Berakhot 28b:20-24ברכות כ״ח ב:כ׳-כ״ד
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28bכ״ח ב

רַב אַוְיָא חֲלַשׁ וְלָא אֲתָא לְפִרְקָא דְּרַב יוֹסֵף. לִמְחַר כִּי אֲתָא, בְּעָא אַבָּיֵי לְאַנּוֹחֵי דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַב יוֹסֵף. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: מַאי טַעְמָא לָא אֲתָא מָר לְפִרְקָא? אָמַר לֵיהּ: דַּהֲוָה חֲלִישׁ לִבַּאי וְלָא מָצֵינָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אַמַּאי לָא טְעַמְתְּ מִידֵּי וַאֲתֵית? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: לָא סָבַר לַהּ מָר לְהָא דְּרַב הוּנָא? דְּאָמַר רַב הוּנָא: אָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם כְּלוּם קוֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת הַמּוּסָפִין! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אִיבְּעִי לֵיהּ לְמָר לְצַלּוֹיֵי צְלוֹתָא דְּמוּסָפִין בְּיָחִיד, וְלִטְעוֹם מִידֵּי וּלְמֵיתֵי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: וְלָא סָבַר לַהּ מָר לְהָא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: אָסוּר לוֹ לָאָדָם שֶׁיַּקְדִּים תְּפִלָּתוֹ לִתְפִלַּת הַצִּבּוּר? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: לָאו אִתְּמַר עֲלַהּ אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּצִבּוּר שָׁנוּ.

After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: Rav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosef’s Shabbat lecture. When Rav Avya came the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef, and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avya’s failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef.
To this end, he asked him: Why did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture?
Rav Avya said to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unable to attend.
Abaye said to him: Why did you not eat something and come?
Rav Avya said to him: Does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer.
Abaye said to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, and then come to the lecture.
Rav Avya said to him: Does my Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan: A person may not recite his individual prayer prior to the communal prayer?
Abaye said to him: Was it not stated regarding this halakha, Rabbi Abba said: They taught this in a communal setting?
In other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion.

וְלֵית הִלְכְתָא לָא כְּרַב הוּנָא וְלָא כְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: כְּרַב הוּנָא — הָא דַּאֲמַרַן. כְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי — דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן תְּפִלַּת מִנְחָה, אָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם כְּלוּם קוֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה.

And the Gemara summarizes: The halakha is neither in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna nor in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. The Gemara explains: It is not in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna, as we said above with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the time to recite the afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer.

מַתְנִי׳ רַבִּי נְחוּנְיָא בֶּן הַקָּנָה הָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וּבִיצִיאָתוֹ תְּפִלָּה קְצָרָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ: מָה מָקוֹם לִתְפִלָּה זוֹ? אָמַר לָהֶם: בִּכְנִיסָתִי אֲנִי מִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁלֹּא יֶאֱרַע דְּבַר תַּקָּלָה עַל יָדִי. וּבִיצִיאָתִי אֲנִי נוֹתֵן הוֹדָאָה עַל חֶלְקִי.

MISHNA: In addition to the halakhot relating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him: The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so what room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpire caused by me in the study hall. And upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion.

גְּמָ׳ תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר? ״יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה׳ אֱלֹהַי שֶׁלֹּא יֶאֱרַע דְּבַר תַּקָּלָה עַל יָדִי, וְלֹא אֶכָּשֵׁל בְּדָבָר הֲלָכָה, וְיִשְׂמְחוּ בִּי חֲבֵרַי, וְלֹא אוֹמַר עַל טָמֵא טָהוֹר, וְלֹא עַל טָהוֹר טָמֵא. וְלֹא יִכָּשְׁלוּ חֲבֵרַי בִּדְבַר הֲלָכָה, וְאֶשְׂמַח בָּהֶם״.

