Berakhot 35b:6-8ברכות ל״ה ב:ו׳-ח׳
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35bל״ה ב

כָּאן לְאַחַר בְּרָכָה.

and here, where it says that He gave the earth to mankind refers to after a blessing is recited.

אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא: כׇּל הַנֶּהֱנֶה מִן הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה כְּאִילּוּ גּוֹזֵל לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּכְנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״גּוֹזֵל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְאוֹמֵר אֵין פָּשַׁע חָבֵר הוּא לְאִישׁ מַשְׁחִית״. וְאֵין ״אָבִיו״ אֶלָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הֲלֹא הוּא אָבִיךְ קָּנֶךָ״, וְאֵין ״אִמּוֹ״ אֶלָּא כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״שְׁמַע בְּנִי מוּסַר אָבִיךָ וְאַל תִּטּוֹשׁ תּוֹרַת אִמֶּךָ״.

Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Anyone who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he stole from God and the community of Israel, as it is stated: “Whoever robs his father and his mother and says: It is no transgression, he is the companion of a destroyer” (Proverbs 28:24). The phrase, his father, refers to none other than God, as it is stated: “Is He not your Father Who created you, Who made you and established you” (Deuteronomy 32:6). The phrase his mother refers to none other than the community of Israel, as it is stated: “Hear, my son, the discipline of your father, and do not forsake the Torah of your mother” (Proverbs 1:8). The mention of the Torah as emanating from the mouth of the mother, apparently means that your mother is the community of Israel.

מַאי ״חָבֵר הוּא לְאִישׁ מַשְׁחִית״? אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא: חָבֵר הוּא לְיָרׇבְעָם בֶּן נְבָט שֶׁהִשְׁחִית אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם.

What is the meaning of the continuation of the verse: He is the companion of a destroyer? Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: He is a companion of Jeroboam ben Nevat, who corrupted Israel before their Father in heaven by sinning and causing others to sin.

רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא רָמֵי: כְּתִיב ״וְלָקַחְתִּי דְגָנִי בְּעִתּוֹ וְגוֹ׳״, וּכְתִיב ״וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְגוֹ׳״.

On a similar note, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction: It is written, “I will take back My grain at its time and wine in its season” (Hosea 2:11), and it is written: “And you shall gather your grain, your wine and your oil” (Deuteronomy 11:14). To whom does the grain belong: To God, or to the people?

לָא קַשְׁיָא: כָּאן בִּזְמַן שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם, כָּאן בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם.

The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. Here, where God promises Israel that they will gather their grain, the verse refers to a time when they perform God’s will. Here, where the verse indicates that the grain belongs to God, it refers to a time when they do not perform God’s will, as then He will take back the grain, demonstrating that it belongs to Him.

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: ״וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ״ מָה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר? — לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לֹא יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ״ — יָכוֹל דְּבָרִים כִּכְתָבָן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ״ — הַנְהֵג בָּהֶן מִנְהַג דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל.

The Sages taught: What is the meaning of that which the verse states: “And you shall gather your grain”? Because it is stated: “This Torah shall not depart from your mouths, and you shall contemplate in it day and night” (Joshua 1:8), I might have thought that these matters are to be understood as they are written; one is to literally spend his days immersed exclusively in Torah study. Therefore, the verse states: “And you shall gather your grain, your wine and your oil,” assume in their regard, the way of the world; set aside time not only for Torah, but also for work. This is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael.

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי אוֹמֵר: אֶפְשָׁר אָדָם חוֹרֵשׁ בִּשְׁעַת חֲרִישָׁה, וְזוֹרֵעַ בִּשְׁעַת זְרִיעָה, וְקוֹצֵר בִּשְׁעַת קְצִירָה, וְדָשׁ בִּשְׁעַת דִּישָׁה, וְזוֹרֶה בִּשְׁעַת הָרוּחַ, תּוֹרָה מַה תְּהֵא עָלֶיהָ? אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם — מְלַאכְתָּן נַעֲשֵׂית עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְעָמְדוּ זָרִים וְרָעוּ צֹאנְכֶם וְגוֹ׳״, וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם — מְלַאכְתָּן נַעֲשֵׂית עַל יְדֵי עַצְמָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ״. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּלֶאכֶת אֲחֵרִים נַעֲשֵׂית עַל יָדָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת אוֹיְבֶךָ וְגוֹ׳״.

Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Is it possible that a person plows in the plowing season and sows in the sowing season and harvests in the harvest season and threshes in the threshing season and winnows in the windy season, as grain is separated from the chaff by means of the wind, and is constantly busy; what will become of Torah? Rather, one must dedicate himself exclusively to Torah at the expense of other endeavors; as when Israel performs God’s will, their work is performed by others, as it is stated: “And strangers will stand and feed your flocks, and foreigners will be your plowmen and your vinedressers” (Isaiah 61:5). When Israel does not perform God’s will, their work is performed by them themselves, as it is stated: “And you shall gather your grain.” Moreover, if Israel fails to perform God’s will, others’ work will be performed by them, as it is stated: “You shall serve your enemy whom God shall send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness and in want of all things” (Deuteronomy 28:48).

אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: הַרְבֵּה עָשׂוּ כְּרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, וְעָלְתָה בְּיָדָן. כְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי, וְלֹא עָלְתָה בְּיָדָן.

Summing up this dispute, Abaye said: Although there is room for both opinions, many have acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, and combined working for a living and learning Torah, and although they engaged in activities other than the study of Torah, were successful in their Torah study. Many have acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai and were not successful in their Torah study. They were ultimately forced to abandon their Torah study altogether.

אֲמַר לְהוּ רָבָא לְרַבָּנַן: בְּמָטוּתָא מִינַּיְיכוּ, בְּיוֹמֵי נִיסָן וּבְיוֹמֵי תִּשְׁרֵי לָא תִּתְחֲזוֹ קַמַּאי, כִּי הֵיכִי דְּלָא תִּטַּרְדוּ בִּמְזוֹנַיְיכוּ כּוּלָּא שַׁתָּא.

Similarly, Rava said to the Sages who would attend his study hall: I implore you; during the months of Nisan and Tishrei, the crucial agricultural periods, do not appear before me. Engage in your agricultural work then so that you will not be preoccupied with your sustenance all year.

אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי אִלְעַאי: בֹּא וּרְאֵה שֶׁלֹּא כְּדוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים דּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים. דּוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עָשׂוּ תּוֹרָתָן קֶבַע וּמְלַאכְתָּן עֲרַאי, זוֹ וָזוֹ נִתְקַיְּימָה בְּיָדָן. דּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ מְלַאכְתָּן קֶבַע וְתוֹרָתָן עֲרַאי, זוֹ וָזוֹ לֹא נִתְקַיְּימָה בְּיָדָן.

Summarizing these statements, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of the tanna Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi El’ai: Come and see that the latter generations are not like the earlier generations; rather they are their inferiors. The earlier generations made their Torah permanent and their work occasional, and this, Torah study, and that, their work, were successful for them. However, the latter generations who made their work permanent and their Torah occasional, neither this nor that was successful for them.

וְאָמַר רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי אִלְעַאי: בֹּא וּרְאֵה שֶׁלֹּא כְּדוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים דּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים. דּוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ מַכְנִיסִין פֵּירוֹתֵיהֶן דֶּרֶךְ טְרַקְסְמוֹן כְּדֵי לְחַיְּיבָן בְּמַעֲשֵׂר, דּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים מַכְנִיסִין פֵּירוֹתֵיהֶן דֶּרֶךְ גַּגּוֹת, דֶּרֶךְ חֲצֵרוֹת, דֶּרֶךְ קַרְפֵּיפוֹת, כְּדֵי לְפׇטְרָן מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יַנַּאי: אֵין הַטֶּבֶל מִתְחַיֵּיב בְּמַעֲשֵׂר עַד שֶׁיִּרְאֶה פְּנֵי הַבַּיִת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן הַבַּיִת״.

Along these lines, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi El’ai: Come and see that the latter generations are not like the earlier generations. In the earlier generations, people would bring their fruits into their courtyards through the main gate in order to obligate them in tithes. However, the latter generations bring their fruits through roofs, through courtyards and through enclosed courtyards, avoiding the main gate in order to exempt them from the mitzva of tithing. As Rabbi Yannai said: Untithed produce is not obligated in the mitzva of tithing until it sees the front of the house through which people enter and exit, and it is brought into the house that way as it is stated in the formula of the confession of the tithes: “I have removed the consecrated from the house” (Deuteronomy 26:13), as the obligation to tithe produce whose purpose has not yet been designated takes effect only when it is brought into the house.

וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ חָצֵר קוֹבַעַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְאָכְלוּ בִשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְשָׂבֵעוּ״.

And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even bringing it into the courtyard determines its status as having completed the production process and obligates the produce to be tithed, as it is written in the confession of the tithes: “And I have given to the Levite, the stranger, the orphan and the widow, and they shall eat in your gates and be satisfied” (Deuteronomy 26:12).

