גְּמָ׳ בִּשְׁלָמָא בֵּית הִלֵּל — קָא מְפָרְשִׁי טַעְמַיְיהוּ וְטַעְמָא דְּבֵית שַׁמַּאי, אֶלָּא בֵּית שַׁמַּאי — מַאי טַעְמָא לָא אָמְרִי כְּבֵית הִלֵּל?
GEMARA: The Gemara begins by clarifying the rationale for Beit Shammai’s opinion. Granted, Beit Hillel explain the rationale for their opinion and the rationale for Beit Shammai’s opinion. Beit Hillel explain both the verse that ostensibly supports Beit Shammai’s opinion: When you lie down, at the time when people lie down, etc., and the verse that proves that their own explanation is more reasonable: “And when you walk along the way.” However, what is the reason that Beit Shammai do not state their opinion in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel?
אָמְרִי לָךְ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי: אִם כֵּן, נֵימָא קְרָא ״בַּבֹּקֶר וּבָעֶרֶב״, מַאי ״בְּשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ״? בִּשְׁעַת שְׁכִיבָה — שְׁכִיבָה מַמָּשׁ, וּבִשְׁעַת קִימָה — קִימָה מַמָּשׁ.
The Gemara answers, Beit Shammai could have said to you: If so that the verse means only to denote the time for the recitation of Shema, as claimed by Beit Hillel, then let the verse say: “In the morning and in the evening.” What is the meaning of the ambiguous formulation: “When you lie down, and when you rise”? It must mean that at the time of lying down one must recite Shema while actually lying down, and at the time of arising one must recite Shema while actually risen.
וּבֵית שַׁמַּאי: הַאי ״וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ״, מַאי עֲבִיד לְהוּ?
The Gemara continues, asking: And what do Beit Shammai do with this verse: “And when you walk along the way,” which Beit Hillel use to prove that every person recites Shema as he is?
הָהוּא מִבְּעֵי לְהוּ, לְכִדְתַנְיָא: ״בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ״ — פְּרָט לְעוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה, ״וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ״ — פְּרָט לְחָתָן. מִכָּאן, אָמְרוּ: הַכּוֹנֵס אֶת הַבְּתוּלָה — פָּטוּר, וְאֶת הָאַלְמָנָה — חַיָּיב.
The Gemara answers: Beit Shammai need this verse in order to derive other halakhot, as it was taught in a baraita which interpreted this verse that the obligation to recite Shema applies when you sit in your home, to the exclusion of one who is engaged in performance of a mitzva, who is exempt from the recitation of Shema; and when you walk along the way, to the exclusion of a groom, who is also exempt from the recitation of Shema. The baraita adds that from here, from this interpretation of the verses, they said: One who marries a virgin is exempt from the recitation of Shema on his wedding night, but one who marries a widow is obligated.
The Gemara clarifies the meaning of this baraita, and asks: From where may it be inferred that the verse, when you walk along the way, exempts a groom from the obligation to recite Shema?
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: כִּי דֶרֶךְ. מָה דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת, אַף כֹּל רְשׁוּת.
Rav Pappa said that we learn: Like the way; just as the journey along a specific way described in the verse is voluntary and involves no mitzva, so too all of those who are obligated to recite Shema are engaged in voluntary activities. However, one engaged in the performance of a mitzva, like a groom, is exempt from the obligation to recite Shema.
מִי לָא עָסְקִינַן דְּקָא אָזֵיל לִדְבַר מִצְוָה, וַאֲפִילּוּ הָכִי אָמַר רַחֲמָנָא: לִקְרֵי. אִם כֵּן לִכְתּוֹב רַחֲמָנָא ״בְּשֶׁבֶת וּבְלֶכֶת״ מַאי ״בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ״? — בְּשֶׁבֶת דִּידָךְ וּבְלֶכֶת דִּידָךְ הוּא דְּמִחַיְּיבַתְּ, הָא דְּמִצְוָה פְּטִירַתְּ.
The Gemara asks: Are we not dealing with a case where one walks along the way to perform a mitzva? The Torah did not designate the objective of his walk and, nevertheless, the Torah said to recite Shema, indicating that one is obligated even if he set out to perform a mitzva. Rather, the proof is from the formulation of the verse. If so, that the intention was to obligate in all cases, let the Torah write: When sitting and when walking. What is the meaning of: When you sit and when you walk? Certainly these additions come to emphasize in your sitting down and in your walking, meaning that when one does this for his own purposes and of his own volition, he is obligated to recite Shema, but when he does with the objective of performing a mitzva, he is exempt from reciting Shema, as in that case he is sitting or walking at God’s behest.