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita the complete formula of Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana’s prayer: Upon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishap in determining the halakha transpires caused by me, and that I not fail in any matter of halakha, and that my colleagues, who together with me engage in clarifying the halakha, will rejoice in me. He specified: And that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nor declare impure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of halakha, and that I will rejoice in them.

בִּיצִיאָתוֹ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר? ״מוֹדֶה אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ ה׳ אֱלֹהַי שֶׁשַּׂמְתָּ חֶלְקִי מִיּוֹשְׁבֵי בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וְלֹא שַׂמְתָּ חֶלְקִי מִיּוֹשְׁבֵי קְרָנוֹת. שֶׁאֲנִי מַשְׁכִּים, וְהֵם מַשְׁכִּימִים. אֲנִי מַשְׁכִּים לְדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה, וְהֵם מַשְׁכִּימִים לִדְבָרִים בְּטֵלִים. אֲנִי עָמֵל וְהֵם עֲמֵלִים. אֲנִי עָמֵל וּמְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר, וְהֵם עֲמֵלִים וְאֵינָם מְקַבְּלִים שָׂכָר. אֲנִי רָץ וְהֵם רָצִים. אֲנִי רָץ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְהֵם רָצִים לִבְאֵר שַׁחַת״.

Upon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sit idly on street corners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early to pursue matters of Torah, and they rise early to pursue frivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction.

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: כְּשֶׁחָלָה רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר נִכְנְסוּ תַּלְמִידָיו לְבַקְּרוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ: רַבֵּינוּ לַמְּדֵנוּ אוֹרְחוֹת חַיִּים וְנִזְכֶּה בָּהֶן לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא.

On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. The Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life, guidelines by which to live, and we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come.

אָמַר לָהֶם: הִזָּהֲרוּ בִּכְבוֹד חַבְרֵיכֶם, וּמִנְעוּ בְּנֵיכֶם מִן הַהִגָּיוֹן, וְהוֹשִׁיבוּם בֵּין בִּרְכֵּי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים, וּכְשֶׁאַתֶּם מִתְפַּלְּלִים — דְּעוּ לִפְנֵי מִי אַתֶּם עוֹמְדִים. וּבִשְׁבִיל כָּךְ תִּזְכּוּ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא.

He said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logic when studying verses that tend toward heresy (geonim), and place your children, while they are still young, between the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. For doing that, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come.

וּכְשֶׁחָלָה רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי נִכְנְסוּ תַּלְמִידָיו לְבַקְּרוֹ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָם הִתְחִיל לִבְכּוֹת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו: ״נֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַמּוּד הַיְּמִינִי, פַּטִּישׁ הֶחָזָק״, מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה בּוֹכֶה?

A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezer’s mentor, Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai: When Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer, the man whose life’s work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, for what reason are you crying? With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?

אָמַר לָהֶם: אִילּוּ לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם הָיוּ מוֹלִיכִין אוֹתִי, שֶׁהַיּוֹם כָּאן וּמָחָר בַּקֶּבֶר, שֶׁאִם כּוֹעֵס עָלַי אֵין כַּעֲסוֹ כַּעַס עוֹלָם, וְאִם אוֹסְרֵנִי — אֵין אִיסּוּרוֹ אִיסּוּר עוֹלָם, וְאִם מְמִיתֵנִי — אֵין מִיתָתוֹ מִיתַת עוֹלָם, וַאֲנִי יָכוֹל לְפַיְּיסוֹ בִּדְבָרִים וּלְשַׁחֲדוֹ בְּמָמוֹן, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הָיִיתִי בּוֹכֶה, וְעַכְשָׁיו שֶׁמּוֹלִיכִים אוֹתִי לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁהוּא חַי וְקַיָּים לְעוֹלָם וּלְעוֹלְמֵי עוֹלָמִים, שֶׁאִם כּוֹעֵס עָלַי — כַּעֲסוֹ כַּעַס עוֹלָם, וְאִם אוֹסְרֵנִי — אִיסּוּרוֹ אִיסּוּר עוֹלָם, וְאִם מְמִיתֵנִי — מִיתָתוֹ מִיתַת עוֹלָם, וְאֵינִי יָכוֹל לְפַיְּיסוֹ בִּדְבָרִים וְלֹא לְשַׁחֲדוֹ בְּמָמוֹן. וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְפָנַי שְׁנֵי דְרָכִים, אַחַת שֶׁל גַּן עֵדֶן וְאַחַת שֶׁל גֵּיהִנָּם, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ בְּאֵיזוֹ מוֹלִיכִים אוֹתִי, וְלֹא אֶבְכֶּה?!

