מַתְנִי׳ כֵּיצַד מְבָרְכִין עַל הַפֵּירוֹת? עַל פֵּירוֹת הָאִילָן הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ״, חוּץ מִן הַיַּיִן, שֶׁעַל הַיַּיִן הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן״. וְעַל פֵּירוֹת הָאָרֶץ הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה״, חוּץ מִן הַפַּת, שֶׁעַל הַפַּת הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ״. וְעַל הַיְּרָקוֹת הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה״. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: ״בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי דְשָׁאִים״.
MISHNA: This mishna discusses the blessings recited over various foods. How does one recite a blessing over fruits? Over different fruits that grow on a tree one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, with the exception of wine. Although wine is produced from fruit of the tree, due to its significance, its blessing differs from other fruits of the tree. Over wine one recites: Who creates fruit of the vine. Over fruits that grow from the earth, one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground, with the exception of bread. Bread, too, is significant and its blessing differs from other fruits of the ground, as over bread one recites: Who brings forth bread from the earth. Over herbs and leafy vegetables one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. Rabbi Yehuda says that there is room to distinguish between fruits that grow from the earth, herbs, and leafy vegetables. Although they are all fruit of the ground, since they have different qualities, the blessing on the latter is: Who creates various kinds of herbs.
גְּמָ׳ מְנָא הָנֵי מִילֵּי? דְּתָנוּ רַבָּנַן: ״קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַה׳״, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁטְּעוּנִים בְּרָכָה לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם. מִכָּאן אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: אָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם כְּלוּם קוֹדֶם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ.
GEMARA: Concerning the fundamental basis for blessings, the Gemara asks: From where are these matters, the obligation to recite a blessing before eating, derived? The Gemara answers: As the Sages taught in the Sifra: With regard to saplings, it is stated that in their fourth year their fruit will be: “…sanctified for praises before the Lord” (Leviticus 19:24). This verse teaches that they require praise of God in the form of a blessing both beforehand and thereafter, as the verse says praises in the plural. From here, Rabbi Akiva said: A person is forbidden to taste anything before he recites a blessing, as without reciting praise over food, it has the status of a consecrated item, from which one is forbidden to derive pleasure.
וְהַאי ״קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים״ לְהָכִי הוּא דַּאֲתָא? הַאי מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ חַד דְּאָמַר רַחֲמָנָא אַחֲלֵיהּ וַהֲדַר אִכְלֵיהּ. וְאִידָךְ דָּבָר הַטָּעוּן שִׁירָה, טָעוּן חִלּוּל, וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ טָעוּן שִׁירָה, אֵין טָעוּן חִלּוּל. וְכִדְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן: מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים שִׁירָה אֶלָּא עַל הַיַּיִן? — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַתֹּאמֶר לָהֶם הַגֶּפֶן הֶחֳדַלְתִּי אֶת תִּירוֹשִׁי הַמְשַׂמֵּחַ אֱלֹהִים וַאֲנָשִׁים״, אִם אֲנָשִׁים מְשַׂמֵּחַ, אֱלֹהִים בַּמֶּה מְשַׂמֵּחַ? מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים שִׁירָה אֶלָּא עַל הַיַּיִן!
The Gemara asks: And did this verse: “Sanctified for praises,” come for that purpose? This verse is necessary to derive other matters. One being that the Merciful One said: Redeem it and then eat it. This midrash interprets hillul, praise, as ḥillul, redemption. And the other matter derived from this verse is: An object which is offered upon the altar and requires a song of praise when it is offered, as is the case with the libation of wine, requires redemption. And that which does not require a song of praise, all other fruits, does not require redemption. And this is in accordance with the opinion that Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that one only recites a song of praise in the Temple over the libation of wine on the altar? As it is stated: “And the vine replied: Should I leave my wine, which gladdens God and man, and go and wave above the trees?” (Judges 9:13). If wine gladdens people, in what way does it gladden God? Rather, derive from here that one only recites a song of praise over wine, as wine gladdens God when offered as part of the service in the Temple.In any case, other halakhot have been derived from this verse. From where, then, is the requirement to recite blessings derived?
הָנִיחָא לְמַאן דְּתָנֵי ״נֶטַע רְבָעִי״. אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּתָנֵי ״כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי״ מַאי אִיכָּא לְמֵימַר? דְּאִתְּמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרַבִּי, חַד תָּנֵי ״כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי״, וְחַד תָּנֵי ״נֶטַע רְבָעִי״.
