Akiva says: Only the berries alone are tithed, because it alone is considered fruit. It was in accordance with this opinion, that Rav prohibited only the eating of the berries during the caper-bush’s years of orla.

ונימא הלכה כרבי עקיבא אי אמר הלכה כרבי עקיבא הוה אמינא אפילו בארץ קא משמע לן כל המיקל בארץ הלכה כמותו בחוצה לארץ אבל בארץ לא

The Gemara asks: If this is the case, why did Rav issue what seemed to be an independent ruling regarding orla? He should have simply said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, from which we could have drawn a practical halakhic conclusion regarding orla as well. The Gemara responds: Had Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, I would have said that the halakha is in accordance with his opinion even in Eretz Yisrael. Therefore, he teaches us by stating the entire halakha, that there is a principle: Anyone who is lenient in a dispute with regard to the halakhot of orla in Eretz Yisrael, the halakha is in accordance with his opinion outside of Eretz Yisrael, but not in Eretz Yisrael.

ונימא הלכה כרבי עקיבא בחוצה לארץ דכל המיקל בארץ הלכה כמותו בחוצה לארץ אי אמר הכי הוה אמינא הני מילי גבי מעשר אילן דבארץ גופא מדרבנן אבל גבי ערלה דבארץ מדאורייתא אימא בחוצה לארץ נמי נגזור קא משמע לן

The Gemara questions this: If so, then let Rav say: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva outside of Eretz Yisrael as anyone who is lenient in a dispute with regard to the halakhot of orla in Eretz Yisrael, the halakha is in accordance with his opinion outside of Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara answers: Had he said that, I would have said: That only applies with regard to the tithing of trees, which even in Eretz Yisrael itself is an obligation by rabbinic law; but with regard to orla, which is prohibited in Eretz Yisrael by Torah law, say that we should issue a decree prohibiting orla even outside of Eretz Yisrael. Therefore, he teaches us that even with regard to orla, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva.

רבינא אשכחיה למר בר רב אשי דקא זריק אביונות וקאכיל קפריסין אמר ליה מאי דעתך כרבי עקיבא דמיקל ולעביד מר כבית שמאי דמקילי טפי דתנן צלף בית שמאי אומרים כלאים בכרם ובית הלל אומרים אין כלאים בכרם אלו ואלו מודים שחייב בערלה

On this topic, the Gemara relates: Ravina found Mar bar Rav Ashi throwing away the berries and eating the buds of an orla caper-bush. Ravina said to Mar bar Rav Ashi: What is your opinion, that you are eating the buds? If it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who is lenient, then you should act in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, who are even more lenient. As we learned in a mishna with regard to the laws of forbidden mixtures of diverse kinds that Beit Shammai say: A caper-bush is considered a diverse kind in the vineyard, as it is included in the prohibition against planting vegetables in a vineyard. Beit Hillel say: A caper-bush is not considered a diverse kind in a vineyard. Nevertheless, these and those, Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, agree that the caper-bush is obligated in the prohibition of orla.

הא גופא קשיא אמרת צלף בית שמאי אומרים כלאים בכרם אלמא מין ירק הוא והדר תני אלו ואלו מודים שחייב בערלה אלמא מין אילן הוא

Before dealing with the problem posed by Ravina to Mar bar Rav Ashi, the Gemara notes an internal contradiction in this mishna. This mishna itself is problematic: You said that Beit Shammai say: A caper-bush is considered a diverse kind in a vineyard; apparently, they hold that it is a type of vegetable bush, and then you taught: These and those, Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, agree that the caper-bush is obligated in the prohibition of orla; apparently, it is a type of tree.

הא לא קשיא בית שמאי ספוקי מספקא להו ועבדי הכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא מכל מקום לבית שמאי הוה ליה ספק ערלה ותנן ספק ערלה בארץ ישראל אסור ובסוריא מותר ובחוצה לארץ יורד

The Gemara responds: This is not difficult; Beit Shammai are uncertain whether the caper-bush is a vegetable bush or a tree, and here, regarding diverse kinds, they act stringently and here, regarding orla, they act stringently. In any case, according to Beit Shammai the caper-bush has the status of uncertain orla, and we learned the consensus halakha in a mishna: Uncertain orla in Eretz Yisrael is forbidden to eat, and in Syria it is permitted, and we are not concerned about its uncertain status. Outside of Eretz Yisrael, the gentile owner of a field may go down into his field