He said to them: I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. If they were leading me before a flesh and blood king whose life is temporal, who is here today and dead in the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternal and, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; if he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration, as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. If he kills me, his killing is not for eternity, as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, I am able to appease him with words and even bribe him with money, and even so I would cry when standing before royal judgment. Now that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry?

אָמְרוּ לוֹ: רַבֵּינוּ, בָּרְכֵנוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם: ״יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁתְּהֵא מוֹרָא שָׁמַיִם עֲלֵיכֶם כְּמוֹרָא בָּשָׂר וָדָם״. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו: עַד כָּאן? אָמַר לָהֶם: וּלְוַאי, תֵּדְעוּ כְּשֶׁאָדָם עוֹבֵר עֲבֵירָה אוֹמֵר: ״שֶׁלֹּא יִרְאַנִי אָדָם״.

His students said to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it be His will that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His students were puzzled and said: To that point and not beyond? Shouldn’t one fear God more? He said to them: Would that a person achieve that level of fear. Know that when one commits a transgression, he says to himself: I hope that no man will see me. If one was as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he would never sin.

בִּשְׁעַת פְּטִירָתוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם: פַּנּוּ כֵּלִים מִפְּנֵי הַטּוּמְאָה, וְהָכִינוּ כִּסֵּא לְחִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה שֶׁבָּא.

The Gemara relates that at the time of his death, immediately beforehand, he said to them: Remove the vessels from the house and take them outside due to the ritual impurity that will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. And prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is coming from the upper world to accompany me.

מַתְנִי׳ רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: בְּכָל יוֹם וְיוֹם מִתְפַּלֵּל אָדָם שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר: מֵעֵין שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר: אִם שְׁגוּרָה תְּפִלָּתוֹ בְּפִיו — מִתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, וְאִם לָאו — מֵעֵין שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה.

MISHNA: The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the Amida prayer, also known as Shemoneh Esreh, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as tefilla, prayer. Rabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says: A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva says an intermediate opinion: If he is fluent in his prayer, he recites the prayer of eighteen blessings, and if not, he need only recite an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings.

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: הָעוֹשֶׂה תְּפִלָּתוֹ קֶבַע — אֵין תְּפִלָּתוֹ תַּחֲנוּנִים.

Rabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplication and is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw.

רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר: הַהוֹלֵךְ בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנָה, מִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה קְצָרָה, וְאוֹמֵר: ״הוֹשַׁע ה׳ אֶת עַמְּךָ אֵת שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל, בְּכָל פָּרָשַׁת הָעִבּוּר יִהְיוּ צׇרְכֵיהֶם לְפָנֶיךָ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳ שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה״.

Rabbi Yehoshua says: One who cannot recite a complete prayer because he is walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remnant of Israel, at every transition [parashat ha’ibur], the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. May their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer.

הָיָה רוֹכֵב עַל הַחֲמוֹר — יֵרֵד וְיִתְפַּלֵּל, וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֵירֵד — יַחֲזִיר אֶת פָּנָיו. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִיר אֶת פָּנָיו — יְכַוֵּין אֶת לִבּוֹ כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קׇדְשֵׁי הַקׇּדָשִׁים. הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בִּסְפִינָה אוֹ בְּאַסְדָּא — יְכַוֵּין אֶת לִבּוֹ כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קׇדְשֵׁי הַקׇּדָשִׁים.

While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. One who was riding on a donkey should dismount and pray calmly. If he is unable to dismount, he should turn his face toward the direction of the Temple. If he is unable to turn his face, it is sufficient that he focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. Similarly, one who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [asda] and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, should focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.

גְּמָ׳ הָנֵי שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה כְּנֶגֶד מִי?

GEMARA: Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the Amida prayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. Corresponding to what were these eighteen blessings instituted? When the Shemoneh Esreh was instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?

אָמַר רַבִּי הִלֵּל בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי: כְּנֶגֶד שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה אַזְכָּרוֹת שֶׁאָמַר דָּוִד בְּ״הָבוּ לַה׳ בְּנֵי אֵלִים״. רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר: כְּנֶגֶד שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה אַזְכָּרוֹת שֶׁבִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: כְּנֶגֶד שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה חוּלְיוֹת שֶׁבַּשִּׁדְרָה.

Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name that King David said in the psalm: “Give unto the Lord, O you sons of might” (Psalms 29). Rav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in Shema. Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine beneath the ribs.

וְאָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּכְרַע עַד שֶׁיִּתְפַּקְּקוּ כׇּל חוּלְיוֹת שֶׁבַּשִּׁדְרָה.

Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s opinion based the Amida prayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In those blessings where one is required to bow, one who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude.

עוּלָּא אָמַר: עַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאֶה אִיסָּר כְּנֶגֶד לִבּוֹ. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר: כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּעְנַע רֹאשׁוֹ — שׁוּב אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ. אָמַר רָבָא: וְהוּא דִּמְצַעַר נַפְשֵׁיהּ, וּמִחְזֵי כְּמַאן דְּכָרַע.

Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, Ulla said: Until he can see a small coin [issar], on the ground before him opposite his heart (Rav Hai Gaon). Rabbi Ḥanina said: There is room for leniency; once he moves his head forward, he need not bow any further. Rava said: But that applies only if he is exerting himself when doing so, and he appears like one who is bowing. However, if he is able, he should bow further.

הָנֵי תַּמְנֵי סְרֵי?! תְּשַׁסְרֵי הָוְויָן!

Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are these eighteen blessings? They are nineteen.

אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי: בִּרְכַּת הַמִּינִים בְּיַבְנֶה תִּקְּנוּהָ. כְּנֶגֶד מִי תִּקְּנוּהָ.

Rabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics, which curses informers, was instituted in Yavne and is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: Corresponding to what was this nineteenth blessing instituted?

אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי: לְרַבִּי הִלֵּל בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי, כְּנֶגֶד ״אֵל הַכָּבוֹד הִרְעִים״. לְרַב יוֹסֵף, כְּנֶגֶד ״אֶחָד״ שֶׁבִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע. לְרַבִּי תַּנְחוּם אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי, כְּנֶגֶד חוּלְיָא קְטַנָּה שֶׁבַּשִּׁדְרָה.

Rabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing corresponds to a reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: “The God of glory thunders” (Psalms 29:3). According to Rav Yosef, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in Shema, the additional blessing corresponds to the word one that is in Shema. Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. According to what Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing corresponds to the small vertebra that is at the bottom of the spine.

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שִׁמְעוֹן הַפָּקוֹלִי הִסְדִּיר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל עַל הַסֵּדֶר בְּיַבְנֶה. אָמַר לָהֶם רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לַחֲכָמִים: כְּלוּם יֵשׁ אָדָם שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְתַקֵּן בִּרְכַּת הַמִּינִים? עָמַד שְׁמוּאֵל הַקָּטָן וְתִקְּנָהּ.

In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: The Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessings, already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, before Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in order in Yavne. Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics, a blessing directed against the Sadducees? Shmuel HaKatan, who was one of the most pious men of that generation, stood and instituted it.

לְשָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת שְׁכָחָהּ,

The Gemara relates: The next year, when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, he forgot that blessing,