Indeed, this works out well according to the one who taught, as a rule: A fourth-year sapling in the mishnayot dealing with the prohibition to eat fruits produced during the first three years of a tree’s existence and the sanctity of the fruit produced in its fourth year; as, in his opinion, fourth-year fruits that grow on all trees must be redeemed. However, according to the one who taught, as a rule: A fourth-year grapevine, what can be said? Indeed, he derives the halakha that only wine that is accompanied by a song of praise requires redemption, from the interpretation of hillul as ḥillul. As it was stated: Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, one taught these mishnayot using the term: A fourth-year grapevine, and one taught using the term: A fourth-year sapling.
וּלְמַאן דְּתָנֵי ״כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי״ הָנִיחָא אִי יָלֵיף גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה. דְּתַנְיָא, רַבִּי אוֹמֵר: נֶאֱמַר כָּאן ״לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ״, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן ״וּתְבוּאַת הַכָּרֶם״. מָה לְהַלָּן כֶּרֶם, אַף כָּאן כֶּרֶם. אִייַּתַּר לֵיהּ חַד ״הִלּוּל״ לִבְרָכָה.
And according to the one who taught: A fourth year grapevine, this works out well if he derives this matter from a verbal analogy [gezera shava], and therefore need not derive this halakha from the term hillulim. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: It is stated here with regard to the laws of the prohibition of fruit for the tree’s first three years: “But in the fifth year you may eat its fruit, so that it may increase your produce [tevuato]; I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 19:25). And it is stated below, with regard to the laws of diverse kinds: “You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the growth of the seed that you have sown be forfeited with the produce [utevuat] of the vineyard” (Deuteronomy 22:9). Based on a verbal analogy, it can be derived: Just as below, with regard to the laws of diverse kinds, the produce is that which grows in vineyards; so too, here, with regard to the halakhot of the fruits of a sapling, the produce is that which grows in vineyards. Consequently, according to the one who holds this verbal analogy, one extra hillul remains from which to derive the blessing. Since he derives that the laws of fourth-year saplings apply only to grapes from the verbal analogy, he can derive the requirement to recite blessings before partaking of food from the word hillulim.
וְאִי לָא יָלֵיף גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, בְּרָכָה מְנָא לֵיהּ? וְאִי נָמֵי יָלֵיף גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, אַשְׁכְּחַן לְאַחֲרָיו, לְפָנָיו מִנַּיִן?
And if he does not derive this halakha by means of a verbal analogy, he must derive this halakha from the term hillulim, in which case, from where does he derive the mitzva to recite a blessing before partaking of food? And even if he derives this halakha by means of a verbal analogy, we found a source for the obligation to recite a blessing after eating, similar to the obligation stated in the verse: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless.” However, from where is it derived that there is an obligation to recite a blessing beforehand? From one hillul, the fundamental halakha of redemption of fourth-year saplings is derived.
הָא לָא קַשְׁיָא, דְּאָתְיָא בְּקַל וָחוֹמֶר: כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׂבֵעַ מְבָרֵךְ, כְּשֶׁהוּא רָעֵב — לֹא כׇּל שֶׁכֵּן.
The Gemara answers this: This is not difficult, as it may be derived by means of an a fortiori inference: If when he is satiated, after eating, he is obligated to recite a blessing over food, when he is hungry, before eating, all the more so that he is obligated to recite a blessing over food.
אַשְׁכְּחַן כֶּרֶם, שְׁאָר מִינִין מִנַּיִן?
The Gemara comments: In that way, we found a source for the obligation to recite a blessing over the produce of vineyards, but from where is it derived with regard to other types of produce?
דְּיָלֵיף מִכֶּרֶם: מָה כֶּרֶם דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה וְטָעוּן בְּרָכָה, אַף כׇּל דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה — טָעוּן בְּרָכָה.
The Gemara responds: It is derived by means of the hermeneutic principle: What do we find, from the produce of a vineyard: Just as the fruit of the vineyard is an item from which one derives benefit and it requires a blessing, so too, any item from which one derives benefit, requires a blessing.
אִיכָּא לְמִפְרַךְ: מָה לְכֶרֶם שֶׁכֵּן חַיָּיב בְּעוֹלֵלוֹת!