אִי הָכִי אֲפִילּוּ כּוֹנֵס אֶת הָאַלְמָנָה נָמֵי?
The conclusion is that anyone engaged in the performance of a mitzva is exempt from the recitation of Shema. If so, even one who marries a widow should be exempt, for he, too, is engaged in performance of a mitzva. That, however, contradicts the baraita.
הַאי טְרִיד, וְהַאי לָא טְרִיד.
The Gemara responds that there is nevertheless a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. One who marries a virgin is preoccupied by his concern lest he discover that his bride is not a virgin, while one who marries a widow is not preoccupied. The conclusion is that the groom is exempt from reciting Shema because he is preoccupied.
אִי מִשּׁוּם טִרְדָּא, אֲפִילּוּ טָבְעָה סְפִינָתוֹ בַּיָּם נָמֵי! וְכִי תֵּימָא: הָכִי נָמֵי, אַלְּמָה אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר זַבְדָּא אָמַר רַב: אָבֵל חַיָּיב בְּכָל הַמִּצְוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה, חוּץ מִן הַתְּפִילִּין, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶם ״פְּאֵר״, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״פְּאֵרְךָ חֲבוֹשׁ עָלֶיךָ״?!
The Gemara asks: If the exemption is due to preoccupation, then even one who is preoccupied because his ship sank at sea should also be exempt. The Gemara reinforces its question: And if you say that in this case as well, when one’s ship sank at sea, one is exempt, why then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda say that Rav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except for the mitzva to don phylacteries, from which a mourner is exempt, as the term splendor is stated with regard to phylacteries, as it is stated: “Make no mourning for the dead, bind your splendor upon yourself” (Ezekiel 24:17). It is inappropriate for a mourner to wrap himself in phylacteries, with regard to which, the term splendor was employed (Tosafot). If a mourner, who is clearly pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite Shema, then certainly all others who are preoccupied, even one whose ship sank at sea, whose loss was merely monetary (Birkat Hashem), should be obligated. Why, then, is a groom exempted because of his preoccupation and one who lost his property is not?
הָתָם טְרִיד טִרְדָּא דְמִצְוָה, הָכָא טְרִיד טִרְדָּא דִרְשׁוּת.
The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. For there, in the case of a groom, he is preoccupied with the preoccupation of a mitzva that he must perform; here, in the case of a ship lost at sea, he is preoccupied with the preoccupation of a voluntary act that he chooses to perform.
Here, the Gemara returns to its initial question: And how do Beit Shammai explain the passage: “When you walk along the way” (Rashash)?
הָהוּא מִבְּעֵי לְהוּ — פְּרָט לִשְׁלוּחֵי מִצְוָה.
The Gemara answers: Beit Shammai need this passage in order to exclude one who is on the path to perform a mitzva from the obligation to recite Shema.
וּבֵית הִלֵּל אָמְרִי: מִמֵּילָא שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ דַּאֲפִילּוּ בַדֶּרֶךְ נָמֵי קָרֵי.
Beit Hillel also agree that one engaged in the performance of a mitzva is exempt from reciting Shema? If so, the halakha that they derived from: When you walk along the way lacks a source and is therefore unfounded. And Beit Hillel say: Derive from this halakha itself that one who is not an agent in the performance of a mitzva recites Shema even along the way.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן, בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים: עוֹמְדִין וְקוֹרִין, יוֹשְׁבִין וְקוֹרִין, וּמַטִּין וְקוֹרִין, הוֹלְכִין בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְקוֹרִין, עוֹשִׂין בִּמְלַאכְתָּן וְקוֹרִין. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, שֶׁהָיוּ מְסוּבִּין בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, וְהָיָה רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מוּטֶּה, וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה זָקוּף. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, הִטָּה רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְזָקַף רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה לְרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל: יִשְׁמָעֵאל אָחִי, אֶמְשׁוֹל לְךָ מָשָׁל לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה — מָשָׁל לְאֶחָד שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְקָנְךָ מְגוּדָּל! אָמַר לָהֶם: יִהְיֶה כְּנֶגֶד הַמַּשְׁחִיתִים. אַף כָּךְ אַתָּה, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאֲנִי זָקוּף — אַתָּה מוּטֶּה, עַכְשָׁיו כְּשֶׁאֲנִי הִטֵּתִי אַתָּה זָקַפְתָּ.