חוּץ מִן הַיַּיִן וְכוּ׳: מַאי שְׁנָא יַיִן? אִילֵּימָא מִשּׁוּם דְּאִשְׁתַּנִּי לְעִלּוּיָא אִשְׁתַּנִּי לִבְרָכָה, וַהֲרֵי שֶׁמֶן, דְּאִשְׁתַּנִּי לְעִלּוּיָא וְלָא אִשְׁתַּנִּי לִבְרָכָה, דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל, וְכֵן אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: שֶׁמֶן זַיִת מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ״.

We learned in our mishna: Over fruits that grow on a tree one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, with the exception of wine that even though it originates from fruit of the tree, a separate blessing was established for it: Who creates the fruit of the vine. The Gemara asks: What is different about wine, that a separate blessing was established for it? If you say that because the fruit changed for the better into wine, therefore, the blessing changed. Olive oil changed for the better and nevertheless, its blessing did not change. As Rabbi Yehuda said that Shmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Over olive oil, one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, just as he does over the fruit itself.

אָמְרִי: הָתָם מִשּׁוּם דְּלָא אֶפְשָׁר. הֵיכִי נְבָרֵיךְ? נְבָרֵיךְ ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַזַּיִת״ — פֵּירָא גּוּפֵיהּ ״זַיִת״ אִקְּרִי.

The Sages said: There, in the case of oil, it is because it is impossible to find an appropriate blessing, as how shall we recite the blessing? If we recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the olive, the fruit itself is called olive and that is what was created. The oil is a man-made product of that fruit, rendering that formula inappropriate. Similarly, reciting a formula parallel to the blessing on wine: Who creates the fruit of the vine, is inappropriate as the grapes themselves are the fruit that was created, as opposed to oil which was not.

וּנְבָרֵיךְ עֲלֵיהּ ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי עֵץ זַיִת״? אֶלָּא אָמַר מָר זוּטְרָא: חַמְרָא — זָיֵין, מִשְׁחָא — לָא זָיֵין.

The Gemara challenges: Nevertheless, it is still possible to formulate a blessing, as we may recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the olive tree, which would be parallel to the blessing recited over wine. Rather, Mar Zutra offered a different rationale: The reason that no separate blessing was established over oil is because, as opposed to wine that nourishes, oil does not nourish.

וּמִשְׁחָא לָא זָיֵין? וְהָתְנַן הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַמָּזוֹן — מוּתָּר בַּמַּיִם וּבַמֶּלַח. וְהָוֵינַן בַּהּ: מַיִם וּמֶלַח הוּא דְּלָא אִקְּרִי ״מָזוֹן״, הָא כׇּל מִילֵּי אִקְּרִי ״מָזוֹן״.

The Gemara asks: And oil does not nourish? Didn’t we learn in a mishna: One who vows that nourishment is forbidden to him is permitted to eat water and salt, as they are not considered nourishment. And we discussed this halakha: By inference, water and salt are not considered nourishment, but all other edible items are considered nourishment.

נֵימָא תֶּיהְוֵי תְּיוּבְתָּא דְּרַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל, דְּאָמְרִי אֵין מְבָרְכִין ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת״ אֶלָּא בַּחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִין בִּלְבַד. וְאָמַר רַב הוּנָא: בְּאוֹמֵר ״כׇּל הַזָּן עָלַי״.

Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of Rav and Shmuel, who said: One only recites: Who creates various kinds of nourishment, over the five species of grain alone, as they alone are considered nourishing. And Rav Huna said as a solution that this mishna referred to a case where he vows and says: Anything that nourishes is prohibited to me. That formula includes anything that is at all nourishing and therefore only water and salt are excluded. Olive oil is not excluded.

אַלְמָא מִשְׁחָא זָיֵין! אֶלָּא, חַמְרָא סָעֵיד, וּמִשְׁחָא לָא סָעֵיד. וְחַמְרָא מִי סָעֵיד? וְהָא רָבָא הֲוָה שָׁתֵי חַמְרָא כׇּל מַעֲלֵי יוֹמָא דְפִסְחָא כִּי הֵיכִי דְּנִגְרְרֵיהּ לְלִבֵּיהּ וְנֵיכוֹל מַצָּה טְפֵי? טוּבָא — גָּרֵיר, פּוּרְתָּא — סָעֵיד.

Apparently, oil nourishes. Rather, there is another distinction between wine and oil: Wine satisfies, oil does not satisfy. Wine not only nourishes, but it is also filling. The Gemara asks: And does wine satisfy? Wouldn’t Rava drink wine all day on the eve of Passover in order to stimulate his heart, i.e., whet his appetite so that he might eat more matza at the seder? Wine does not satisfy, it whets the appetite. The Gemara answers: A lot of wine stimulates, a little satisfies.