The Gemara rejects this proof: This derivation can be refuted, as a vineyard is unique: What is unique about a vineyard, that it is obligated in the mitzva requiring to give small, incomplete clusters of grapes [olelot] to the poor? That is a stringency that does not apply to other fruits. Perhaps the blessing is also a stringency that applies only to grapes.
קָמָה תּוֹכִיחַ. מָה לְקָמָה שֶׁכֵּן חַיֶּיבֶת בְּחַלָּה!
The Gemara answers: In that case, standing grain can prove that the halakha of olelot is not a factor in the obligation to recite a blessing. One is obligated by Torah law to recite a blessing after eating bread, even though the halakha of olelot does not apply to grain. The Gemara rejects this proof: What is unique about ripe grain, that it is obligated in the mitzva of separating ḥalla from the dough? That is a stringency that does not apply to other foods. Perhaps the blessing is also a stringency that applies only to grain.
כֶּרֶם יוֹכִיחַ. וְחָזַר הַדִּין: לֹא רְאִי זֶה כִּרְאִי זֶה וְלֹא רְאִי זֶה כִּרְאִי זֶה, הַצַּד הַשָּׁוֶה שֶׁבָּהֶן: דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה וְטָעוּן בְּרָכָה, אַף כׇּל דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה — טָעוּן בְּרָכָה.
The Gemara responds: In that regard, vineyards can prove that the halakha of ḥalla is not a factor in the obligation to recite a blessing. In summary: And the derivation has reverted to its starting point. However, at this point the halakha is derived from a combination of the two sources: The aspect of this is not like the aspect of that, and the aspect of that is not like the aspect of this; the common denominator is: Both are items from which one derives benefit and each requires a blessing. A general principle may be derived: So too, any item from which one derives benefit, requires a blessing.
מָה לְהַצַּד הַשָּׁוֶה שֶׁבָּהֶן שֶׁכֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ צַד מִזְבֵּחַ. וְאָתֵי נָמֵי זַיִת דְּאִית בֵּיהּ צַד מִזְבֵּחַ.
Again, the Gemara objects: What is unique about the common denominator between grapes and grain that prevents utilizing it as a paradigm for other food items? Grapes and grain have an aspect of being offered upon the altar, and perhaps that is the reason that they require blessings. Based on that reasoning, although all other food items cannot be derived from the common denominator, an olive may also be derived as it too has an aspect of being offered upon the altar, as olive oil is one of the components of a meal offering.
וְזַיִת מִצַּד מִזְבֵּחַ אָתֵי? וְהָא בְּהֶדְיָא כְּתִיב בֵּיהּ ״כֶּרֶם״, דִּכְתִיב ״וַיַּבְעֵר מִגָּדִישׁ וְעַד קָמָה וְעַד כֶּרֶם זָיִת״. אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: ״כֶּרֶם זַיִת״ אִקְּרֵי, ״כֶּרֶם״ סְתָמָא לָא אִקְּרֵי.
The Gemara questions this point: Is an olive derived from the fact that it has an aspect of being offered upon the altar? Isn’t it written explicitly with regard to the olive listed that the orchard in which it grows is called kerem; as it is written: “And burnt up from the shocks and the standing grain and the olive yards [kerem zayit]” (Judges 15:5)? Just as the orchard in which grapes grow is called kerem, and grapes require a blessing, the olive also grows in a kerem and should require a blessing. Rav Pappa said: Nevertheless, an analogy may not be drawn between the two; where the olive grows is called kerem zayit, it is not called kerem unmodified, which is a term reserved for grapevines.
מִכׇּל מָקוֹם קַשְׁיָא: מָה לְהַצַּד הַשָּׁוֶה שֶׁבָּהֶן שֶׁכֵּן יֵשׁ בָּהֶן צַד מִזְבֵּחַ! אֶלָּא, דְּיָלֵיף לַהּ מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין: מָה שִׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה וְטָעוּן בְּרָכָה, אַף כׇּל דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה טָעוּן בְּרָכָה.
The Gemara returns to the issue at hand, noting that in any case, it is difficult: What is unique about the common denominator between grapes and grain? That they possess an aspect of being offered upon the altar. Rather, it is derived from the obligation to recite a blessing upon the seven species. After the verse speaks of the seven species, it states: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless.” This is a paradigm for all other foods, that they too require a blessing: Just as the seven species are items from which one derives benefit and require a blessing, any item from which one derives benefit, requires a blessing.