The Sages taught in a baraita that Beit Hillel say: One may recite Shema in any situation: Standing and reciting, sitting and reciting, reclining and reciting, walking and reciting and even working and reciting. And in the Tosefta an incident is related where two tanna’im, Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who were both disciples of Beit Hillel, were reclining at a meal in one place together with their students, and Rabbi Yishmael was reclined as was the customary dining position, and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya was upright. When the time to recite the evening Shema arrived, Rabbi Elazar reclined to recite Shema in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, while Rabbi Yishmael sat upright to recite Shema. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya appeared to take offense, and said to Rabbi Yishmael: Yishmael, my brother, I will tell you a parable to which this is similar. It is comparable to a situation where one to whom people say as a compliment: Your beard is full and suits you. That man says to them: May it be against those who shave and destroy their beards, i.e., the only reason I grow my beard is to irritate those who cut their own (Rashba). You are the same. As long as I am upright, you are reclined, and now when I reclined lauding your conduct and emulating you, you sat upright as if to demonstrate that whatever I do, you do the opposite.
אָמַר לוֹ: אֲנִי עָשִׂיתִי כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית הִלֵּל, וְאַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁמָּא יִרְאוּ הַתַּלְמִידִים וְיִקְבְּעוּ הֲלָכָה לְדוֹרוֹת.
Rabbi Yishmael said to him: I acted in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, according to whom one may recite Shema in any position, while you acted in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai. I am the one who acted in accordance with the halakha. And furthermore, I was concerned lest the students see your conduct and establish the halakha for generations accordingly. It was therefore necessary for me to demonstrate that there is no obligation to do so.
מַאי ״וְלֹא עוֹד״?
The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: And furthermore? Why was it necessary for Rabbi Yishmael to add additional justification for his actions when the reason that he acted in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel was sufficient?
וְכִי תֵּימָא: בֵּית הִלֵּל נָמֵי אִית לְהוּ מַטִּין, הָנֵי מִילֵּי דְּמַטֵּה וַאֲתָא מֵעִיקָּרָא. אֲבָל הָכָא, כֵּיוָן דְּעַד הַשְׁתָּא הֲוֵית זָקוּף וְהַשְׁתָּא מוּטֶּה, אָמְרִי: שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ כְּבֵית שַׁמַּאי סְבִירָא לְהוּ, שֶׁמָּא יִרְאוּ הַתַּלְמִידִים וְיִקְבְּעוּ הֲלָכָה לְדוֹרוֹת.
The Gemara answers: It was necessary for him to add this reason, as if you say: Beit Hillel also hold that one is permitted to recite Shema while reclining and Rabbi Yishmael could have remained reclining even in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, but this only applies when one had already been reclining originally, in which case it is like any other position. However, here, since until now he had been upright, and now he is reclined, the students will say: Conclude from this, that they hold in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai. Due to the concern that the students might see and establish the halakha for generations in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, it was necessary for Rabbi Yishmael to sit upright.
תָּנֵי רַב יְחֶזְקֵאל: עָשָׂה כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי — עָשָׂה, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית הִלֵּל — עָשָׂה.
Rav Yeḥezkel taught: One who acted in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai has acted appropriately and is not in violation of the halakha. One who acted in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel acted appropriately as well. According to this opinion, Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai agree that one who acted in accordance with the opinion of the other fulfilled his obligation. Although the halakha was ruled in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, Beit Hillel would agree that one who acted in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai fulfilled his obligation.
רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר: עָשָׂה כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי — לֹא עָשָׂה וְלֹא כְלוּם. דִּתְנַן: מִי שֶׁהָיָה רֹאשׁוֹ וְרוּבּוֹ בַּסּוּכָּה וְשֻׁלְחָנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹסְלִין, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַכְשִׁירִין.
However, Rav Yosef said: One who acts in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai has done nothing and must repeat Shema in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, as we learned in the mishna with regard to the halakhot of a sukka: One who had his head and most of his body in the sukka, and his table upon which he was eating inside the house, Beit Shammai invalidate his action, as he is liable to be drawn after the table and end up eating outside the sukka. And Beit Hillel validate his action, since his head and most of his body remain inside the sukka.