וּמִי סָעֵיד כְּלָל?! וְהָכְתִיב: ״וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ וְלֶחֶם לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד וְגוֹ׳״ — נַהֲמָא הוּא דְּסָעֵיד חַמְרָא לָא סָעֵיד! אֶלָּא, חַמְרָא אִית בֵּיהּ תַּרְתֵּי: סָעֵיד וּמְשַׂמַּח. נַהֲמָא מִסְעָד סָעֵיד, שַׂמּוֹחֵי לָא מְשַׂמַּח.

Again, the Gemara asks: Does wine satisfy at all? Isn’t it written: “Wine gladdens the heart of man, making the face brighter than oil, and bread fills man’s heart” (Psalms 104:15); bread is that which satisfies, wine does not satisfy. Rather, this verse is not a proof; wine has two advantages, it satisfies and gladdens. Bread, however, satisfies but does not gladden.

אִי הָכִי נְבָרֵיךְ עֲלֵיהּ שָׁלֹשׁ בְּרָכוֹת! לָא קָבְעִי אִינָשֵׁי סְעוֹדְתַּיְיהוּ עִלָּוֵיהּ.

Since wine possesses all of these virtues, the Gemara asks: If so, let us recite the three blessings of Grace after Meals over it after drinking, just as we do after eating bread. The Gemara answers: People do not base their meals on wine.

אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק לְרָבָא: אִי קָבַע עִלָּוֵיהּ סְעוֹדְתֵּיהּ מַאי? אָמַר לֵיהּ: לִכְשֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ וְיֹאמַר אִי הָוֵי קְבִיעוּתָא. הַשְׁתָּא מִיהָא בָּטְלָה דַּעְתּוֹ אֵצֶל כׇּל אָדָם.

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to Rava: If one based his meal on it, what is the ruling? Must he recite the Grace after Meals as he does after bread? He replied: When Elijah comes and says whether or not it can serve as the basis for a meal, this will be resolved. Nevertheless, now, until then, his intention is rendered irrelevant by the opinions of all other men and he is not required to recite the complete Grace after Meals.

גּוּפָא. אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל, וְכֵן אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: שֶׁמֶן זַיִת מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ״. הֵיכִי דָּמֵי? אִילֵּימָא דְּקָא שָׁתֵי לֵיהּ מִשְׁתָּא — אוֹזוֹקֵי מַזִּיק לֵיהּ. דְּתַנְיָא: הַשּׁוֹתֶה שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה — מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַקֶּרֶן, וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַחוֹמֶשׁ. הַסָּךְ שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה — מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וּמְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַחוֹמֶשׁ.

Previously, the Gemara cited the halakha that one recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oil. The Gemara discusses the matter itself. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oil just as he does over the fruit itself. What are the circumstances? If you say that he drank it plain, it causes damage to the drinker. As it was taught in a baraita: One who drinks oil of teruma, while unaware that it was teruma, pays the principal and does not pay the additional fifth which is the typical penalty for unintentional misuse of consecrated property, as in that case the individual is considered to have only damaged consecrated property without deriving benefit from it. One who anoints his body with the oil of teruma pays the principal and pays the fifth, as he derived benefit from it. Apparently, one who drinks oil derives no benefit and it even causes him damage.

אֶלָּא דְּקָא אָכֵיל לֵיהּ עַל יְדֵי פַּת. אִי הָכִי, הָוְיָא לֵיהּ פַּת עִיקָּר וְהוּא טָפֵל. וּתְנַן, זֶה הַכְּלָל: כׇּל שֶׁהוּא עִיקָּר וְעִמּוֹ טְפֵלָה — מְבָרֵךְ עַל הָעִיקָּר וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַטְּפֵלָה! אֶלָּא דְּקָא שָׁתֵי לֵיהּ עַל יְדֵי ״אֲנִיגְרוֹן״, דְּאָמַר רַבָּה בַּר שְׁמוּאֵל: ״אֲנִיגְרוֹן״ — מַיָּא דְּסָלְקָא, ״אַנְסִיגְרוֹן״ — מַיָּא

Rather, it is referring to a case where he eats the oil by dipping bread into it. If so, the bread is primary and the oil secondary, and we learned in a mishna: This is the principle: Any food that is primary, and is eaten with food that is secondary, one recites a blessing over the primary food, and that blessing exempts the secondary from the requirement to recite a blessing before eating it. A blessing need only be recited over the bread, not over the oil. Rather, it is referring to a case where he is drinking it by means of an anigeron, as Rabba bar Shmuel said: Anigeron is water in which a beet was boiled, ansigeron is the water