מָה לְשִׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין שֶׁכֵּן חַיָּיבִין בְּבִכּוּרִים? וְעוֹד: הָתִינַח לְאַחֲרָיו, לְפָנָיו מִנַּיִן?
Again, the Gemara rejects this: What is unique about the seven species? That one is obligated in the mitzva of first fruits. However, other produce with regard to which one is not obligated in the mitzva of first fruits, from where is it derived that they require a blessing? Furthermore, even if the seven species can serve as a paradigm, this works out well with regard to the blessing thereafter; but from where is the obligation to recite a blessing beforehand derived?
הָא לָא קַשְׁיָא דְּאָתֵי בְּקַל וָחוֹמֶר: כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׂבֵעַ מְבָרֵךְ, כְּשֶׁהוּא רָעֵב — לֹא כׇּל שֶׁכֵּן.
The Gemara responds to the question: This is not difficult, as it may be derived by means of an a fortiori inference: If when he is satiated, after eating, he is obligated to recite a blessing over food, when he is hungry, before eating, all the more so he is obligated to recite a blessing over food.
וּלְמַאן דְּתָנֵי ״נֶטַע רְבָעִי״, הָא תִּינַח כֹּל דְּבַר נְטִיעָה. דְּלָאו בַּר נְטִיעָה, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר בֵּיצִים וְדָגִים מְנָא לֵיהּ? אֶלָּא סְבָרָא הוּא: אָסוּר לוֹ לָאָדָם שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה מִן הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.
In any case, this is not an absolute proof. Furthermore, even according to the one who taught: A fourth-year grapevine in all the relevant mishnayot, it works out well with regard to everything that can be planted, that one is obligated to recite a blessing. However, with regard to items that cannot be planted, such as meat, eggs, and fish, from where does he derive the halakha that one is obligated to recite a blessing? Rather, all previous attempts at deriving this halakha are rejected. The fundamental obligation to recite a blessing over food is founded on reason: One is forbidden to derive benefit from this world without a blessing.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: אָסוּר לוֹ לָאָדָם שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה מִן הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה. וְכׇל הַנֶּהֱנֶה מִן הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה מָעַל. מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? — יֵלֵךְ אֵצֶל חָכָם.
The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One is forbidden to derive benefit from this world, which is the property of God, without reciting a blessing beforehand. And anyone who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he is guilty of misuse of a consecrated object. The Gemara adds: What is his remedy? He should go to a Sage.
יֵלֵךְ אֵצֶל חָכָם?! מַאי עָבֵיד לֵיהּ? הָא עֲבַד לֵיהּ אִיסּוּרָא! אֶלָּא אָמַר רָבָא: יֵלֵךְ אֵצֶל חָכָם מֵעִיקָּרָא וִילַמְּדֶנּוּ בְּרָכוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי מְעִילָה.
The Gemara is puzzled: He should go to a Sage; what will he do to him? How can the Sage help after he has already violated a prohibition? Rather, Rava said, this is how it should be understood: He should go to a Sage initially, in his youth, and the Sage will teach him blessings, so that he will not come to be guilty of this type of misuse of a consecrated object in the future.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: כׇּל הַנֶּהֱנֶה מִן הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה כְּאִילּוּ נֶהֱנָה מִקׇּדְשֵׁי שָׁמַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לַה׳ הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ״. רַבִּי לֵוִי רָמֵי: כְּתִיב ״לַה׳ הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ״, וּכְתִיב ״הַשָּׁמַיִם שָׁמַיִם לַה׳ וְהָאָרֶץ נָתַן לִבְנֵי אָדָם״! לָא קַשְׁיָא כָּאן קוֹדֶם בְּרָכָה,
Similarly, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: One who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he enjoyed objects consecrated to the heavens, as it is stated: “The earth and all it contains is the Lord’s, the world and all those who live in it” (Psalms 24:1). Rabbi Levi expressed this concept differently. Rabbi Levi raised a contradiction: It is written: “The earth and all it contains is the Lord’s,” and it is written elsewhere: “The heavens are the Lord’s and the earth He has given over to mankind” (Psalms 115:16). There is clearly a contradiction with regard to whom the earth belongs. He himself resolves the contradiction: This is not difficult. Here, the verse that says that the earth is the Lord’s refers to the situation before a blessing is recited,