אָמְרוּ לָהֶם בֵּית הִלֵּל לְבֵית שַׁמַּאי: מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָלְכוּ זִקְנֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וְזִקְנֵי בֵּית הִלֵּל לְבַקֵּר אֶת רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן הַחוֹרָנִית, מְצָאוּהוּ שֶׁהָיָה רֹאשׁוֹ וְרוּבּוֹ בַּסּוּכָּה וְשֻׁלְחָנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, וְלֹא אָמְרוּ לוֹ כְּלוּם.
Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai as a proof: There was an incident where the elders of Beit Shammai and the elders of Beit Hillel went on Sukkot to visit Rabbi Yoḥanan ben HaḤoranit. They found him with his head and most of his body in the sukka and his table inside the house and they said nothing to him. In other words, even Beit Shammai did not object.
אָמְרוּ לָהֶם: וּמִשָּׁם רְאָיָה?! אַף הֵם אָמְרוּ לוֹ: אִם כֵּן הָיִיתָ נוֹהֵג לֹא קִייַּמְתָּ מִצְוַת סוּכָּה מִיָּמֶיךָ.
Beit Shammai said to them: And is there proof from there? That is not what happened, rather they said to him explicitly: If you have been accustomed to act in this manner, you have never in your life fulfilled the mitzva of sukka. We see that Beit Shammai held that anyone who did not act in accordance with their opinion, did not fulfill his obligation at all. Similarly, since Beit Hillel’s opinion was accepted as halakha, anyone who acts in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai fails to fulfill his obligation.
רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר: עָשָׂה כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי — חַיָּיב מִיתָה. דִּתְנַן, אָמַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן: אֲנִי הָיִיתִי בָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהִטֵּתִי לִקְרוֹת כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וְסִכַּנְתִּי בְּעַצְמִי מִפְּנֵי הַלִּסְטִים, אָמְרוּ לוֹ: כְּדַאי הָיִיתָ לָחוּב בְּעַצְמְךָ, שֶׁעָבַרְתָּ עַל דִּבְרֵי בֵּית הִלֵּל.
Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak stated an even more extreme opinion: One who acted in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai has acted so egregiously that he is liable to receive the death penalty, as we learned in our mishna that Rabbi Tarfon said to his colleagues: Once, I was coming on the road when I stopped and reclined to recite Shema in accordance with the statement of Beit Shammai. Yet in so doing, I endangered myself due to the highwaymen who accost travelers. The Sages said to him: You deserved to be in a position where you were liable to pay with your life, as you transgressed the statement of Beit Hillel.
מַתְנִי׳ בַּשַּׁחַר מְבָרֵךְ שְׁתַּיִם לְפָנֶיהָ וְאַחַת לְאַחֲרֶיהָ. וּבָעֶרֶב מְבָרֵךְ שְׁתַּיִם לְפָנֶיהָ וּשְׁתַּיִם לְאַחֲרֶיהָ. אַחַת אֲרוּכָּה וְאַחַת קְצָרָה.
MISHNA: From the laws of the recitation of Shema itself, the mishna proceeds to discuss the blessings recited in conjunction with Shema. Here, the order is established: In the morning when reciting Shema, one recites two blessings beforehand, the first on the radiant lights and the second the blessing on the love of Torah, and one thereafter, which begins with: True and Firm [emet veyatziv]. And in the evening one recites two blessings beforehand, on the radiant lights and on the love of God, and two thereafter, the blessing of redemption: True and Faithful [emet ve’emuna], and the blessing: Help us lie down. With regard to the blessing: True and Faithful, whether one recites it in its long formula and whether one recites it in its short formula, he fulfills his obligation (Tosafot).
מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמְרוּ לְהַאֲרִיךְ — אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְקַצֵּר, לְקַצֵּר — אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְהַאֲרִיךְ. לַחְתּוֹם — אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי שֶׁלֹּא לַחְתּוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא לַחְתּוֹם — אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לַחְתּוֹם.
However, the general principle is: Where the Sages said to recite a long blessing, one may not shorten it, and so too, wherever they said to recite a short blessing, one may not lengthen it. Where the Sages said that a blessing must conclude with a second blessing at the end, he may not fail to conclude with that blessing. Similarly, if the Sages said that a blessing must not conclude with a second blessing, one may not conclude with a blessing.
גְּמָ׳ מַאי מְבָרֵךְ?
GEMARA: The Gemara begins by determining the formula of the two blessings preceding the morning Shema. The Gemara asks: What blessing does one recite?
אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב אָמַר רַבִּי אוֹשַׁעְיָא:
Rabbi Ya’akov said in the name of Rabbi Oshaya: The blessing focuses on the verse: